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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777732/body-image-and-eating-disorders-are-common-among-professional-and-amateur-athletes-using-performance-and-image-enhancing-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Daria Piacentino, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Livia Longo, Antonio Pavan, Luciano Stivali, Guido Stivali, Stefano Ferracuti, Roberto Brugnoli, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi, Paolo Girardi, Gabriele Sani
The use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is not uncommon in athletes and appears to be associated with several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of body image disorders (BIDs) and eating disorders (EDs) in PIED-using athletes vs. PIED nonusers. We enrolled 84 consecutive professional and amateur athletes training in sport centers in Italy, who underwent semi-structured interviews (SCID-I, SCID-II) and completed the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food Eating Disorder Screening Test (SCOFF)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777688/attitudes-and-beliefs-about-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees
#2
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Charles M Cleland
BACKGROUND: Attitudes and beliefs about drug use have been shown to be robust correlates of use of drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; however, little is known regarding attitudes or beliefs about new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to examine attitudes and beliefs about NPS and how they relate to self-reported use in a high-risk population-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. METHOD: 1,048 individuals (age 18-40) were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City in 2016...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777672/the-physiological-and-ergogenic-effects-of-khat-catha-edulis-forsk-extract
#3
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Anwar M Hossain, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance which contains two main addictive substances; Cathine and Cathinone. Khat is widely used in east Africa and southern Arabian Peninsula. Khat chewers believe that it improves work capacity and increases energy level and alertness. That is why we aimed in this study to investigate the physiological and ergogenic effects of khat extract. METHODS: This study is an experimental study conducted at the Substance Abuse Research Centre in Jazan University, Saudi Arabia...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764574/designer-drugs-review-and-implications-for-emergency-management
#4
A Pourmand, M Mazer-Amirshahi, S Chistov, A Li, M Park
In the past 10 years, "designer drugs" such as synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones have emerged and come into widespread use, resulting in more overdose cases involving these new drugs in the United States. Emergency departments regularly treat a diverse array of drug intoxications, and providers must be cognizant of novel drugs of abuse and the associated clinical presentations in order to provide the most appropriate care. This review aims to describe the epidemiology, mechanism of action, clinical presentation, and treatment of intoxication for both the common and newest drugs of abuse...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755886/pharmacological-profile-of-mephedrone-analogs-and-related-new-psychoactive-substances
#5
REVIEW
Dino Luethi, Karolina E Kolaczynska, Luca Docci, Stephan Krähenbühl, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone and one of the most popular recreationally used new psychoactive substances. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of novel analogs of mephedrone and related newly emerged designer stimulants. METHODS: We determined norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin transporter inhibition potencies and monoamine release in transporter-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also assessed monoamine receptor and transporter binding affinities...
July 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753045/an-internet-based-survey-of-96-german-speaking-users-of-bath-salts-frequent-complications-risky-sexual-behavior-violence-and-delinquency
#6
Sabrina Schmoll, Katrin Romanek, Raphael Stich, Elias Bekka, Jochen Stenzel, Stefanie Geith, Florian Eyer, Christian Rabe
OBJECTIVE: To define the demographics of German-speaking "bath salt" users. DESIGN: Prospective web-based survey of volunteer users of "bath salts". Subject recruitment/exclusion: Participation was solicited by posts in web forums frequented by users of synthetic cathinones. An invitation to participate was also disseminated via regional drug information centers. Responses were discarded if participants refused data analysis, provided incomplete surveys, were under 18 years of age (five cases), and in case of clearly improbable answers (i...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738608/a-fast-bioanalytical-method-based-on-microextraction-by-packed-sorbent-and-uplc-ms-ms-for-determining-new-psychoactive-substances-in-oral-fluid
#7
A M Ares, P Fernández, M Regenjo, A M Fernández, A M Carro, R A Lorenzo
The emergence in recent years of potentially dangerous new psychoactive substances (NPS) that are not under international control has led to the development of multi-analyte procedures for their unequivocal quantification. A fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS), in combination with a sample pretreatment based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), was for the first time used in this work for the simultaneous determination of NPS in oral fluid. This matrix is an effective alternative to typical biological samples for drug control in substitution therapy programs, and also for the prevention and reduction of traffic accidents...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719082/determination-of-seven-drugs-of-abuse-and-their-metabolites-in-surface-and-waste-water-using-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-to-liquid-chromatography-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#8
Helena Prosen, Núria Fontanals, Francesc Borrull, Rosa Maria Marcé
A method based on liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive Orbitrap) combined with solid-phase extraction using a strong cationic exchange mixed-mode sorbent has been developed for the determination of seven drugs of abuse, including two synthetic cathinones, as well as some of their metabolites in environmental water samples. The method provides low detection limits and a high confirmation power thanks to the diagnostic and two fragment ions monitored for each compound in high-resolution mass spectrometry, providing six identification points for each analyte...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#9
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704276/effects-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-antagonists-on-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-methylendioxypyrovalerone-and-mephedrone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-d-amphetamine
#10
Eric L Harvey, Rachel L Burroughs, Lisa E Baker
Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684237/monoaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-cathinone-phthalimide-an-in-vitro-study
#11
Susan M Lantz, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Bonnie Robinson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi, Syed Z Imam, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali
Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally distinct synthetic cathinones are continuously being generated to skirt existing drug laws. One example of these modified compounds is cathinone phthalimide (CP), which has already appeared on the global market. The lack of toxicological studies on the effects of CP on monoaminergic systems led to the development of the present study in order to generate an acute toxicity profile for CP, and to clarify whether it primarily affects both dopamine and serotonin, like the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and methylone, or primarily affects dopamine, like 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683184/comparison-of-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-gas-chromatography-for-the-separation-of-synthetic-cathinones
#12
Stephanie Carnes, Stacey O'Brien, Angelica Szewczak, Lauriane Tremeau-Cayel, Walter F Rowe, Bruce McCord, Ira S Lurie
A comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones has been conducted. Nine different mixtures of bath salts were analyzed in this study. The three different chromatographic techniques were examined using a general set of controlled synthetic cathinones as well as a variety of other synthetic cathinones that exist as positional isomers. Overall 35 different synthetic cathinones were analyzed...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677665/reinforcing-effects-of-binary-mixtures-of-common-bath-salt-constituents-studies-with-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-3-4-methylenedioxymethcathinone-methylone-and-caffeine-in-rats
#13
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Melson P Mesmin, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
'Bath salts' use is associated with high rates of abuse, toxicity, and death. bath salt preparations often contain mixtures of drugs including multiple synthetic cathinones (eg, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) or 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone)) or synthetic cathinones and caffeine; however, little is known about whether interactions among bath salt constituents contribute to the abuse-related effects of bath salts preparations. This study used male Sprague-Dawley rats responding under a progressive ratio schedule to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of MDPV, methylone, and caffeine, administered alone and as binary mixtures (n=12 per mixture)...
