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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778973/a-two-fatal-cases-of-poisoning-involving-new-cathinone-derivative-pv8
#1
Ewelina Pieprzyca, Rafał Skowronek, Małgorzata Korczyńska, Joanna Kulikowska, Małgorzata Chowaniec
α-Pyrrolidinoheptiophenone (PV8) is a representative of α-pyrrolidinophenone derivatives, a new group of synthetic cathinones. PV8 was first detected in illegal products in Japan in 2013. It is closely related to α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), which was one of the most popular novel psychoactive substance (NPS) in Poland in years 2013-2015. The article presents two cases of fatal poisonings of 36-year-old man and 37-year-old woman, where a new cathinone derivative - PV8 was detected in biological material collected during medicolegal autopsies...
May 14, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778945/self-administration-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mpdv-enhances-reward-function-via-a-nicotinic-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#2
Jean R Geste, Marjory Pompilus, Marcelo Febo, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is an addictive synthetic drug with severe side effects. Previous studies have shown that MDPV has positive reinforcing properties. However, little is known about the effect of MDPV self-administration on the state of the brain reward system and the neuronal mechanisms by which MDPV mediates its effects. The goal of the present studies was to determine the effect of MDPV self-administration on reward function and the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of MDPV...
May 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777946/screening-method-for-rapid-classification-of-psychoactive-substances-in-illicit-tablets-using-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-and-pls-da
#3
Leandro S A Pereira, Fernanda L C Lisboa, José Coelho Neto, Frederico N Valladão, Marcelo M Sena
Several new psychoactive substances (NPS) have reached the illegal drug market in recent years, and ecstasy-like tablets are one of the forms affected by this change. Cathinones and tryptamines have increasingly been found in ecstasy-like seized samples as well as other amphetamine type stimulants. A presumptive method for identifying different drugs in seized ecstasy tablets (n=92) using ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) was developed...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768653/n-ethyl-pentylone-related-deaths-in-alabama
#4
Daniel Atherton, Daniel Dye, C Andrew Robinson, Rachel Beck
n-Ethyl pentylone (NEP) is a chemical substance derived from cathinone. Synthetic cathinones are an evolving group of drugs with stimulating, mind-altering effects sometimes referred to as novel or new psychoactive substances (NPS). There is scarce information in the medical literature regarding forensic cases in which NEP is detected in toxicological testing. We present four fatalities involving NEP from Alabama in 2017. Deaths were attributed to NEP toxicity in two cases (peripheral blood concentrations of 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768112/-marvin-the-paranoid-android-the-case-of-an-alpha-pvp-user-in-the-expanding-galaxy-of-nps
#5
Simonato Pierluigi, Bulsis Laura, Negri Attilio, Bansal Gurjeet K, Pessa Gloria, Mioni Davide, Giuseppe Borgherini, Martinotti Giovanni, Schifano Fabrizio, Giulia Perini, Corazza Ornella
Alpha-PVP can be defined as a novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-more specifically, a novel synthetic cathinone with unpredictable stimulant effects in humans. "Marvin" arrived at a Dual Diagnosis Unit at Parco dei Tigli, Italy. He underwent a 30-day rehabilitation program to overcome his problematic Alpha-PVP use as a psychonaut. We conducted an online search to understand the properties of Alpha-PVP and its presence in scientific literature, reviewing official reports and the online drug market (e...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740356/behavioural-pharmacokinetic-metabolic-and-hyperthermic-profile-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-the-wistar-rat
#6
Rachel R Horsley, Eva Lhotkova, Katerina Hajkova, Barbara Feriancikova, Michal Himl, Martin Kuchar, Tomas Páleníček
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent pyrovalerone cathinone that is substituted for amphetamines by recreational users. We report a comprehensive and detailed description of the effects of subcutaneous MDPV (1-4 mg/kg) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism, acute effects on thermoregulation under isolated and aggregated conditions, locomotion (open field) and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI). All studies used male Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics after single dose of 2 mg/kg MDPV was measured over 6 h in serum, brain and lungs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738992/discrimination-of-synthetic-cathinones-by-gc-ms-and-gc-ms-ms-using-cold-electron-ionization
#7
Matthew P Levitas, Emily Andrews, Ira Lurie, Ioan Marginean
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is currently among the methods of choice for the analysis of synthetic cathinones. However, these analytes are extremely labile, and classical electron ionization (EI) results in excessive and relatively uninformative fragmentation, yielding little to no molecular ions. Cold EI reduces the internal energy of the analytes by expansion of supersonic molecular beams prior to their ionization, leading to improved molecular ion information. In this study, classical and cold EI were compared for the analysis of synthetic cathinones...
