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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088088/prevalence-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-northeast-asia-from-2007-to-2015
#1
Junhui Lee, Songhee Yang, Yujin Kang, Eunyoung Han, Ling-Yi Feng, Jih-Heng Li, Heesun Chung
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been a global trend in drug abuse and its regulation has been a worldwide concern. There is no doubt that it is necessary to share information related to these emerging substances between countries and continents for the effective regulation of NPS. With efforts for the efficient regulation of NPS, many studies and information have been published for the prevalence of NPS in the United States and other countries in Europe and Oceania. However, there is lack of information available for the prevalence of NPS in Asian and African countries...
October 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087976/the-role-of-diode-array-ultraviolet-detection-for-the-identification-of-synthetic-cathinones
#2
Walter F Rowe, Ioan Marginean, Stephanie Carnes, Ira S Lurie
The utility of diode array UV detection for aiding in the identification of synthetic cathinones, including different sub classes and positional isomers is presented. For 35 synthetic cathinones' unique UV spectra are obtained for seven sub classes including mostly beta ketones, where position and type of substitution on benzene rings give rise to differences in UV maxima and relative intensity of the spectral bands. This aspect is key to distinguishing positional isomers which contain differences in R substitution (mono and di) around the benzene ring, which provides complementary information to electron ionization mass spectrometry, where the latter technique cannot distinguish between these types of positional isomers...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076917/multi-organ-dysfunction-due-to-bath-salts-are-we-aware-of-this-entity
#3
Rohith Valsalan, Benoj Varghese, Diya Soman, Jonathan Buckmaster, Steven Yew, David Cooper
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Physical manifestations include tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria and seizures. We report a patient who presented with severe metabolic acidosis, multi-organ dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia and seizures. This case highlights that even though a urine drug screen for routine psychostimulant drugs is negative, clinicians need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of MDPV as a possible cause of multi-organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#4
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074662/misuse-of-2-ethylamino-1-4-methylphenyl-1-pentanone-4-meap-a-synthetic-cathinone
#5
Anneka Varma, Neel Patel, Loretta Ford, Rachel Jones, J Allister Vale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070621/behavioral-evidence-for-the-abuse-potential-of-the-novel-synthetic-cathinone-alpha-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone-pvt-in-rodents
#6
Jae Hoon Cheong, Mee Jung Choi, Choon-Gon Jang, Yong Sup Lee, Sooyeun Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Joung-Wook Seo, Seong Shoon Yoon
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones are chemical derivatives of cathinone that are pharmacologically similar to cocaine and methamphetamine. Recently, abuse of synthetic cathinones among young people has increased. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to characterize the behavioral effects of alpha-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (PVT), an analog of alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone and second-generation synthetic cathinone, as well as to evaluate its abuse potential, using conditioned place preference, intravenous self-administration (SA), and drug discrimination paradigms in rodent models...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067045/neurotoxicity-of-%C3%AE-keto-amphetamines-deathly-mechanisms-elicited-by-methylone-and-mdpv-in-human-dopaminergic-sh-sy5y-cells
#7
Maria Joao Valente, Maria Lourdes Bastos, Eduarda Fernandes, Félix Carvalho, Paola Guedes de Pinho, Marcia Carvalho
Synthetic cathinones (β-keto amphetamines) act as potent CNS stimulants similarly to classical amphetamines, which raise concerns about their potential neurotoxic effects. The present in vitro study aimed to explore and compare the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of two commonly abused cathinone derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), with those of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), using undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...
January 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063946/the-abuse-potential-of-two-novel-synthetic-cathinones-with-modification-on-the-alpha-carbon-position-2-cyclohexyl-2-methylamino-1-phenylethanone-machp-and-2-methylamino-1-phenyloctan-1-one-maop-and-their-effects-on-dopaminergic-activity
#8
Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Kyung-Tae Park, Young Hun Lee, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
The recreational use of synthetic cathinones has dramatically increased in recent years, which is partly due to easy accessibility and ability of synthetic cathinones to exert rewarding effects similar to cocaine and methamphetamine. Many synthetic cathinones have already been scheduled in several countries; however, novel and diverse synthetic cathinones are emerging at an unprecedented rate, often outpacing regulatory processes. Recently, designer modifications of the basic cathinone molecule are usually performed on the alpha-carbon position...
January 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#9
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035764/alpha-pvp-as-an-active-component-of-herbal-highs-in-poland-between-2013-2015
#10
Bogumiła Byrska, Roman Stanaszek, Dariusz Zuba
Alpha-PVP (alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-PVP) is a synthetic derivative of cathinone. It has been one of the most frequently detected new psychoactive substances (NPS) available on the drug market in recent years in Poland. The usual routes of administration of the drug include oral, insufflation, injection. Unexpectedly, we dealt with a great number of herbal samples that turned out to contain α-PVP. A total number of 352 herbal samples from 19 cases, in which we detected synthetic cathinones, were investigated in the Institute of Forensic Research (IFR) from 2013 to 2015...
