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Lindsay Glicksberg, Sumandeep Rana, Sarah Kerrigan
PURPOSE: Synthetic cathinones are encountered in a variety of antemortem and postmortem forensic toxicology investigations. Earlier experimental studies using fortified urine have evaluated analyte, temperature and pH-dependent variables associated with their stability. The purpose of this study was to compare experimental findings with those obtained using authentic urine from cathinone users. METHODS: In this report we compare cathinone concentrations in 180 authentic unpreserved urine specimens, following known periods of refrigerated storage...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Chicora F Oliver, Steven J Simmons, Sunil U Nayak, Garry R Smith, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about how chemokine systems influence the behavioral effects of designer cathinones and psychostimulants. The chemokine CXCL12 and its principal receptor target, CXCR4, are of particular interest because CXCR4 activation enhances mesolimbic dopamine output that facilitates psychostimulant reward, reinforcement, and locomotor activation. Repeated cocaine enhances CXCL12 gene expression in the midbrain and produces conditioned place preference (CPP) that is inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Elon Richman, Nathan J Skoller, Bernice Fokum, Brandi A Burke, Chelsea A Hickerson, Robert O Cotes
: Synthetic cathinones are a class of novel psychoactive substances. α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), or "Flakka", is one of these substances. Users often present acutely psychotic or agitated. We present the case of a 20-year-old male without prior psychiatric history who was brought to the hospital by his family because of increasingly bizarre and erratic behavior after reported ingestion of Flakka. What ensued was a prolonged course of psychosis and severe catatonia. Synthetic cathinones are thought to cause catatonia in approximately 1% of cases...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Islam Amine Larabi, Marie Martin, Isabelle Etting, Pauline Penot, Nicolas Fabresse, Jean Claude Alvarez
Recently, the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has led to their wide use among clubbers and men who have sex with men (MSM) for their stimulant effects. However, their use in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has rarely been described. Herein we report a case of a 44 years-old man who was assaulted after a party. Due to late reporting of the offense, only hair (black) was sampled 15 days later and a segmental analysis was achieved to look for most DFSA agents and NPS. Twenty mg of each segment (A:0-1cm, B:1-3cm and C:3-5cm) were incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Gholamreza Naseri, Alireza Fazel, Mohammad Jafar Golalipour, Hossein Haghir, Hamid Sadeghian, Majid Mojarrad, Mahmoud Hosseini, Shokouh Shahrokhi Sabzevar, Farimah Beheshti, Ahmad Ghorbani
In recent years, abuse of synthetic cathinones, in particular, mephedrone, has increased among young adults worldwide. The study aim is to investigate the effects of mephedrone exposure during the gestational period on mice offspring outcomes, focusing on hippocampal neurotoxicity. The pregnant mice received mephedrone (50 mg/kg, sc) on a regular schedule (once daily on all days, from day 5 to 18 of gestation) or repeated schedule (thrice daily on day 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, and 18 of gestation) to simulate regular or recreational use of mephedrone, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Lucie Borovcová, Volodymyr Pauk, Karel Lemr
New psychoactive substances represent serious social and health problem as tens of new compounds are detected in Europe annually. They often show structural proximity or even isomerism which complicates their analysis. Two methods based on ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection were validated and compared. A simple dilute-filter-and-shoot protocol utilizing propan-2-ol or methanol for supercritical fluid or liquid chromatography, respectively, was proposed to detect and quantify 15 cathinones and phenethylamines in human urine...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
László I Gerecsei, András Csillag, Gergely Zachar, Lőrinc Gévai, László Simon, Árpád Dobolyi, Ágota Ádám
The member of synthetic cathinone family, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), is a frequently used psychoactive drug of abuse. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of MDPV (administered from the 8th to the 14th day of gestation) on the behavior of neonatal and adolescent mice, as well as its effect on maternal care. We measured maternal care (pup retrieval test, nest building), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (grip strength test) of dams, whereas on pups we examined locomotor activity at postnatal day 7 and day 21 (open field test) and motor coordination on day 21 (grip strength test)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Morgan Philp, Ronald Shimmon, Mark Tahtouh, Shanlin Fu
Synthetic cathinones are a large class of new psychoactive substances (NPS) that are increasingly prevalent in drug seizures made by law enforcement and other border protection agencies globally. Color testing is a presumptive identification technique indicating the presence or absence of a particular drug class using rapid and uncomplicated chemical methods. Owing to their relatively recent emergence, a color test for the specific identification of synthetic cathinones is not currently available. In this study, we introduce a protocol for the presumptive identification of synthetic cathinones, employing three aqueous reagent solutions: copper(II) nitrate, 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine) and sodium acetate...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rosa A S Couto, Luís Moreira Gonçalves, Félix Carvalho, José A Rodrigues, Cecília M P Rodrigues, M Beatriz Quinaz
Since the turn of the century, the synthesis, availability and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly reported worldwide, being currently considered a complex global phenomenon. As most NPS are not detected in routine drug screening, an extra effort has been made to develop new analytical methods for the detection of these compounds, with several approaches being successfully applied and reported in the literature. The increased traffic of NPS is often related to limited capacity for detecting and monitoring these compounds, which makes essential to explore in detail both conventional and more recent approaches to prospect novel sensing strategies and develop in-the-field sensors able to detect NPS in a time efficient manner, within a wide range of concentrations, in a variety of sample matrices such as biological samples, wastewater, powders, crystals and post-mortem specimens...