April 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729891/functional-connectivity-behavioral-and-dopaminergic-alterations-24-hours-following-acute-exposure-to-synthetic-bath-salt-drug-methylenedioxypyrovalerone
#8
Luis M Colon-Perez, Jose A Pino, Kaustuv Saha, Marjory Pompilus, Sherman Kaplitz, Nafisa Choudhury, Darin A Jagnarine, Jean R Geste, Brandon A Levin, Isaac Wilks, Barry Setlow, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Gonzalo E Torres, Marcelo Febo
Among cathinone drugs known as bath salts, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) exerts its potent actions via the dopamine (DA) system, and at intoxicating doses may produce adverse behavioral effects. Previous work by our group suggests that prolonged alterations in correlated neural activity between cortical and striatal areas could underlie, at least in part, the adverse reactions to this bath salt drug. In the present study, we assessed the effect of acute MDPV administration on brain functional connectivity at 1 and 24 h in rats...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718649/synthetic-drug-intoxication-in-children-recognition-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#9
Rahul Shah, Carl R Baum, Kathryn H Pade
When children and adolescents present to the emergency department with agitation or mental status changes, intoxication from synthetic drug use should be in the differential diagnosis. Identifying the responsible compound(s) may be difficult, so asking the patient broad questions and utilizing appropriate diagnostic studies, when indicated, will aid in making the diagnosis and help identify more-serious complications. This issue discusses the challenges presented by the changing chemical formulations of synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, and phenethylamines; outlines common presentations of intoxication from these substances; and summarizes best practices for evaluating and managing patients who present with intoxication after consumption of these synthetic drugs of abuse...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714473/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-cathinone-derived-psychostimulants
#10
Steven J Simmons, Jonna M Leyrer-Jackson, Chicora F Oliver, Callum Hicks, John Muschamp, Scott M Rawls, M Foster Olive
Cathinone is a plant alkaloid found in khat leaves of perennial shrubs grown in East Africa. Similar to cocaine, cathinone elicits psychostimulant effects which are in part attributed to its amphetamine-like structure. Around 2010, home laboratories began altering the parent structure of cathinone to synthesize derivatives with mechanisms of action, potencies, and pharmacokinetics permitting high abuse potential and toxicity. These "synthetic cathinones" include 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and the empathogenic agent 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) which collectively gained international popularity following aggressive online marketing as well as availability in various retail outlets...
May 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713996/the-effects-of-exposure-to-mephedrone-during-adolescence-on-brain-neurotransmission-and-neurotoxicity-in-adult-rats
#11
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Górska, Joanna Rzemieniec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Adam Wojtas, Grzegorz Kreiner, Małgorzata Kajta, Krystyna Gołembiowska
According to the European Drug Report (2016), the use of synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone, among young people has rapidly increased in the last years. Studies in humans indicate that psychostimulant drug use in adolescence increases risk of drug abuse in adulthood. Mephedrone by its interaction with transporters for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) stimulates their release to the synaptic cleft. In animal studies, high repeated doses of mephedrone given to adolescent but not adult mice or rats induced toxic changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706835/the-undead-in-culture-and-science
#12
Connie Nugent, Gilbert Berdine, Kenneth Nugent
The undead have a significant role in mythology, religion, folklore, and literature. In the 1800s, the word zombie was used to describe reanimated corpses in the Caribbean who often worked on plantations doing long, arduous field work. The movie White Zombie was released in 1932 and exploited this folklore, but it ignored the fact that zombies represent one outcome in Vodou religious beliefs regarding death and the migration of spirits following death. The interest in zombies eventually led to sociological and medical investigations into zombification...
April 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697923/synthetic-drug-intoxication-in-children-recognition-and-management-in-the-emergency-department
#13
Rahul Shah, Carl R Baum
When children and adolescents present to the emergency department with agitation or mental status changes, intoxication from synthetic drug use should be in the differential diagnosis. Identifying the responsible compound(s) may be difficult, so asking the patient broad questions and utilizing appropriate diagnostic studies, when indicated, will aid in making the diagnosis and help identify more-serious complications. This issue discusses the challenges presented by the changing chemical formulations of synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, and phenethylamines; outlines common presentations of intoxication from these substances; and summarizes best practices for evaluating and managing patients who present with intoxication after consumption of these synthetic drugs of abuse...
