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Cancer, glucose

Anthony J Kee, Jayshan Chagan, Jeng Yie Chan, Nicole S Bryce, Christine A Lucas, Jun Zeng, Jeff Hook, Herbert Treutlein, D Ross Laybutt, Justine R Stehn, Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman
The development of novel small molecule inhibitors of the cancer-associated tropomyosin 3.1 (Tpm3.1) provides the ability to examine the metabolic function of specific actin filament populations. We have determined the ability of these anti-Tpm (ATM) compounds to regulate glucose metabolism in mice. Acute treatment (1 h) of wild-type (WT) mice with the compounds (TR100 and ATM1001) led to a decrease in glucose clearance due mainly to suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic islets...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC), a key enzyme in endogenous glucose production. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term complications of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated steatosis leads to defective autophagy that is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. We now show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency also leads to enhancement of hepatic glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) that can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
A Zarzavadjian Le Bian, C Denet, N Tabchouri, H Levard, R Besson, T Perniceni, R Costi, P Wind, D Fuks, B Gayet
BACKGROUND: Among the criteria used to diagnose metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with poor postoperative outcomes following colectomy. MS is also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticulosis, both of which may be treated with colectomy. However, the effect of MS on postoperative outcomes following laparoscopic colectomy has yet to be clarified. METHODS: In an academic tertiary hospital, data from all consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy from 2005 to 2014 were prospectively recorded and analysed...
March 14, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
Ursula J Lemberger, Claudia D Fuchs, Christian Schöfer, Andrea Bileck, Christopher Gerner, Tatjana Stojakovic, Makoto M Taketo, Michael Trauner, Gerda Egger, Christoph H Österreicher
Background: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a crucial role in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, metabolism and malignant transformation of different organs including the liver. Continuous β-catenin signaling due to somatic mutations in exon 3 of the Ctnnb1 gene is associated with different liver diseases including cancer and cholestasis. Results: Expression of a degradation resistant form of β-catenin in hepatocytes resulted in 100% mortality within 31 days after birth...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Li Wang, Jing-Jing Li, Li-Yu Guo, Peipei Li, Zhiqiang Zhao, Haisheng Zhou, Li-Jun Di
Glucose and Glutamine are two essential ingredients for cell growth. However, it remains open for investigation whether there is a general mechanism that coordinates the consumption of glucose and glutamine in cancer cells. Glutamine is mainly metabolized through the glutaminolysis pathway and our previous report indicated that CtBP increases GDH activity and promotes glutaminolysis through repressing the expression of SIRT4, a well-known mitochondrion-located factor that inhibits glutaminolysis pathway. CtBP is known to be a sensor of intracellular metabolic status; we thus hypothesized that a consensus CtBP-SIRT4-GDH axis may mediate the crosstalk between glycolysis and glutaminolysis...
March 13, 2018: Oncogenesis
A Masarykova, D Scepanovic, P Povinec, P Bires, D Lederleitner, M Pobijakova
OBJECTIVES: To analyse whether the maximum standardized uptake value of the positron emission tomography/computed tomography for radiotherapy planning was useful as a prognostic factor for tumour response and survival of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. BACKGROUND: Increased 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake by lung cancer cells, measured as the maximum standardized uptake value, has been reported to predict the biologic aggressiveness of both early and advanced non-small cell lung cancer...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Jeny Laskar, Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Mahuya Sengupta, Yashmin Choudhury
Anti-diabetic drugs are an important group of therapeutics used worldwide. Different anti-diabetic drugs lower blood glucose level by different mechanisms. In recent years, numerous investigations have been performed based on both comparative and cohort studies, in order to establish the relationship between anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy and cancer incidence as well as mortality due to cancer. Some anti-diabetic drugs have been found to exhibit anti-cancer activity while others might increase the risk for cancer...
