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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332085/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-for-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Philip S Lee, Donald J Crammond, R Mark Richardson
The concept of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) was introduced over 20 years ago, but our understanding of the nuances of this procedure continues to improve. The average motor outcomes of internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS appear to be similar, although GPi DBS may allow greater recovery of verbal fluency and may provide greater relief of depression symptoms and improvement in the quality of life, and STN DBS appears more likely to result in decrease in levodopa equivalent doses...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332078/magnetic-resonance-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-treating-movement-disorders
#2
Young Goo Kim, Eun Jung Kweon, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Jin Woo Chang
Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery has recently gained favor as a novel, noninvasive alternative to conventional neurosurgery. In contrast to traditional ablative interventions, transcranial MRgFUS surgery is entirely imaging-guided and uses continuous temperature measurements at the target and surrounding tissue taken in real-time. Unlike Gamma Knife radiosurgery, MRgFUS surgery can make a lesion immediately and does not use ionizing radiation. Moreover, since no metallic device is implanted, MR imaging-based diagnosis is not restricted throughout life...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332076/image-guided-asleep-deep-brain-stimulation
#3
Andrew L Ko, Kim J Burchiel
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an established treatment for medically refractory movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. The field of DBS continues to evolve with advances in patient selection, target identification, electrode and pulse generator technology, and the development of more effective stimulation paradigms such as closed-loop stimulation. Furthermore, as the safety and efficacy of DBS improves through better hardware design and deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action, the indications for DBS will continue to expand to cover a wider range of disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332074/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-basal-ganglia-for-functional-neurosurgery-applications
#4
Francesco Sammartino, Mojgan Hodaie
Since its introduction, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become an important tool in neuroscience given its unprecedented ability to image brain white matter in vivo. The interest in understanding the mechanisms of action of Deep Brain Stimulation in different targets and indications, together with the constant drive towards the improvement in long-term clinical outcomes, has found a logical complement in the application of tractography in this field. Diffusion tensor imaging has been traditionally associated with an increased susceptibility to MRI artifacts, and expensive computational resources...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332069/the-history-of-movement-disorder-brain-surgery
#5
L Dade Lunsford, Ajay Niranjan
The first surgical procedures for abnormal movement disorders began in the 1930s, when surgeons first proposed ablative techniques of the caudate nucleus or transection of motor (pyramidal) pathways to reduce involuntary movements in patients with Parkinson's related tremor. During the 50-year interval between 1945 and 1995, the development of precise intracranial guiding devices, brain maps, and advanced imaging led to the refinement of appropriate deep brain targets affecting extrapyramidal pathways. Lesional surgery and subsequent neuroaugmentation using deep brain stimulation extended the role of deep brain surgery for a wider group of patients with tremor, rigidity, dyskinesia, and other involuntary movement disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332041/in-vivo-visualization-of-tau-accumulation-microglial-activation-and-brain-atrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-rtg4510
#6
Ai Ishikawa, Masaki Tokunaga, Jun Maeda, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Masafumi Shimojo, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Maiko Ono, Ruiqing Ni, Shigeki Hirano, Satoshi Kuwabara, Bin Ji, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Naruhiko Sahara
BACKGROUND: Tau imaging using PET is a promising tool for the diagnosis and evaluation of tau-related neurodegenerative disorders, but the relationship among PET-detectable tau, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration is not yet fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate sequential changes in tau accumulation, neuroinflammation, and brain atrophy by PET and MRI in a tauopathy mouse model. METHODS: rTg4510 transgenic (tg) mice expressing P301L mutated tau and non-tg mice were examined with brain MRI and PET imaging (analyzed numbers: tg = 17, non-tg = 13; age 2...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331877/cerebral-changes-and-disrupted-gray-matter-cortical-networks-in-asymptomatic-older-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jose L Cantero, Mercedes Atienza, Pascual Sanchez-Juan, Eloy Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis Vazquez-Higuera, Ana Pozueta, Andrea Gonzalez-Suarez, Eduard Vilaplana, Jordi Pegueroles, Victor Montal, Rafael Blesa, Daniel Alcolea, Alberto Lleo, Juan Fortea
The diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers is well established in Alzheimer's disease, but our current knowledge about how abnormal CSF levels affect cerebral integrity, at local and network levels, is incomplete in asymptomatic older adults. Here, we have collected CSF samples and performed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in cognitively normal elderly as part of a cross-sectional multicenter study (SIGNAL project). To identify group differences in cortical thickness, white matter volume, and properties of structural networks, participants were split into controls (N = 20), positive amyloid-β (Aβ1-42+) (N = 19), and positive phosphorylated tau (N = 18)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#8
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331730/exenatide-exerts-cognitive-effects-by-modulating-the-bdnf-trkb-neurotrophic-axis-in-adult-mice
#9
Manuela Bomba, Alberto Granzotto, Vanessa Castelli, Noemi Massetti, Elena Silvestri, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Annamaria Cimini, Stefano L Sensi
Modulation of insulin-dependent signaling is emerging as a valuable therapeutic tool to target neurodegeneration. In the brain, the activation of insulin receptors promotes cell growth, neuronal repair, and protection. Altered brain insulin signaling participates in the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's disease patients and the aging brain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates insulin secretion and, along with GLP-1 analogues, enhances neurotrophic signaling and counteracts cognitive deficits in preclinical models of neurodegeneration...
