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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889426/a-selective-review-of-dharana-and-dhyana-in-healthy-participants
#1
REVIEW
Shirley Telles, Nilkamal Singh, Ram Kumar Gupta, Acharya Balkrishna
Attention is an important part of the process of meditation. Traditional Yoga texts describe two stages of meditation which follow each other in sequence. These are meditative focusing (dharana in Sanskrit) and effortless meditation (dhyana in Sanskrit). This review evaluated eight experimental studies conducted on participants in normal health, who practiced dharana and dhyana. The studies included evaluation of autonomic and respiratory variables, eLORETA and sLORETA assessments of the EEG, evoked potentials, functional magnetic resonance imaging, cancellation task performance and emotional intelligence...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852164/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-modulates-resting-eeg-functional-connectivity-between-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-limbic-regions-in-medicated-patients-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#2
Shinsuke Kito, Takashi Hasegawa, Akihiro Takamiya, Takamasa Noda, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Teruhiko Higuchi, Yoshihiko Koga
High-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to have efficacy in treatment-resistant depression. However, the effects of rTMS on functional connectivity are still not clear. To examine changes in functional connectivity before and after rTMS, resting EEG of 14 patients with treatment-resistant depression was recorded twice at baseline and at week 4, respectively. The EEG data were analyzed using the standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835807/acute-stress-impairs-frontocingulate-activation-during-error-monitoring-in-remitted-depression
#3
Alexis E Whitton, Ashlee Van't Veer, Pragya Kakani, Daniel G Dillon, Manon L Ironside, Anja Haile, David J Crowley, Diego A Pizzagalli
Deficits in cognitive control are a hallmark characteristic of depression, however less is known about the degree to which they persist beyond symptom remission and might contribute to symptom recurrence in remitted individuals (rMDD). Evidence indicates that stress interferes with cognitive control, highlighting a potential mechanism by which stress precipitates depression relapse. Therefore, this study examined whether stress exposure elicits deficits in error monitoring - a component of cognitive control thought to be particularly implicated in the ability to adaptively respond to negative feedback - in individuals with rMDD...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816702/neural-correlates-of-user-initiated-motor-success-and-failure-a-brain-computer-interface-perspective
#4
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
Any motor action is, by nature, potentially accompanied by human errors. In order to facilitate development of error-tailored Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) correction systems, we focused on internal, human-initiated errors, and investigated EEG correlates of user outcome successes and errors during a continuous 3D virtual tennis game against a computer player. We used a multisensory, 3D, highly immersive environment. Missing and repelling the tennis ball were considered, as 'error' (miss) and 'success' (repel)...
November 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777557/snap-your-fingers-an-erp-sloreta-study-investigating-implicit-processing-of-self-vs-other-related-movement-sounds-using-the-passive-oddball-paradigm
#5
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
So far, neurophysiological studies have investigated implicit and explicit self-related processing particularly for self-related stimuli such as the own face or name. The present study extends previous research to the implicit processing of self-related movement sounds and explores their spatio-temporal dynamics. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed while participants (N = 12 healthy subjects) listened passively to previously recorded self- and other-related finger snapping sounds, presented either as deviants or standards during an oddball paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664111/electro-physiological-changes-in-the-brain-induced-by-caffeine-or-glucose-nasal-spray
#6
K De Pauw, B Roelands, J Van Cutsem, U Marusic, T Torbeyns, R Meeusen
OBJECTIVE: A direct link between the mouth cavity and the brain for glucose (GLUC) and caffeine (CAF) has been established. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct link for both substrates also exist between the nasal cavity and the brain. METHODS: Ten healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years) performed three experimental trials, separated by at least 2 days. Each trial included a 20-s nasal spray (NAS) period in which solutions placebo (PLAC), GLUC, or CAF were provided in a double-blind, randomized order...
September 23, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659288/the-time-course-of-activity-within-the-dorsal-and-rostral-ventral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-the-emotional-stroop-task
#7
Farah Shahnaz Feroz, Gregor Leicht, Saskia Steinmann, Christina Andreou, Christoph Mulert
Growing evidence from neuroimaging studies suggest that emotional and cognitive processes are interrelated. Anatomical key structures in this context are the dorsal and rostral-ventral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and rvACC). However, up to now, the time course of activations within these regions during emotion-cognition interactions has not been disentangled. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) region of interest (ROI) source localization analyses to explore the time course of neural activations within the dACC and rvACC using a modified emotional Stroop paradigm...
