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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913130/effect-of-5-httlpr-on-current-source-density-connectivity-and-topological-properties-of-resting-state-eeg-networks
#1
Ekaterina A Proshina, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Gennady G Knyazev
The S allele of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been found to increase the risk of depression and other mental health problems, but some evidence suggests that S-allele carriers outperform subjects carrying the long allele in an array of cognitive tasks. Evidence linking this polymorphism with individual variation in electrophysiological properties of resting state brain networks is very limited. This study investigated the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on EEG current source density, connectivity, and topological properties of resting state networks...
June 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912445/anterior-cingulate-glutamate-and-gaba-associations-on-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#2
Dinesh K Shukla, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Hongji Chen, Joshua J Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Background: The underlying neurobiological mechanism for abnormal functional connectivity in schizophrenia (SCZ) remains unknown. This project investigated whether glutamate and GABA, 2 metabolites that contribute to excitatory and inhibitory functions, may influence functional connectivity in SCZ. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were acquired from 58 SCZ patients and 61 healthy controls (HC)...
June 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911970/large-scale-network-integration-in-the-human-brain-tracks-temporal-fluctuations-in-memory-encoding-performance
#3
Ruedeerat Keerativittayayut, Ryuta Aoki, Mitra Taghizadeh Sarabi, Koji Jimura, Kiyoshi Nakahara
Although activation/deactivation of specific brain regions have been shown to be predictive of successful memory encoding, the relationship between time-varying large-scale brain networks and fluctuations of memory encoding performance remains unclear. Here we investigated time-varying functional connectivity patterns across the human brain in periods of 30-40 s, which have recently been implicated in various cognitive functions. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed a memory encoding task, and their performance was assessed with a subsequent surprise memory test...
June 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910704/how-to-build-a-functional-connectomic-biomarker-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-source-reconstructed-meg-resting-state-activity-the-combination-of-roi-representation-and-connectivity-estimator-matters
#4
Stavros I Dimitriadis, María E López, Ricardo Bruña, Pablo Cuesta, Alberto Marcos, Fernando Maestú, Ernesto Pereda
Our work aimed to demonstrate the combination of machine learning and graph theory for the designing of a connectomic biomarker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects using eyes-closed neuromagnetic recordings. The whole analysis based on source-reconstructed neuromagnetic activity. As ROI representation, we employed the principal component analysis (PCA) and centroid approaches. As representative bi-variate connectivity estimators for the estimation of intra and cross-frequency interactions, we adopted the phase locking value (PLV), the imaginary part (iPLV) and the correlation of the envelope (CorrEnv)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909301/intrinsic-functional-neurocircuitry-associated-with-treatment-response-to-transdiagnostic-cbt-in-bipolar-disorder-with-anxiety
#5
Kristen K Ellard, Aishwarya G Gosai, Emily E Bernstein, Navneet Kaur, Lousia G Sylvia, Joan A Camprodon, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
BACKGROUND: Anxiety in bipolar disorder (BD) exacerbates emotion dysregulation and reduces treatment response. We recently conducted a pilot trial of transdiagnostic CBT to target anxiety and emotion dysregulation in BD adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. Reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly predicted by baseline levels of neuroticism and perceived affective control, as well as changes over time in emotion regulation skills. The present study investigates mechanism of treatment response by examining the relationship between baseline emotion regulation-related neural circuitry and trial outcomes...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908935/scale-invariant-rearrangement-of-resting-state-networks-in-the-human-brain-under-sustained-stimulation
#6
Silvia Tommasin, Daniele Mascali, Marta Moraschi, Tommaso Gili, Ibrahim Eid Assan, Michela Fratini, Mauro DiNuzzo, Richard G Wise, Silvia Mangia, Emiliano Macaluso, Federico Giove
Brain activity at rest is characterized by widely distributed and spatially specific patterns of synchronized low-frequency blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations, which correspond to physiologically relevant brain networks. This network behaviour is known to persist also during task execution, yet the details underlying task-associated modulations of within- and between-network connectivity are largely unknown. In this study we exploited a multi-parametric and multi-scale approach to investigate how low-frequency fluctuations adapt to a sustained n-back working memory task...
