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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723654/disrupted-small-world-brain-network-topology-in-pure-conduct-disorder
#1
Feng-Mei Lu, Jian-Song Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Wang, Zhen Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by the violation of the rights of others or basic social rules and a repetitive, persistent pattern of antisocial and aggressive behaviors. A large number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have identified widely abnormalities in specific brain regions in CD, but the alterations in the topological organization of functional networks among them remain largely unknown. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 18 pure CD patients and eighteen typically developing healthy controls...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719509/the-relationship-between-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-and-altered-emotion-and-cognition-in-chronic-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review-of-mri-and-fmri-studies
#2
Sin Ki Ng, Donna M Urquhart, Paul B Fitzgerald, Flavia M Cicuttini, Sultana Monira Hussain, Bernadette M Fitzgibbon
OBJECTIVES: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major health issue, yet its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Studies have demonstrated the importance of emotion and cognition in chronic pain, however, the relevant brain physiology in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are unclear in CLBP populations. Therefore, this review aimed to identify MRI brain changes and examine their potential relationship with emotional and cognitive processes in CLBP. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted in 5 databases...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718512/overweight-is-associated-with-lower-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-females-after-eliminating-genetic-effects-a-twin-study
#3
Stieneke Doornweerd, Eelco van Duinkerken, Eco J de Geus, Parniane Arbab-Zadeh, Dick J Veltman, Richard G IJzerman
Obesity is related to altered functional connectivity of resting state brain networks that are involved in reward and motivation. It is unknown to what extent these associations reflect genetic confounding and whether the obesity-related connectivity changes are associated with differences in dietary intake. In this study, resting state functional MRI was performed after an overnight fast in 16 female monozygotic twin pairs (aged 48.8 ± 9.8 years) with a mean BMI discordance of 3.96 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) (range 0...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#4
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Since both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N= 359 [22-36 yrs], 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#5
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715675/resting-state-brain-networks-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-impulse-control-disorders
#6
Alessandro Tessitore, Gabriella Santangelo, Rosa De Micco, Alfonso Giordano, Simona Raimo, Marianna Amboni, Fabrizio Esposito, Paolo Barone, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Carmine Vitale
INTRODUCTION: To investigate intrinsic neural networks connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). METHODS: Fifteen patients with PD with ICD (ICD+), 15 patients with PD without ICD (ICD-) and 24 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the study. To identify patients with and without ICD and/or punding, we used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI) and a clinical interview based on diagnostic criteria for each symptom...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714891/structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-of-visual-hallucinations-in-lewy-body-disease-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Stefania Pezzoli, Annachiara Cagnin, Oliver Bandmann, Annalena Venneri
Patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) frequently experience visual hallucinations (VH), well-formed images perceived without the presence of real stimuli. The structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying VH in LBD are still unclear. The present review summarises the current literature on the neural correlates of VH in LBD, namely Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Following a systematic literature search, 56 neuroimaging studies of VH in PD and DLB were critically reviewed and evaluated for quality assessment...
July 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714580/differential-failure-to-deactivate-the-default-mode-network-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#8
Elena Rodríguez-Cano, Silvia Alonso-Lana, Salvador Sarró, Paloma Fernández-Corcuera, José M Goikolea, Eduard Vieta, Teresa Maristany, Raymond Salvador, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging studies have revealed evidence of brain functional abnormalities in bipolar depressive disorder (BDD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies to date have compared these two mood disorders directly. METHODS: Matched groups of 26 BDD type I patients, 26 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the n-back working memory task. A whole-brain ANOVA was used to compare the three groups and clusters of significant difference were examined further using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis...
July 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712093/neurobiological-effect-of-selective-brain-cooling-after-concussive-injury
#9
Alexa Walter, Katie Finelli, Xiaoxiao Bai, Brian Johnson, Thomas Neuberger, Peter Seidenberg, Timothy Bream, Mark Hallett, Semyon Slobounov
The search for effective treatment facilitating recovery from concussive injury, as well as reducing risk for recurrent concussion is an ongoing challenge. This study aimed to determine: a) feasibility of selective brain cooling to facilitate clinical symptoms resolution, and b) biological functions of the brain within athletes in acute phase of sports-related concussion. Selective brain cooling for 30 minutes using WElkins sideline cooling system was administered to student-athletes suffering concussive injury (n=12; tested within 5±3 days) and those without history of concussion (n=12)...
July 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712063/resisting-sleep-pressure-impact-on-resting-state-functional-network-connectivity
#10
Laura Tüshaus, Joshua Henk Balsters, Anthony Schläpfer, Daniel Brandeis, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Peter Achermann
In today's 24/7 society, sleep restriction is a common phenomenon which leads to increased levels of sleep pressure in daily life. However, the magnitude and extent of impairment of brain functioning due to increased sleep pressure is still not completely understood. Resting state network (RSN) analyses have become increasingly popular because they allow us to investigate brain activity patterns in the absence of a specific task and to identify changes under different levels of vigilance (e.g. due to increased sleep pressure)...
July 15, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708033/neuropsychological-profile-and-social-cognition-in-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-cchs-correlation-with-neuroimaging-in-a-clinical-case
#11
Borja Esteso Orduña, Raquel Seijas Gómez, Elena García Esparza, Emily M Briceño, Javier Melero Llorente, María de la Concepción Fournier Del Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare genetic disorder due to paired-like homeobox gene (PHOX2B) mutations. CCHS patients suffer from dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system characterized by the absence of or extremely reduced response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with neuropsychological deficits. The aim of this exploratory study is to describe the longitudinal neuropsychological profile and its correlations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a child with CCHS with a PHOX2B mutation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707959/interactions-of-the-salience-network-and-its-subsystems-with-the-default-mode-and-the-central-executive-networks-in-normal-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Ganesh Chand, Junjie Wu, Ihab Hajjar, Deqiang Qiu
Previous functional MRI (fMRI) investigations suggest that the intrinsically organized large-scale networks and the interaction between them might be crucial for cognitive activities. A triple network model, which consists of the default-mode network, salience network, and central-executive network, has been recently employed to understand the connectivity patterns of the cognitively normal brains versus the brains with disorders. This model suggests that the salience network dynamically controls the default-mode and central-executive networks in healthy young individuals...
