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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034353/the-default-mode-network-in-autism
#1
Aarthi Padmanabhan, Charles J Lynch, Marie Schaer, Vinod Menon
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction. Since its discovery as a major functional brain system, the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including ASD. Here we review converging multimodal evidence for DMN dysfunction in the context of specific components of social cognitive dysfunction in ASD: 'self-referential processing' - the ability to process social information relative to oneself and 'theory of mind' or 'mentalizing' - the ability to infer the mental states such as beliefs, intentions, and emotions of others...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034316/large-scale-network-coupling-with-the-fusiform-cortex-facilitates-future-social-motivation
#2
Amanda V Utevsky, David V Smith, Jacob S Young, Scott A Huettel
Large-scale functional networks, as identified through the coordinated activity of spatially distributed brain regions, have become central objects of study in neuroscience because of their contributions to many processing domains. Yet, it remains unclear how these domain-general networks interact with focal brain regions to coordinate thought and action. Here, we investigated how the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), two networks associated with goal-directed behavior, shape task performance through their coupling with other cortical regions several seconds in advance of behavior...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033811/altered-local-spatiotemporal-consistency-of-resting-state-bold-signals-in-patients-with-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures
#3
Shuai Ma, Sisi Jiang, Rui Peng, Qiong Zhu, Hongbin Sun, Jianfu Li, Xiaoyan Jia, Ilan Goldberg, Liang Yu, Cheng Luo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatiotemporal Consistency of spontaneous activities in local brain regions in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The resting-state fMRI data were acquired from nineteen patients with GTCS and twenty-two matched healthy subjects. FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) metric was used to analyze the spontaneous activity in whole brain. The FOCA difference between two groups were detected using a two sample t-test analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033783/the-mechanisms-of-psychedelic-visionary-experiences-hypotheses-from-evolutionary-psychology
#4
Michael J Winkelman
Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033128/the-dna-inflammasome-in-human-myeloid-cells-is-initiated-by-a-sting-cell-death-program-upstream-of-nlrp3
#5
Moritz M Gaidt, Thomas S Ebert, Dhruv Chauhan, Katharina Ramshorn, Francesca Pinci, Sarah Zuber, Fionan O'Duill, Jonathan L Schmid-Burgk, Florian Hoss, Raymund Buhmann, Georg Wittmann, Eicke Latz, Marion Subklewe, Veit Hornung
Detection of cytosolic DNA constitutes a central event in the context of numerous infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have uncovered a bipartite mode of cytosolic DNA recognition, in which the cGAS-STING axis triggers antiviral immunity, whereas AIM2 triggers inflammasome activation. Here, we show that AIM2 is dispensable for DNA-mediated inflammasome activation in human myeloid cells. Instead, detection of cytosolic DNA by the cGAS-STING axis induces a cell death program initiating potassium efflux upstream of NLRP3...
October 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#6
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030624/psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression-fmri-measured-brain-mechanisms
#7
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Mark Bolstridge, Lysia Demetriou, J Nienke Pannekoek, Matthew B Wall, Mark Tanner, Mendel Kaelen, John McGonigle, Kevin Murphy, Robert Leech, H Valerie Curran, David J Nutt
Psilocybin with psychological support is showing promise as a treatment model in psychiatry but its therapeutic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after treatment with psilocybin (serotonin agonist) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Quality pre and post treatment fMRI data were collected from 16 of 19 patients. Decreased depressive symptoms were observed in all 19 patients at 1-week post-treatment and 47% met criteria for response at 5 weeks...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030069/sex-differences-and-menstrual-cycle-effects-in-cognitive-and-sensory-resting-state-networks
#8
Susanne Weis, Sophie Hodgetts, Markus Hausmann
It has not yet been established if resting state (RS) connectivity reflects stable characteristics of the brain, or if it is modulated by the psychological and/or physiological state of the participant. Based on research demonstrating sex hormonal effects in task-related brain activity, the present study aimed to investigate corresponding differences in RS networks. RS functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS fMRI) was conducted in women during three different menstrual cycle phases, while men underwent three repeated RS fMRI testing sessions...