July 5, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677506/mephedrone-concentrations-in-cases-of-clinical-intoxication
#14
Esther Papaseit, Eulàlia Olesti, Rafael de la Torre, Marta Torrens, Magí Farré
Background Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a ring-substituted synthetic cathinone derivative has become established as a permanent illicit drug in the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) scene. Objective This review summarizes current knowledge on mephedrone concentrations in biological samples from cases of acute intoxications (fatal and non-fatal), pharmacokinetics studies, wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on toxicokinetics of mephedrone in humans...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677501/prevalence-and-surveillance-of-synthetic-cathinones-use-by-hair-analysis-an-update-review
#15
J C Alvarez, N Fabresse, I A Larabi
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have emerged in a threatening way in the last decades. They are sold via the internet or head shops with several names (bath salts, Research chemical, RCs, Legal Highs) and forms (pills, tablets, powder...etc.), and are labelled ambiguously to escape governmental legislation. Designer drugs belong to different chemical classes, but cathinones derivatives presented the most prevalent group. In 2013, this group accounted for 30% of NPS seizures in Europe with more than 450 different compounds, including 101 new molecules reported for the first time in 2014...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672699/qualitative-screening-for-new-psychoactive-substances-in-wastewater-collected-during-a-city-festival-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#16
Ana Causanilles, Juliet Kinyua, Christoph Ruttkies, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Erik Emke, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt
The inclusion of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the wastewater-based epidemiology approach presents challenges, such as the reduced number of users that translates into low concentrations of residues and the limited pharmacokinetics information available, which renders the choice of target biomarker difficult. The sampling during special social settings, the analysis with improved analytical techniques, and data processing with specific workflow to narrow the search, are required approaches for a successful monitoring...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665175/identification-of-three-new-phase-ii-metabolites-of-a-designer-drug-methylone-formed-in-rats-by-n-demethylation-followed-by-conjugation-with-dicarboxylic-acids
#17
Monika Židková, Igor Linhart, Marie Balíková, Michal Himl, Veronika Dvořáčková, Eva Lhotková, Tomáš Páleníček
1. Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone, MDMC), which appeared on the illicit drug market in 2004, is a frequently abused synthetic cathinone derivative. Known metabolic pathways of MDMC include N-demethylation to normethylone (3,4-methylenedioxycathinone, MDC), aliphatic chain hydroxylation and oxidative demethylenation followed by monomethylation and conjugation with glucuronic acid and/or sulphate. 2. Three new phase II metabolites, amidic conjugates of MDC with succinic, glutaric and adipic acid, were identified in the urine of rats dosed subcutaneously with MDMC...
June 30, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657191/intended-and-unintended-use-of-cathinone-mixtures
#18
Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Jacqueline Leslie Stair, Stewart Brian Kirton, Mire Zloh, Fabrizio Schifano
INTRODUCTION: Cathinones are one of the most popular categories of new psychoactive substances (NPS) consumed. Cathinones have different pharmacological activities and receptor selectivity for monoamine transporters based on their chemical structures. They are incorporated into NPS mixtures and used with other NPS or 'traditional' drugs. Cathinone use represents significant health risks to individuals and is a public health burden. METHODS: Evidence of poly-NPS use with cathinones, seizure information, and literature analyses results on NPS mixtures was systematically gathered from online database sources, including Google Scholar, Scopus, Bluelight, and Drugs-Forum...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657185/patterns-of-use-and-toxicity-of-new-para-halogenated-substituted-cathinones-4-cmc-clephedrone-4-cec-4-chloroethcatinone-and-4-bmc-brephedrone
#19
Marc Grifell, Mireia Ventura, Xoán Carbón, Pol Quintana, Liliana Galindo, Álvaro Palma, Ivan Fornis, Cristina Gil, Magi Farre, Marta Torrens
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present results of the analysis of clephedrone (4-CMC), 4-chloroethcathinone (4-CEC), and brephedrone (4-BMC) on recreational drug markets and a systematic review of all the available information concerning these substances. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples collected by the drug checking service of the Spanish harm reduction NGO-Energy Control were analyzed and systematic research was conducted. Between June 2014 and October 2016, 1,471 samples with at least one NPS were analyzed, 397 of which contained cathinones...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646714/synthetic-cathinones-and-stereochemistry-s-enantiomer-of-mephedrone-reduces-anxiety-and-depressant-like-effects-in-cocaine-or-mdpv-abstinent-rats
#20
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Callum Hicks, Allen B Reitz, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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