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Low carb

Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Jane Feinmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Diabetes Forecast
Stefan Kabisch, Sabrina Bäther, Ulrike Dambeck, Margrit Kemper, Christiana Gerbracht, Caroline Honsek, Anna Sachno, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder all over the world, mainly being associated with a sedentary lifestyle, adiposity, and nutrient imbalance. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD accommodates similar developments for type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related comorbidities and complications. Therefore, early detection of NAFLD is an utmost necessity. Potentially helpful tools for the prediction of NAFLD are liver fat indices. The fatty liver index (FLI) and the NAFLD-liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS) have been recently introduced for this aim...
January 31, 2018: Nutrients
Tania A Desrosiers, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Bridget S Mosley, Robert E Meyer
BACKGROUND: Folic acid fortification significantly reduced the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the United States. The popularity of "low carb" diets raises concern that women who intentionally avoid carbohydrates, thereby consuming fewer fortified foods, may not have adequate dietary intake of folic acid. METHODS: To assess the association between carbohydrate intake and NTDs, we analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study from 1,740 mothers of infants, stillbirths, and terminations with anencephaly or spina bifida (cases), and 9,545 mothers of live born infants without a birth defect (controls) conceived between 1998 and 2011...
January 25, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Elsamma Chacko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Karina Sanches Machado d'Almeida, Stefanny Ronchi Spillere, Priccila Zuchinali, Gabriela Corrêa Souza
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome and is recognized as the ultimate pathway of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies using nutritional strategies based on dietary patterns have proved to be effective for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Although there are studies that support the protective effect of these diets, their effects on the prevention of HF are not clear yet. METHODS: We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for studies that examined dietary patterns, such as dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH diet), paleolithic, vegetarian, low-carb and low-fat diets and prevention of HF...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
Ohad Shalom, Amos Adler
The goals of the study were to examine the analytic and performance parameters of 2 commercial rapid carbapenem-hydrolysis assays, the β-CARBA test (Bio-Rad) and the Rapid CARB Blue Kit (ROSCO) in comparison with an in-house CARBA NP assay for the detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Their performance was evaluated following growth on 2 chromogenic CPE screening media. The sensitivity was highest (91%) in the β-CARBA test when used from the mSuperCARBA™ plates and was lowest when the same test was used from the chromID™ CARBA plates (75%)...
February 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Meenakshi Ravichandran, Gerald Grandl, Michael Ristow
The prospective cohort study, named PURE, found that in >135,000 participants from 18 countries, nutritive carbohydrates increase human mortality, whereas dietary fat reduces it, requesting a fundamental change of current nutritional guidelines. Experimental evidence from animal models provides synergizing mechanistic concepts as well as pharmacological options to mimic low-carb or ketogenic diets.
October 3, 2017: Cell Metabolism
Andrés-Marcelo Calle-Bustos, M-Carmen Juan, Inmaculada García-García, Francisco Abad
Therapeutic education in diabetes helps patients take responsibility for self-control of their disease, and providing technological support systems facilitates this education. In this paper, we present an augmented reality game to support therapeutic education for patients with diabetes. Our game helps children (aged 5-14 years) to learn carbohydrate (carb) content of different foods. The game shows virtual foods on a real dish. The number of carb choices corresponding to the visualized food is also shown (1 carb choice = 10 grams of carbs)...
2017: PloS One
Holly M Brown-Borg
Dietary interventions are simple, non-invasive tools that can be utilized to improve health and lifespan. In this issue, Roberts et al. (2017) and Newman et al. (2017) reveal the physiological benefits of feeding mice ketogenic diets and suggest different underlying mechanisms that may promote healthy aging.
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
Arne Astrup, Mads F Hjorth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: EBioMedicine
Arpasiri Srisrattakarn, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Chotechana Wilailuckana, Nicha Charoensri, Jureerut Daduang, Aroonwadee Chanawong
Objectives: To develop a simple gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based colorimetric test, GoldNano Carb (GoldC), for detecting carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacteria, compared with updated Carba NP (CNP) and CarbAcineto NP (CAcNP) tests by using PCR methods as gold standard. Methods: Ninety-nine carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. isolates and 89 non-CPE isolates were tested by the GoldC and CNP. Additionally, the CAcNP was performed in the Acinetobacter spp...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Bryan R Helm, Garett P Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D Yocum, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes nutritional studies challenging, because diet components cannot be systematically manipulated in the hive...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
Mariagrazia Ranzini, Katia Carbè, Wim Gevers
Number interval bisection consists of estimating the mid-number within a pair (1-9=>5). Healthy adults and right-brain damage patients can show biased performance in this task, underestimating and overestimating the mid-number, respectively. The role of visuospatial attention during this task, and its interplay with other cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory) is still object of debate. In this study we explored the relation between visuospatial attention and individual differences in working memory and executive functions during number interval bisection...
March 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Hiroshi Ohira, Brian Mc Ardle, Robert A deKemp, Pablo Nery, Daniel Juneau, Jennifer M Renaud, Ran Klein, Owen Clarkin, Karen MacDonald, Eugene Leung, Girish Nair, Rob Beanlands, David Birnie
Recent studies have reported the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in aiding with the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). However, image interpretation of 18F-FDG PET for CS is sometimes challenging. We sought to investigate the inter- and intraobserver agreement and explore factors that led to important discrepancies between readers. Methods: We studied consecutive patients with no significant coronary artery disease who were referred for assessment of CS. Two experienced readers masked to clinical information, imaging reports, independently reviewed 18F-FDG PET/CT images...
August 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Georgios Karavalakis, Nicholas Gysel, Debra A Schmitz, Arthur K Cho, Constantinos Sioutas, James J Schauer, David R Cocker, Thomas D Durbin
The emissions and the potential health effects of particulate matter (PM) were assessed from two heavy-duty trucks with and without emission control aftertreatment systems when operating on CARB ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and three different biodiesel blends. The CARB ULSD was blended with soy-based biodiesel, animal fat biodiesel, and waste cooking oil biodiesel at 50vol%. Testing was conducted over the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) in triplicate for both trucks. The aftertreatment controls effectively decreased PM mass and number emissions, as well as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to the uncontrolled truck...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nicholas R Gysel, William A Welch, Kent Johnson, Wayne Miller, David R Cocker
Ocean going vessels (OGVs) operating within emission control areas (ECA) are required to use fuels with ≤0.1 wt % sulfur. Up to now only distillate fuels could meet the sulfur limits. Recently refiners created a novel low-sulfur heavy-fuel oil (LSHFO) meeting the sulfur limits so questions were posed whether nitric oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were the same for the two fuels. This project characterized criteria pollutants and undertook a detailed analysis of PM emissions from a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) using a distillate ECA fuel (MGO) and novel LSHFO...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Charlotte A Huber, Hanna E Sidjabat, Hosam M Zowawi, David Kvaskoff, Sarah Reed, John F McNamara, Kate L McCarthy, Patrick Harris, Benjamin Toh, Alexander M Wailan, David L Paterson
It has been described that the sensitivity of the Carba NP test may be low in the case of OXA-48-like carbapenamases and mass spectrometry based methods as well as a colorimetry based method have been described as alternatives. We evaluated 84 Enterobacteriaceae isolates including 31 OXA-48-like producing isolates and 13 isolates that produced either an imipenemase (IMP; n=8), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM; n=3), or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC; n=2), as well as 40 carbapenemase negative Enterobacteriaceae isolates...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Juraj Koska, Marlies K Ozias, James Deer, Julie Kurtz, Arline D Salbe, S Mitchell Harman, Peter D Reaven
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. METHODS: High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT)...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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