September 22, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630610/electrophysiological-evidence-reveals-differences-between-the-recognition-of-microexpressions-and-macroexpressions
#8
Xunbing Shen, Qi Wu, Ke Zhao, Xiaolan Fu
Microexpressions are fleeting facial expressions that are important for judging people's true emotions. Little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of microexpressions (with duration of less than 200 ms) and macroexpressions (with duration of greater than 200 ms). We used an affective priming paradigm in which a picture of a facial expression is the prime and an emotional word is the target, and electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine neural activities associated with recognizing microexpressions and macroexpressions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616474/interactive-effect-of-5-httlpr-genotype-and-age-on-sources-of-cortical-rhythms-in-healthy-women
#9
Nina V Volf, Ludmila V Belousova, Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander V Kulikov
This study was aimed to localize the effects of 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) on the age differences of spontaneous EEG activity in women using neuroimaging analysis sLORETA (Standardized Low Resolution brain Electromagnetic Tomography). DNA samples extracted from cheek swabs and resting-state EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from young (YW, N=86, 18-35years) and older (OW, N=45; 55-80years) healthy women. We have shown that advanced age was associated with increased posterior EEG desynchronization in S'/S'...
November 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559990/depressive-symptoms-and-autobiographical-memory-a-pilot-electroencephalography-eeg-study
#10
Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Valeriya B Kuznetsova
INTRODUCTION: Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown changes in the activity of medial prefrontal, medial temporal, and occipital regions in major depressive disorder patients during recall of autobiographical memories. Electrophysiological underpinning of these changes is not known. It is also not clear whether they are a part of the clinical picture or appear at preclinical stages in individuals predisposed to depression. METHOD: In this study, the effect of depressive symptoms, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), on oscillatory dynamics accompanying retrieval of emotionally positive and negative autobiographical memories was investigated in a nonclinical sample using electroencephalographic event-related spectral power and connectivity measures...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549639/identification-of-interictal-epileptic-networks-from-dense-eeg
#11
Mahmoud Hassan, Isabelle Merlet, Ahmad Mheich, Aya Kabbara, Arnaud Biraben, Anca Nica, Fabrice Wendling
Epilepsy is a network disease. The epileptic network usually involves spatially distributed brain regions. In this context, noninvasive M/EEG source connectivity is an emerging technique to identify functional brain networks at cortical level from noninvasive recordings. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the two key factors involved in EEG source connectivity processing: (i) the algorithm used in the solution of the EEG inverse problem and (ii) the method used in the estimation of the functional connectivity...
August 22, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514985/the-neuronal-mechanisms-underlying-improvement-of-impulsivity-in-adhd-by-theta-beta-neurofeedback
#12
Annet Bluschke, Felicia Broschwitz, Simon Kohl, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490325/hyperventilation-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-electromagnetic-tomography-functional-connectivity-and-graph-theory-a-possible-tool-in-epilepsy-diagnosis
#13
Edoardo Mazzucchi, Catello Vollono, Anna Losurdo, Elisa Testani, Valentina Gnoni, Chiara Di Blasi, Nadia Mariagrazia Giannantoni, Leonardo Lapenta, Valerio Brunetti, Giacomo Della Marca
INTRODUCTION: Hyperventilation is a commonly used electroencephalogram activation method. METHODS: We analyzed EEG recordings in 22 normal subjects and 22 patients with focal epilepsy of unknown cause. We selected segments before (PRE), during (HYPER) and five minutes after (POST) hyperventilation. In order to analyze the neural generators of EEG signal, we used standard LOw Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA software). We then computed EEG lagged coherence, an index of functional connectivity, between 19 Regions Of Interest...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485487/spatiotemporal-characteristics-of-the-pharyngeal-event-related-potential-in-healthy-subjects-and-older-patients-with-oropharyngeal-dysfunction
#14
L Rofes, O Ortega, N Vilardell, L Mundet, P Clavé
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a highly prevalent symptom in older people. Appropriate oropharyngeal sensory feedback is essential for safe and efficient swallowing. However, pharyngeal sensitivity decreases with advancing age and could play a fundamental role in the physiopathology of swallowing dysfunction associated with aging. We aimed to characterize pharyngeal sensitivity and cortical response to a pharyngeal electrical stimulus in healthy volunteers (HV) and older patients with and without OD...