October 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029883/brain-sexual-differentiation-and-effects-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-in-transpeople-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-study
#9
Nienke M Nota, Sarah M Burke, Martin den Heijer, Remi S Soleman, Cornelis B Lambalk, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Dick J Veltman, Baudewijntje P Kreukels
OBJECTIVES: It is hypothesized that transpeople show sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Various structural neuroimaging studies provide support for this notion, but little is known about the sexual differentiation of functional resting-state networks in transpeople. In this study we therefore aimed to determine whether brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns in transpeople are sex-typical or sex-atypical, before and after the start of cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT). METHODS: We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance data in 36 transpeople (22 with female sex assigned at birth), first during gonadal suppression, and again four months after start of CHT, and in 37 cisgender people (20 females), both sessions without any hormonal intervention...
October 10, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029449/disrupted-small-world-brain-network-topology-in-pure-conduct-disorder
#10
Feng-Mei Lu, Jian-Song Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Wang, Zhen Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by the violation of the rights of others or basic social rules and a repetitive, persistent pattern of antisocial and aggressive behaviors. A large number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have identified widely abnormalities in specific brain regions in CD, but the alterations in the topological organization of functional networks among them remain largely unknown. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 18 pure CD patients and eighteen typically developing healthy controls...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029313/subjective-objective-sleep-discrepancy-is-associated-with-alterations-in-regional-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-insomnia-and-good-sleeper-controls
#11
Daniel B Kay, Helmet T Karim, Adriane M Soehner, Brant P Hasler, Jeffrey A James, Anne Germain, Martica H Hall, Peter L Franzen, Julie C Price, Eric A Nofzinger, Daniel J Buysse
Objectives: Sleep discrepancies are common in primary insomnia (PI), and include reports of longer sleep onset latency (SOL) than measured by polysomnography (PSG), or "negative SOL discrepancy." We hypothesized that negative SOL discrepancy in PI would be associated with higher relative glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in brain networks involved in conscious awareness, including the salience, left executive control, and default mode networks. Methods: PI (n=32) and good sleeper controls (GS; n=30) completed [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans during NREM sleep and relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) was measured...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028500/neural-network-topology-in-adhd-evidence-for-maturational-delay-and-default-mode-network-alterations
#12
T W P Janssen, A Hillebrand, A Gouw, K Geladé, R Van Mourik, A Maras, J Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with widespread brain abnormalities in white and grey matter, affecting not only local, but global functional networks as well. In this study, we explored these functional networks using source-reconstructed electroencephalography in ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. We expected evidence for maturational delay, with underlying abnormalities in the default mode network. METHODS: Electroencephalograms were recorded in ADHD (n=42) and TD (n=43) during rest, and functional connectivity (phase lag index) and graph (minimum spanning tree) parameters were derived...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024197/multifaceted-brain-networks-reconfiguration-in-disorders-of-consciousness-uncovered-by-co-activation-patterns
#13
Carol Di Perri, Enrico Amico, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Stephen K Larroque, Andrea Soddu, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
INTRODUCTION: Given that recent research has shown that functional connectivity is not a static phenomenon, we aim to investigate the dynamic properties of the default mode network's (DMN) connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI volumes of a convenience sample of 17 patients in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and controls were reduced to a spatiotemporal point process by selecting critical time points in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024175/mapping-the-sequence-of-brain-events-in-response-to-disgusting-food
#14
Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Ramón Coronas, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Mercedes Rigla, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, Ramón Novell, Assumpta Caixàs
Warning signals indicating that a food is potentially dangerous may evoke a response that is not limited to the feeling of disgust. We investigated the sequence of brain events in response to visual representations of disgusting food using a dynamic image analysis. Functional MRI was acquired in 30 healthy subjects while they were watching a movie showing disgusting food scenes interspersed with the scenes of appetizing food. Imaging analysis included the identification of the global brain response and the generation of frame-by-frame activation maps at the temporal resolution of 2 s...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023586/reduced-resting-state-connectivity-and-gray-matter-volume-correlate-with-cognitive-impairment-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#15