July 14, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707166/altered-dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
Hua-Jun Chen, Hai-Long Lin, Qiu-Feng Chen, Peng-Fei Liu
PURPOSE: Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC))...
July 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706851/a-joint-time-frequency-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-reveals-novel-patterns-of-connectivity-shared-between-or-unique-to-schizophrenia-patients-and-healthy-controls
#14
Maziar Yaesoubi, Robyn L Miller, Juan Bustillo, Kelvin O Lim, Jatin Vaidya, Vince D Calhoun
Functional connectivity of the resting-state (RS) brain is a vehicle to study brain dysconnectivity aspects of diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar. Methods that are developed to measure functional connectivity are based on the underlying hypotheses regarding the actual nature of RS-connectivity including evidence of temporally dynamic versus static RS-connectivity and evidence of frequency-specific versus hemodynamically-driven connectivity over a wide frequency range. This study is derived by these observations of variation of RS-connectivity in temporal and frequency domains and evaluates such characteristics of RS-connectivity in clinical population and jointly in temporal and frequency domains (the spectro-temporal domain)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705767/common-and-distinct-dysfunctional-patterns-contribute-to-triple-network-model-in-schizophrenia-and-depression-a-preliminary-study
#15
Yuchao Jiang, Mingjun Duan, Xi Chen, Xin Chang, Hui He, YingJia Li, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCH) and depression (DEP) are prevalent psychiatric disorders and share common and distinguished elements in their pathophysiology. A triple network model composed of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and central executive network (CEN) may represent a major abnormality across several psychiatric disorders including SCH and DEP. However, common and distinct dysfunctional patterns between SCH and DEP across three core networks remain unclear...
July 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705691/functional-connectivity-within-and-between-intrinsic-networks-correlates-with-trait-mind-wandering
#16
Christine A Godwin, Michael A Hunter, Matthew A Bezdek, Gregory Lieberman, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Victoria L Romero, Katie Witkiewitz, Vincent P Clark, Eric H Schumacher
Individual differences across a variety of cognitive processes are functionally associated with individual differences in intrinsic networks such as the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, the extent to which these networks correlate or anticorrelate has been associated with performance in a variety of circumstances. Despite the established role of the DMN in mind wandering processes, little research has investigated how large-scale brain networks at rest relate to mind wandering tendencies outside the laboratory...
July 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700819/posterior-dopamine-d2-3-receptors-and-brain-network-functional-connectivity
#17
Atsuko Nagano-Saito, Jennifer I Lissemore, Paul Gravel, Marco Leyton, Felix Carbonell, Chawki Benkelfat
Recent studies suggest that dopaminergic tone influences resting state activity in multiple brain networks. Although dopamine receptors and transporters have been identified in the posteromedial and parietal cortices, which are linked to functional networks such as the default mode network (DMN), the relationship between dopamine receptor distribution in these posterior regions and resting-state connectivity has yet to be explored. Here, we used a multi-modal neuroimaging strategy, combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and [18F]-fallypride high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET), to examine the association between within-network functional connectivity and the dopamine D2/3 receptor distribution in the posterior portion of the brain in 13 healthy adults...
July 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700672/prediction-of-clinical-depression-scores-and-detection-of-changes-in-whole-brain-using-resting-state-functional-mri-data-with-partial-least-squares-regression
#18
Kosuke Yoshida, Yu Shimizu, Junichiro Yoshimoto, Masahiro Takamura, Go Okada, Yasumasa Okamoto, Shigeto Yamawaki, Kenji Doya
In diagnostic applications of statistical machine learning methods to brain imaging data, common problems include data high-dimensionality and co-linearity, which often cause over-fitting and instability. To overcome these problems, we applied partial least squares (PLS) regression to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data, creating a low-dimensional representation that relates symptoms to brain activity and that predicts clinical measures. Our experimental results, based upon data from clinically depressed patients and healthy controls, demonstrated that PLS and its kernel variants provided significantly better prediction of clinical measures than ordinary linear regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698643/effects-of-gratitude-meditation-on-neural-network-functional-connectivity-and-brain-heart-coupling
#19
Sunghyon Kyeong, Joohan Kim, Dae Jin Kim, Hesun Erin Kim, Jae-Jin Kim
A sense of gratitude is a powerful and positive experience that can promote a happier life, whereas resentment is associated with life dissatisfaction. To explore the effects of gratitude and resentment on mental well-being, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging and heart rate (HR) data before, during, and after the gratitude and resentment interventions. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was conducted to identify the modulatory effects of gratitude on the default mode, emotion, and reward-motivation networks...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697557/comparison-of-different-hypotheses-regarding-the-spread-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-markov-random-fields-and-multimodal-imaging
#20
Martin Dyrba, Michel J Grothe, Abdolreza Mohammadi, Harald Binder, Thomas Kirste, Stefan J Teipel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a cascade of pathological processes that can be assessed in vivo using different neuroimaging methods. Recent research suggests a systematic sequence of pathogenic events on a global biomarker level, but little is known about the associations and dependencies of distinct lesion patterns on a regional level. Markov random fields are a probabilistic graphical modeling approach that represent the interaction between individual random variables by an undirected graph...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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