May 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684910/forensic-applications-of-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
REVIEW
Volodymyr Pauk, Karel Lemr
Achievements of supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection made in the field of forensic science during the last decade are reviewed. The main topics include analysis of traditional drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, methamphetamine) as well as new psychoactive substances (synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and phenethylamines), doping agents (anabolic steroids, stimulants, diuretics, analgesics etc.) and chemical warfare agents. Control of food authenticity, detection of adulteration and identification of toxic substances in food are also pointed out...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683847/psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-tobacco-consumption-in-hiv-infected-outpatients
#15
Jean-Marc Jacquet, Hélène Peyriere, Alain Makinson, Marianne Peries, Nicolas Nagot, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Jacques Reynes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction and psychoactive substance use (PSU) of people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit. METHODS: Autoquestionnaire systematically proposed to all patients during their usual clinical care visit during a 6-months period, for alcohol (AUDIT test), tobacco (Short Fagerstrom Test) and PSU (ASSIST V3.0 test). RESULTS: Of 1334 distributed questionnaires, 1018 PLHIV responded: 76...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656349/the-designer-drug-3-fluoromethcathinone-induces-oxidative-stress-and-activates-autophagy-in-ht22-neuronal-cells
#16
Kamila Siedlecka-Kroplewska, Agata Wrońska, Grzegorz Stasiłojć, Zbigniew Kmieć
Synthetic cathinones are psychoactive substances, derivatives of a natural psychostimulant cathinone. Although many synthetic cathinones have lost their legal status in many countries, their abuse still continues worldwide. Recently, they have been reported to exert neurotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of their action have not been fully elucidated. Recently, they have been linked to the induction of oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), a synthetic cathinone, is able to induce oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in HT22 immortalized mouse hippocampal cells...
April 14, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627557/investigating-in-sewer-transformation-products-formed-from-synthetic-cathinones-and-phenethylamines-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#17
Juliet Kinyua, Noelia Negreira, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Tim Boogaerts, Christoph Ort, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Recent studies have demonstrated the role of biofilms on the stability of drug residues in wastewater. These factors are pertinent in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) when estimating community-level drug use. However, there is scarce information on the biotransformation of drug residues in the presence of biofilms and the potential use of transformation products (TPs) as biomarkers in WBE. The purpose of this work was to investigate the formation of TPs in sewage reactors in the presence of biofilm mimicking conditions during in-sewer transport...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597343/dopamine-d1-like-receptor-agonist-and-d2-like-receptor-antagonist-stepholidine-reduces-reinstatement-of-drug-seeking-behavior-for-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-rats
#18
Callum Hicks, Peng Huang, Linnet Ramos, Sunil U Nayak, Yohanka Caro, Allen B Reitz, Garry R Smith, David Y-W Lee, Scott M Rawls, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen
Psychostimulant reinforcement is mediated by stimulation of both dopamine (DA) D1-like and D2-like receptors, suggesting that pharmacotherapy agents with a dual DA receptor mechanism may be useful for managing psychostimulant abuse. (-)-Stepholidine (L-SPD) is a Chinese herbal extract that functions as a D1-like receptor agonist and D2-like receptor antagonist. L-SPD has been shown to attenuate the reinforcing effects of heroin; however, its effects on the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) have not been examined...
April 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577616/skating-on-thin-ice-stimulant-use-and-sub-optimal-adherence-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#19
J Carlo Hojilla, David Vlahov, David V Glidden, K Rivet Amico, Megha Mehrotra, Robert Hance, Robert M Grant, Adam W Carrico
INTRODUCTION: Stimulant and heavy alcohol use are prevalent and associated with elevated risk for HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. In addition, each can pose difficulties for antiretroviral adherence among people living with HIV. Scant research has examined the associations of stimulant and heavy alcohol use with adherence to daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM and transgender women. To address this gap in the literature, we evaluated the hypothesis that stimulant use and binge drinking are prospectively associated with sub-optimal PrEP adherence...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572046/neurotoxicity-screening-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-effects-on-neuronal-activity-in-rat-cortical-cultures-using-microelectrode-arrays-mea
#20
Anne Zwartsen, Laura Hondebrink, Remco Hs Westerink
While the prevalence and the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is steadily increasing, data on pharmacological, toxicological and clinical effects is limited. Considering the large number of NPS available, there is a clear need for efficient in vitro screening techniques that capture multiple mechanisms of action. Neuronal cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have previously proven suitable for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals and (illicit) drugs. We therefore used rat primary cortical cultures grown on mwMEA plates to investigate the effects of eight NPS (PMMA, α-PVP, methylone, MDPV, 2 C-B, 25B-NBOMe, BZP and TFMPP) and two 'classic' illicit drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine) on spontaneous neuronal activity...
March 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
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