Raquel García-García, Álvaro Javier Cruz-Gómez, Alba Mangas-Losada, Amparo Urios, Cristina Forn, Desamparados Escudero-García, Elena Kosenko, Juan Fermín Ordoño, Joan Tosca, Remedios Giner-Durán, Miguel Angel Serra, César Avila, Vicente Belloch, Vicente Felipo, Carmina Montoliu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with cognitive alterations and changes in connectivity. We assessed the relationship of the abnormalities of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and gray matter (GM) volume with different cognitive alterations and biochemical parameters associated to MHE. METHODS: Thirty-nine cirrhotic patients (26 without and 13 with MHE) and 24 controls were widely cognitive assessed with a battery of psychometric tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019036/neural-networks-underlying-trait-aggression-depend-on-maoa-gene-alleles
#16
Martin Klasen, Dhana Wolf, Patrick D Eisner, Ute Habel, Jonathan Repple, Ingo Vernaleken, Thorben Schlüter, Thomas Eggermann, Klaus Zerres, Florian D Zepf, Klaus Mathiak
Low expressing alleles of the MAOA gene (MAOA-L) have been associated with an increased risk for developing an aggressive personality. This suggests an MAOA-L-specific neurobiological vulnerability associated with trait aggression. The neural networks underlying this vulnerability are unknown. The present study investigated genotype-specific associations between resting state brain networks and trait aggression (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire) in 82 healthy Caucasian males. Genotype influences on aggression-related networks were studied for intrinsic and seed-based brain connectivity...
October 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992987/the-resting-perfusion-pattern-associates-with-functional-decline-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Weiying Dai, Wenna Duan, Freddy J Alfaro, Anna Gavrieli, Fotini Kourtelidis, Vera Novak
We investigated the relationships between cerebral blood flow (CBF), cognitive, and mobility decline in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) over a 2-year period. Seventy-three participants (41 T2DM and 32 controls) were evaluated using volumetric CBF with arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at the 2-year follow-up. Regions with significant CBF differences between T2DM participants and controls at baseline were detected using voxel-wise analysis. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the association between regional CBF and cognitive or mobility performance over the 2-year span...
September 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985695/techniques-of-neutralization-a-brain-network-perspective
#18
Paul B Jantz, Richard H Morley
Sykes and Matza introduced neutralization theory in 1957 to explain how juvenile delinquents retain a positive self-image when engaging in delinquent acts. Since then, aspects of neutralization theory have been incorporated into sociological and criminological theories to explain socially deviant behavior. Functional brain mapping research utilizing advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques has identified complex, intrinsically organized, large-scale brain networks. Higher order operations commonly attributed to three brain networks (default mode network [DMN], central executive network [CEN], salience network [SN]) align closely with neutralization theory...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985373/pleasure-attainment-or-self-realization-the-balance-between-two-forms-of-well-beings-are-encoded-in-default-mode-network
#19
Yangmei Luo, Senqing Qi, Xuhai Chen, Xuqun You, Xiting Huang, Zhen Yang
What is a good life and how it can be achieved is one of the fundamental issues. When considering a good life, there is a division between hedonic (pleasure attainment) and eudaimonic well-being (meaning pursuing and self-realization). However, an integrated approach that can compare the brain functional and structural differences of these two forms of well-being is lacking. Here, we investigated how the individual tendency to eudaimonic well-being relative to hedonic well-being, measured using eudaimonic and hedonic balance (EHB) index, is reflected in the functional and structural features of a key network of well-being-the default mode network (DMN)...
July 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983238/unique-neural-characteristics-of-atypical-lateralization-of-language-in-healthy-individuals
#20
Szymon P Biduła, Łukasz Przybylski, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Gregory Króliczak
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 63 healthy participants, including left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, we tested how atypical lateralization of language-i. e., bilateral or right hemispheric language representation-differs from the typical left-hemisphere dominance. Although regardless of their handedness, all 11 participants from the atypical group engaged classical language centers, i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the right-hemisphere components of the default mode network (DMN), including the angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, were also critically involved during the verbal fluency task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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