December 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331631/the-edinburgh-ct-and-genetic-diagnostic-criteria-for-lobar-intracerebral-haemorrhage-associated-with-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-model-development-and-diagnostic-test-accuracy-study
#10
Mark A Rodrigues, Neshika Samarasekera, Christine Lerpiniere, Catherine Humphreys, Mark O McCarron, Philip M White, James A R Nicoll, Cathie L M Sudlow, Charlotte Cordonnier, Joanna M Wardlaw, Colin Smith, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman
BACKGROUND: Identification of lobar spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is important because it is associated with a higher risk of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage than arteriolosclerosis-associated intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to develop a prediction model for the identification of CAA-associated lobar intracerebral haemorrhage using CT features and genotype. METHODS: We identified adults with first-ever intracerebral haemorrhage diagnosed by CT, who died and underwent research autopsy as part of the Lothian IntraCerebral Haemorrhage, Pathology, Imaging and Neurological Outcome (LINCHPIN) study, a prospective, population-based, inception cohort...
January 10, 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331449/quantifying-axonal-responses-in-patient-specific-models-of-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#11
Kabilar Gunalan, Bryan Howell, Cameron C McIntyre
Medical imaging has played a major role in defining the general anatomical targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapies. However, specifics on the underlying brain circuitry that is directly modulated by DBS electric fields remain relatively undefined. Detailed biophysical modeling of DBS provides an approach to quantify the theoretical responses to stimulation at the cellular level, and has established a key role for axonal activation in the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS. Estimates of DBS-induced axonal activation can then be coupled with advances in defining the structural connectome of the human brain to provide insight into the modulated brain circuitry and possible correlations with clinical outcomes...
January 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331207/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-inflammation-a-case-report-presenting-diagnostic-difficulties
#12
Cecylia Rajczewska-Oleszkiewicz, Agnieszka Cyganek, Anna Stadnik, Dorota Dziewulska
We describe an 86-year-old woman with a history of hypertension who presented sudden disturbances of consciousness and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffused hyperintensive changes on T2-weighted images localized subcortically in the white matter of both cerebral hemispheres, corresponding to acute vasogenic edema, causing moderate mass effect. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was initially diagnosed. After implementation of anti-edema intravenous steroid treatment and hypotensive therapy the symptoms began to retire, till the total regression...
January 6, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331072/transcranial-ultrasonographic-image-analysis-system-for-decision-support-in-parkinson-disease
#13
Andrius Sakalauskas, Vita Špečkauskienė, Kristina Laučkaitė, Rytis Jurkonis, Daiva Rastenytė, Arūnas Lukoševičius
OBJECTIVES: Transcranial ultrasonography (US) is a relatively new neuroimaging modality proposed for early diagnostics of Parkinson disease (PD). The main limitation of transcranial US image-based diagnostics is a high degree of subjectivity caused by low quality of the transcranial images. The article presents a developed image analysis system and evaluates the potential of automated image analysis on transcranial US. METHODS: The system consists of algorithms for the segmentation and assessment of informative brain regions (midbrain and substantia nigra) and a decision support subsystem, which is equipped with 64 classification algorithms...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331059/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-grit-growth-mindset-mediates-the-association-between-gray-matter-structure-and-trait-grit-in-late-adolescence
#14
Song Wang, Jing Dai, Jingguang Li, Xu Wang, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Manxi He, Qiyong Gong
There is a long-standing interest in exploring the factors related to student achievement. As a newly explored personality trait, grit is defined as a person's tendency to pursue long-term goals with continual perseverance and passion, and grit plays a critical role in student achievement. Increasing evidence has shown that growth mindset, the belief that one's basic abilities are malleable and can be developed through effort, is a potential factor for cultivating grit. However, less is known about the association between grit and the brain and the role of growth mindset in this association...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330810/correlation-of-glioma-proliferation-and-hypoxia-by-luciferase-magnetic-resonance-and-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#15
Michael Karsy, David L Gillespie, Kevin P Horn, Lance D Burrell, Jeffery T Yap, Randy L Jensen