June 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908391/gait-termination-on-a-declined-surface-in-trans-femoral-amputees-impact-of-using-microprocessor-controlled-limb-system
#7
Zahraa M Abdulhasan, Andy J Scally, John G Buckley
BACKGROUND: Walking down ramps is a demanding task for transfemoral-amputees and terminating gait on ramps is even more challenging because of the requirement to maintain a stable limb so that it can do the necessary negative mechanical work on the centre-of-mass in order to arrest (dissipate) forward/downward velocity. We determined how the use of a microprocessor-controlled limb system (simultaneous control over hydraulic resistances at ankle and knee) affected the negative mechanical work done by each limb when transfemoral-amputees terminated gait during ramp descent...
May 30, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908310/individual-differences-in-aesthetic-engagement-are-reflected-in-resting-state-fmri-connectivity-implications-for-stress-resilience
#8
Paula G Williams, Kimberley T Johnson, Brian J Curtis, Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individual differences in aesthetic engagement-the propensity to be moved by art, nature, and beauty-are associated with positive health outcomes, as well as stress resilience. The purpose of the current study was to identify potential neural substrate mechanisms underlying individual differences in aesthetic engagement and reported proneness to aesthetic chill. METHODS: Data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) 1200 Subjects Release were utilized...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906495/hiv-infection-across-aging-synergistic-effects-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain
#9
Anna R Egbert, Bharat Biswal, Keerthana Karunakaran, Agnieszka Pluta, Tomasz Wolak, Stephen Rao, Robert Bornstein, Bogna Szymańska, Andrzej Horban, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Marta Sobańska, Natalia Gawron, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska, Emilia Łojek
The objective of the study was to examine additive and synergistic effects of age and HIV infection on resting state (RS) intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. We also aimed to assess relationships with neurocognition and determine clinical-, treatment-, and health-related factors moderating intrinsic brain activity in aging HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. The current report presents data on 54 HIV+ individuals (age M = 41, SD = 12 years) stabilized on cART and 54 socio-demographically matched healthy (HIV-) comparators (age M = 43, SD = 12 years), with cohort education mean of 16 years (SD = 12)...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902249/sex-differences-in-default-mode-and-dorsal-attention-network-engagement
#10
Kelly M Dumais, Sergey Chernyak, Lisa D Nickerson, Amy C Janes
Focusing on sex differences is necessary to fully understand basic neurobiological processes such as the engagement of large-scale brain networks involved in attention. Prior work suggests that women show enhanced attention during tasks of reward/punishment relative to men. Yet, sex differences in the engagement of neural networks sub serving internal and external focus has been unexplored in regard to reward and punishment. Using data from a large sample (n = 190) of healthy participants from the Human Connectome Project, we investigated sex differences in default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and frontal parietal network (FPN) activation during exposure to reward and punishment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901790/neurocognitive-profiles-of-older-adults-with-working-memory-dysfunction
#11
Alireza Salami, Anna Rieckmann, Nina Karalija, Bárbara Avelar-Pereira, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Katrine Riklund, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg
Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901789/duality-of-function-activation-for-meaningless-nonwords-and-semantic-codes-in-the-same-brain-areas
#12
Samantha R Mattheiss, Hillary Levinson, William W Graves
Studies of the neural substrates of semantic (word meaning) processing have typically focused on semantic manipulations, with less consideration for potential differences in difficulty across conditions. While the idea that particular brain regions can support multiple functions is widely accepted, studies of specific cognitive domains rarely test for co-location with other functions. Here we start with standard univariate analyses comparing words to meaningless nonwords, replicating our recent finding that this contrast can activate task-positive regions for words, and default-mode regions in the putative semantic network for nonwords, pointing to difficulty effects...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897625/effects-of-carbamazepine-and-lamotrigine-on-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cognitive-networks
#13
Fenglai Xiao, Lorenzo Caciagli, Britta Wandschneider, Josemir W Sander, Meneka Sidhu, Gavin Winston, Jane Burdett, Karin Trimmel, Andrea Hill, Christian Vollmar, Sjoerd B Vos, Sebastien Ourselin, Pamela J Thompson, Dong Zhou, John S Duncan, Matthias J Koepp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language network activations in patients with focal epilepsy. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we identified patients who were treated at the time of language fMRI scanning with either carbamazepine (CBZ; n = 42) or lamotrigine (LTG; n = 42), but not another sodium channel-blocking AED. We propensity-matched 42 patients taking levetiracetam (LEV) as "patient-controls" and included further 42 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
June 13, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896082/machine-learning-classification-to-identify-the-stage-of-brain-computer-interface-therapy-for-stroke-rehabilitation-using-functional-connectivity
#14
Rosaleena Mohanty, Anita M Sinha, Alexander B Remsik, Keith C Dodd, Brittany M Young, Tyler Jacobson, Matthew McMillan, Jaclyn Thoma, Hemali Advani, Veena A Nair, Theresa J Kang, Kristin Caldera, Dorothy F Edwards, Justin C Williams, Vivek Prabhakaran
Interventional therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has shown promise in facilitating motor recovery in stroke survivors; however, the impact of this form of intervention on functional networks outside of the motor network specifically is not well-understood. Here, we investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in stroke participants undergoing BCI therapy across stages, namely pre- and post-intervention, to identify discriminative functional changes using a machine learning classifier with the goal of categorizing participants into one of the two therapy stages...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893643/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-children-and-young-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Hua-Shan Liu, Erum A Hartung, Abbas F Jawad, Jeffrey B Ware, Nina Laney, Allison M Port, Ruben C Gur, Stephen R Hooper, Jerilynn Radcliffe, Susan L Furth, John A Detre
Purpose To investigate the pathophysiologic effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on brain function in children with CKD by correlating cerebral blood flow (CBF) with clinical and behavioral indexes. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 73 pediatric patients with CKD (mean age, 15.80 years ± 3.63; range, 9-25 years) and 57 control subjects (mean age, 15.65 years ± 3.76; range, 9-25 years) were recruited. CBF measurements were acquired with an MRI arterial spin labeling scheme. Neurocognitive measurements were performed with traditional and computerized neurocognitive batteries...