February 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Andreas Carlsson, Veronica Sandgren, Stefan Svensson, Peter Konradsson, Simon Dunne, Martin Josefsson, Johan Dahlén
The use of hyphenated analytical techniques in forensic drug screening enables simultaneous identification of a wide range of different compounds. However, the appearance of drug seizures containing new substances, mainly new psychoactive substances (NPS), is steadily increasing. These new and other already known substances often possess structural similarities and consequently they exhibit spectral data with small differences. This situation has made the criteria that ensure indubitable identification of compounds increasingly important...
February 9, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Cuihua Gu, Luke R Tembrock, Shaoyu Zheng, Zhiqiang Wu
Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paweł Mateusz Nowak, Michał Woźniakiewicz, Mariusz Mitoraj, Filip Sagan, Paweł Kościelniak
Capillary electrophoresis is often used to the determination of the acid-base dissociation/deprotonation constant (pKa), and the more advanced thermodynamic quantities describing this process (ΔH°, -TΔS°). Remarkably, it is commonly overlooked that due to insufficient dissipation of Joule heating the accuracy of parameters determined using a standard approach may be questionable. In this work we show an effective method allowing to enhance reliability of these parameters, and to estimate the magnitude of errors...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Khalid A Alsenedi, Calum Morrison
A method was developed for the screening and quantification of seven amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and 22 cathinones, including three metabolites, in urine with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. This method allowed the detection and quantification of ATS and cathinones group molecules using one procedure. A study of the stability of the drug mixtures for a period of 201 days in human urine samples under three different conditions has been carried. The ATS and cathinones include amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDEA, MDMA, PMA, PMMA, cathinone, methcathinone, 3'-position-substituted, ring-substituted, methylenedioxy-substituted, N-alkyl-substituted and pyrrolidinyl-substituted...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
J Strube, A Schaper
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the number of serious poisonings and deaths after the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). These are usually bought online: sometimes legally, often illegally or "in the grey area". OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of different NPS. Legal status concerning the New Psychoactive Substances Act (NpSG). Risk assessment of several substance groups, possible complications of acute poisonings, therapeutic recommendations...
February 5, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Li Liu, Sarah E Wheeler, Raman Venkataramanan, Jacqueline A Rymer, Anthony F Pizon, Michael J Lynch, Kenichi Tamama
Objectives: Illicit drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury-related deaths since 2008 due to the recent surge of opioid overdose by heroin, controlled prescription drugs, and nonmethadone synthetic opioids. Synthetic designer drugs such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("Spice" and "K2") continue to emerge and attract recreational users. Methods: The emergence of new drugs of abuse poses a steep challenge for clinical toxicology laboratories...
January 29, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Evangelia Liakoni, Christopher Yates, Alison M Dines, Paul I Dargan, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda, David M Wood, Florian Eyer, Matthias E Liechti
The aim of the study was to compare self-reported and analytically confirmed substance use in cases of acute recreational drug toxicity.We performed a retrospective analysis of emergency department presentations of acute recreational drug toxicity over 2 years (October 2013 to September 2015) within the European Drug Emergencies Network Plus project.Among the 10,956 cases of acute recreational drug toxicity during the study period, 831 could be included. Between the self-reported substance use and the toxicological results, the highest agreement was found for heroin (86...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sean B Dolan, Zhenglan Chen, Renqi Huang, Michael B Gatch
This study aimed to address the mechanisms and reinforcing effects of three synthetic cathinone analogs of MDMA commonly reported in "Ecstasy" formulations: methylone, butylone, and pentylone. Whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to assess the mechanism of each compound at the dopamine and serotonin transporters. Separate groups of rats were trained to discriminate methamphetamine, DOM, or MDMA from vehicle. Substitution studies were performed in each group and antagonism studies with SCH23390 were performed against each compound that produced substitution...
January 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Piotr Kuś, Joachim Kusz, Maria Książek, Ewelina Pieprzyca, Marcin Rojkiewicz
Purpose: Two compounds newly found in the seizures by drug enforcement agencies were identified and characterized by various instrumental analytical methods. Methods: The obtained powder samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometryn (LC-MSn), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Results: The two compounds were tentatively identified as 4-chloro-α-PVP and 4-MDMC by GC-MS, and LC-MS/MS...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Marcin Rojkiewicz, Piotr Kuś, Joachim Kusz, Maria Książek
Purpose: In this study, we performed identification and physicochemical characterization of two cathinone derivatives, 4-FPD and 4-MEAP, found in market-available materials. Methods: The compounds were characterized by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) in MS2 and MS3 modes, gas chromatography-MS, infrared, Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies, X-ray crystallography, differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
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