Gliomas are the most common type of primary, malignant brain tumor and significantly impact patients, who have a median survival of ~1 year depending on mutational background. Novel imaging modalities such as luciferase bioluminescence, micro-magnetic resonance imaging (micro-MRI), micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT), and micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) have expanded the portfolio of tools available to study this disease. Hypoxia, a key oncogenic driver of glioma and mechanism of resistance, can be studied in vivo by the concomitant use of noninvasive MRI and PET imaging...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330658/patient-specific-model-based-segmentation-of-brain-tumors-in-3d-intraoperative-ultrasound-images
#16
Elisee Ilunga-Mbuyamba, Juan Gabriel Avina-Cervantes, Dirk Lindner, Felix Arlt, Jean Fulbert Ituna-Yudonago, Claire Chalopin
PURPOSE: Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) imaging is commonly used to support brain tumor operation. The tumor segmentation in the iUS images is a difficult task and still under improvement because of the low signal-to-noise ratio. The success of automatic methods is also limited due to the high noise sensibility. Therefore, an alternative brain tumor segmentation method in 3D-iUS data using a tumor model obtained from magnetic resonance (MR) data for local MR-iUS registration is presented in this paper...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330459/a-novel-ultra-stable-monomeric-green-fluorescent-protein-for-direct-volumetric-imaging-of-whole-organs-using-clarity
#17
Daniel J Scott, Natalie J Gunn, Kelvin J Yong, Verena C Wimmer, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Leesa M Challis, Mouna Haidar, Steven Petrou, Ross A D Bathgate, Michael D W Griffin
Recent advances in thick tissue clearing are enabling high resolution, volumetric fluorescence imaging of complex cellular networks. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) such as GFP, however, can be inactivated by the denaturing chemicals used to remove lipids in some tissue clearing methods. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a recently engineered ultra-stable GFP (usGFP) and propose that the two stabilising mutations, Q69L and N164Y, act to improve hydrophobic packing in the core of the protein and facilitate hydrogen bonding networks at the surface, respectively...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330386/on-the-detection-of-cerebral-metabolic-depression-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-using-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-cest-weighted-mri
#18
Tsang-Wei Tu, Wael G Ibrahim, Neekita Jikaria, Jeeva P Munasinghe, Jaclyn A Witko, Dima A Hammoud, Joseph A Frank
Metabolic abnormalities are commonly observed in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients exhibiting long-term neurological deficits. This study investigated the feasibility and reproducibility of using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI to detect cerebral metabolic depression in experimental TBI. Phantom and in vivo CEST experiments were conducted at 9.4 Tesla to optimize the selective saturation for enhancing the endogenous contrast-weighting of the proton exchanges over the range of glucose proton chemical shifts (glucoCEST) in the resting rat brain...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330383/development-of-a-pet-radioligand-for-potassium-channels-to-image-cns-demyelination
#19
Pedro Brugarolas, Jorge E Sánchez-Rodríguez, Hsiu-Ming Tsai, Falguni Basuli, Shih-Hsun Cheng, Xiang Zhang, Andrew V Caprariello, Jerome J Lacroix, Richard Freifelder, Dhanabalan Murali, Onofre DeJesus, Robert H Miller, Rolf E Swenson, Chin-Tu Chen, Peter Herscovitch, Daniel S Reich, Francisco Bezanilla, Brian Popko
Central nervous system (CNS) demyelination represents the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and contributes to other neurological conditions. Quantitative and specific imaging of demyelination would thus provide critical clinical insight. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting axonal potassium channels to image demyelination by positron emission tomography (PET). These channels, which normally reside beneath the myelin sheath, become exposed upon demyelination and are the target of the MS drug, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330070/neutropenia-as-a-complication-of-tumefactive-demyelinating-disease-a-case-report
#20
Kali Webb, Marisa Osorio
Tumefactive demyelination is an aggressive, localized, generally solitary area of demyelination that often mimics a neoplasm. We present a case of a 13-year-old female who presented with sudden onset, progressive hemiplegia and hemianopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed tumefactive demyelination with partial rim of enhancement. During inpatient rehabilitation, she developed myalgias, rash, abdominal and mouth pain with evidence for severe neutropenia. The neutropenia was determined to be a secondary complication of the tumefactive disease process...
January 9, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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