August 2, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468379/identifying-treatment-response-of-sertraline-in-a-teenager-with-selective-mutism-using-electrophysiological-neuroimaging
#15
Andy R Eugene, Jolanta Masiak
BACKGROUND: Selective Mutism is described as the inability to verbally express oneself in anxiety provoking social situations and may result in awkward social interactions in school-aged children. In this case-report we present the baseline electrophysiological neuroimaging results and after treatment with Sertraline for 6-weeks. METHODS: A 20-channel EEG event-related potential recording was acquired during an internal voice task at baseline prior to the initiation of 50mg of Sertraline and then repeated 6-weeks after treatment with Sertraline...
June 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396674/early-differential-sensitivity-of-evoked-potentials-to-local-and-global-shape-during-the-perception-of-three-dimensional-objects
#16
E Charles Leek, Mark Roberts, Zoe J Oliver, Filipe Cristino, Alan J Pegna
Here we investigated the time course underlying differential processing of local and global shape information during the perception of complex three-dimensional (3D) objects. Observers made shape matching judgments about pairs of sequentially presented multi-part novel objects. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure perceptual sensitivity to 3D shape differences in terms of local part structure and global shape configuration - based on predictions derived from hierarchical structural description models of object recognition...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262422/combination-of-sloreta-and-nonlinear-coupling-for-emotional-eeg-source-localization
#17
Ateke Goshvarpour, Ataollah Abbasi, Atefeh Goshvarpour
The objective of the present study is to investigate the anatomical distribution of the cortical sources of emotional response to music videos by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. A novel methodology is introduced to determine the nonlinear couplings between different brain regions based on the coherence analysis, nonlinear features of EEG recordings and a source localization method, standard low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 32 channels of EEG time series of 32 subjects available in DEAP database were studied...
July 2016: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174851/effects-of-orthographic-consistency-and-homophone-density-on-chinese-spoken-word-recognition
#18
Wei-Fan Chen, Pei-Chun Chao, Ya-Ning Chang, Chun-Hsien Hsu, Chia-Ying Lee
Studies of alphabetic language have shown that orthographic knowledge influences phonological processing during spoken word recognition. This study utilized the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to differentiate two types of phonology-to-orthography (P-to-O) mapping consistencies in Chinese, namely homophone density and orthographic consistency. The ERP data revealed an orthographic consistency effect in the frontal-centrally distributed N400, and a homophone density effect in central-posteriorly distributed late positive component (LPC)...
June 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065525/effects-of-vibratory-stimulation-induced-kinesthetic-illusions-on-the-neural-activities-of-patients-with-stroke
#19
Takayuki Kodama, Hideki Nakano, Hironori Ohsugi, Shin Murata
[Purpose] This study evaluated the influence of vibratory stimulation-induced kinesthetic illusion on brain function after stroke. [Subjects] Twelve healthy individuals and 13 stroke patients without motor or sensory loss participated. [Methods] Electroencephalograms were taken at rest and during vibratory stimulation. As a neurophysiological index of brain function, we measured the μ-rhythm, which is present mainly in the kinesthetic cortex and is attenuated by movement or motor imagery and compared the data using source localization analyses in the Standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA) program...
January 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025905/long-term-effects-of-concussion-on-electrophysiological-indices-of-attention-in-varsity-college-athletes-an-event-related-potential-and-standardized-low-resolution-brain-electromagnetic-tomography-approach
#20
Patrick S Ledwidge, Dennis L Molfese
This study investigated the effects of a past concussion on electrophysiological indices of attention in college athletes. Forty-four varsity football athletes (22 with at least one past concussion) participated in three neuropsychological tests and a two-tone auditory oddball task while undergoing high-density event-related potential (ERP) recording. Athletes previously diagnosed with a concussion experienced their most recent injury approximately 4 years before testing. Previously concussed and control athletes performed equivalently on three neuropsychological tests...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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