December 30, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035035/analysis-of-u-47700-a-novel-synthetic-opioid-in-human-urine-by-lc-ms-ms-and-lc-qtof
#11
Steven W Fleming, Justin C Cooley, Leonard Johnson, C Clinton Frazee, Kristina Domanski, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Uttam Garg
The illicit drug market has rapidly evolved from synthetic cannabinoids to cathinone derivatives and now a new emerging threat of synthetic opioids. These compounds were mostly developed by pharmaceutical companies during drug discovery. The new psychoactive substances are not routinely covered in drug screening and may go undetected. Recently fentanyl analogous, AH-7921, MT-45 and now U-47700 have been encountered in clinical and forensic casework. U-47700 is gaining popularity on drug user forms as a legal alternative to heroin...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029499/development-of-an-enantioseparation-method-for-novel-psychoactive-drugs-by-hplc-using-a-lux-%C3%A2-cellulose-2-column-in-polar-organic-phase-mode
#12
Magdalena Taschwer, Jörg Grascher, Martin G Schmid
Since the last decade, the hype of the recreational use of novel psychoactive drugs is still on its top in entire Europe. Every year, new derivatives enter the drug market and enlarge the broad spectrum of misused drugs. Many of these compounds contain a stereogenic centre and therefore two enantiomers exist. It is obvious that the pharmacological potency of the isomers differ as it is already known from various pharmaceutical ingredients. Therefore, the development of analytical methods for the chiral separation of new psychoactive substances is of great medical and forensic interest...
October 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028802/fatal-intoxication-with-%C3%AE-pvp-a-synthetic-cathinone-derivative
#13
Barbara Potocka-Banaś, Tomasz Janus, Sławomir Majdanik, Tomasz Banaś, Teresa Dembińska, Krzysztof Borowiak
This study presents the fatal case of a young man who was admitted to the ICAU due to sudden cardiac arrest. An interview revealed that the patient had taken some unspecified crystals. From the moment of admission, his condition deteriorated dramatically as a result of increasing circulatory insufficiency. After a few hours, sudden cardiac arrest occurred again and the patient was pronounced dead. In the course of a medicolegal autopsy, samples of biological material were preserved for toxicology tests and histopathological examination...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027812/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-on-cryptomarket-fora-an-exploratory-study-of-characteristics-of-forum-activity-between-nps-buyers-and-vendors
#14
Marie Claire Van Hout, Evelyn Hearne
BACKGROUND: The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. METHODS: This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS...
December 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012094/clinical-pharmacology-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mephedrone
#15
Esther Papaseit, José Moltó, Robert Muga, Marta Torrens, Rafael de la Torre, Magí Farré
4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular new psychoactive substance (NPS) that is structurally related to the parent compound cathinone, the β-keto analogue of amphetamine. Mephedrone appeared on the street drug market as a substitute for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and was subsequently banned due to the potential health risks associated with its use. Nevertheless, mephedrone continues to be widely consumed among specific populations, with unique patterns of misuse. To date, most information about the biological effects of mephedrone comes from user experiences, epidemiological data, clinical cases, toxicological findings, and animal studies, whilst there are very few data regarding its human pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956054/active-vaccination-attenuates-the-psychostimulant-effects-of-%C3%AE-pvp-and-mdpv-in-rats
#16
Jacques D Nguyen, Paul T Bremer, Alex Ducime, Kevin M Creehan, Brent R Kisby, Michael A Taffe, Kim D Janda
Recreational use of substituted cathinones continues to be an emerging public health problem in the United States; cathinone derivatives α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), which have been linked to human fatalities and show high potential for abuse liability in animal models, are of particular concern. The objective of this study was to develop an immunotherapeutic strategy for attenuating the effects of α-PVP and MDPV in rats, using drug-conjugate vaccines created to generate antibodies with neutralizing capacity...
December 9, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939599/i-like-the-old-stuff-better-than-the-new-stuff-subjective-experiences-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#17
Allison Matthews, Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Joe Van Buskirk, Elizabeth Whittaker, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, monitoring systems have identified the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS). While the use of many NPS is minimal and transitory, little is known about which products have potential for capturing the attention of significant proportions of the drug consuming market. The aim of this study was to explore self-reported experiences of three commonly used NPS classes within the Australian context (synthetic cathinones, hallucinogenic phenethylamines and hallucinogenic tryptamines) relative to traditional illicit drug counterparts...
December 8, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925866/there-s-something-about-molly-the-underresearched-yet-popular-powder-form-of-ecstasy-in-the-united-states
#18
Joseph J Palamar
Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in the United States since the early 2000s; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of "Molly," although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") that the name "Molly" may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921290/-bath-salts-the-new-york-city-medical-examiner-experience-a-3-year-retrospective-review
#19
Stephen J deRoux, William A Dunn
"Bath salts" are synthetic derivatives of cathinones, compounds found in the leaves of Catha edulis, which possesses amphetamine-like properties. At the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner, we conducted a 3-year retrospective analysis of deaths in which cathinones were detected. Two categories emerged; those in which cathinones were a contributory cause of death (15 cases) and those in which they were an incidental finding (15 cases). Of the former group, 13 were associated with additional intoxicants; two deaths were attributed solely to cathinone intoxication, both survived 10 h: a man whose postmortem blood methylone concentration was 0...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916403/stability-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-oral-fluid-samples
#20
Briana Miller, Jiyoung Kim, Marta Concheiro
Synthetic cathinones are new stimulant drugs derived from cathinone that have been sold as "legal highs" worldwide. These compounds can elicit powerful effects such as delusions, hallucinations as well as other potentially dangerous behavior. New analogs with varying effects and potencies are constantly introduced in the market to evade legislation, and they are not detected by routine screening and confirmation methods. Oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in forensic toxicology. Its collection is non-invasive and easily supervised, and positive drug findings typically reflect recent drug exposure...
December 1, 2016: Forensic Science International
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