June 12, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890326/on-the-relationship-between-instantaneous-phase-synchrony-and-correlation-based-sliding-windows-for-time-resolved-fmri-connectivity-analysis
#16
Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Andrew Zalesky, Graeme D Jackson
Correlation-based sliding window analysis (CSWA) is the most commonly used method to estimate time-resolved functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity. However, instantaneous phase synchrony analysis (IPSA) is gaining popularity mainly because it offers single time-point resolution of time-resolved fMRI connectivity. We aim to provide a systematic comparison between these two approaches, on both temporal and topological levels. For this purpose, we used resting-state fMRI data from two separate cohorts with different temporal resolutions (45 healthy subjects from Human Connectome Project fMRI data with repetition time of 0...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888313/functional-connectivity-of-resting-state-working-memory-and-inhibition-networks-in-perceived-stress
#17
Jo A Archer, Annie Lee, Anqi Qiu, Shen-Hsing Annabel Chen
Experimental imaging studies on the effects of acute stress have revealed functional changes in the amygdalae, hippocampi and medial frontal cortices. However, much less is known about the association between perceived stress and neurological function which may have implications for the development of stress related disorders. Participants completed a working-memory task and an inhibition task whilst undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Task related and resting-state fMRI data from 22 women and 24 men were analysed to investigate changes in task activations and functional connectivity associated with perceived stress over the past month...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886781/erroneous-resting-state-fmri-connectivity-maps-due-to-prolonged-arterial-arrival-time-and-how-to-fix-them
#18
Hesamoddin Jahanian, Thomas Christen, Michael E Moseley, Greg Zaharchuk
In resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), functional networks are assessed utilizing the temporal correlation between spontaneous Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of spatially remote brain regions. Recently, several groups have shown that temporal shifts are present in rs-fMRI maps in patients with cerebrovascular disease due to spatial differences in arterial arrival times, and that this can be exploited to map arrival times in the brain. This suggests that rs-fMRI connectivity mapping may be similarly sensitive to such temporal shifts, and that standard rs-fMRI analysis methods may fail to identify functional connectivity networks...
June 11, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886515/insomnia-disorder-and-brain-s-default-mode-network
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Ruivo Marques, Ana Allen Gomes, Gina Caetano, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insomnia disorder (ID) is a prevalent sleep disorder that significantly compromises the physical and mental health of individuals. This article reviews novel approaches in the study of brain networks and impaired function in ID through the application of modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). RECENT FINDINGS: The default-mode network (DMN) is presumed to be correlated with self-referential information processing, and it appears to be altered or unbalanced in insomnia...
June 9, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886429/beyond-the-limbic-system-disruption-and-functional-compensation-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-patients-with-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#20
Josephine Heine, Harald Prüss, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Thomas Münte, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch, Carsten Finke
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal inflammation in anti-LGI1 encephalitis causes memory deficits, seizures and behavioural abnormalities. Recent findings suggest that extralimbic brain areas are additionally affected and that patients also suffer from non-limbic cognitive symptoms. Moreover, up to 60% of patients show no structural MRI abnormalities in the acute disease stage. We therefore investigated whether functional connectivity analyses can identify brain network changes underlying disease-related symptoms...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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