March 13, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Kenneth A Schwartz, Mary Noel, Michele Nikolai, Howard T Chang
Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8-15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD) as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Jiangying Kuang, Lei Chen, Qin Tang, Jinhang Zhang, Yanping Li, Jinhan He
Sirt6 is one of the sirtuin family members, a kind of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase and ADP-ribose transferase enzyme. It has an important role in physiological and pathological processes, regulating aging, cancer, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and energy metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that reduced Sirt6 action is related to obesity and diabetes. Aging and overnutrition, two major risk factors for obesity and diabetes, lead to decreased Sirt6 level and function, which results in abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jue Hou, Joshua Williams, Elliot Botvinick, Eric Potma, Bruce J Tromberg
Label-free non-linear optical microscopy (NLOM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) from cofactors Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD+) is widely used for high-resolution cellular redox imaging. In this work, we combined three, label-free NLOM imaging methods to quantitatively characterize breast cancer cells and their relative invasive potential: 1) TPEF optical redox ratio (ORR = FAD+/NADH + FAD+), 2) coherent Raman scattering (CRS) of cellular lipids, and 3) second harmonic generation (SHG) of extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Research
Ramesh Khadka, Wei Jun Tian, Hao Xin, Rakshya Koirala
To review literature addressing determination of the risk factor, early diagnosis and overall survival on outcome among patient of pancreatic cancer associated with diabetes mellitus from the perspective of pancreatic surgery. To identify recent guidelines, clinical pathogenesis, pathological classification, screening methodology and advances in surgical management. It identifies those clinical and surgical variables to predict excellent prognosis in respect of life style changes, ongoing advancement in therapeutic and surgical treatment and postoperative follow up...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Mohamed A Abu El Maaty, Fadi Almouhanna, Stefan Wölfl
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) was originally identified in HL-60 cells as the vitamin D₃ upregulated protein 1, and is now known to be involved in diverse cellular processes, such as maintenance of glucose homeostasis, redox balance, and apoptosis. Besides the initial characterization, little is known about if and how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [1,25(OH)₂D₃] induces TXNIP expression. We therefore screened multiple cancerous cell lines of different tissue origins, and observed induction, repression, or no change in TXNIP expression in response to 1,25(OH)₂D₃...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mami Morita, Taku Sato, Miyuki Nomura, Yoshimi Sakamoto, Yui Inoue, Ryota Tanaka, Shigemi Ito, Koreyuki Kurosawa, Kazunori Yamaguchi, Yuki Sugiura, Hiroshi Takizaki, Yoji Yamashita, Ryuichi Katakura, Ikuro Sato, Masaaki Kawai, Yoshinori Okada, Hitomi Watanabe, Gen Kondoh, Shoko Matsumoto, Ayako Kishimoto, Miki Obata, Masaki Matsumoto, Tatsuro Fukuhara, Hozumi Motohashi, Makoto Suematsu, Masaaki Komatsu, Keiichi I Nakayama, Toshio Watanabe, Tomoyoshi Soga, Hiroshi Shima, Makoto Maemondo, Nobuhiro Tanuma
Expression of PKM2, which diverts glucose-derived carbon from catabolic to biosynthetic pathways, is a hallmark of cancer. However, PKM2 function in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we show that, when expressed rather than PKM2, the PKM isoform PKM1 exhibits a tumor-promoting function in KRASG12D -induced or carcinogen-initiated mouse models or in some human cancers. Analysis of Pkm mutant mouse lines expressing specific PKM isoforms established that PKM1 boosts tumor growth cell intrinsically. PKM1 activated glucose catabolism and stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, favoring malignancy...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Annamarie E Allen, Jason W Locasale
Altered glucose metabolism is common in cancer. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Morita et al. report new mouse models that express specific isoforms of pyruvate kinase to study glycolysis in tumors. They report several unanticipated findings that challenge current ideas in cancer metabolism.
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Yasutake Tanaka, Kiyomi Takahashi, Jun-Ichi Kato, Ai Sawazaki, Taiki Akasaka, Naoko Fujita, Toshihide Kumamaru, Yuhi Saito, Bungo Shirouchi, Masao Sato
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease spreading worldwide that has been reported to worsen the development and progression of other diseases (cancer, vascular diseases and dementia). To establish functional rice lines with anti-postprandial hyperglycaemic effects, we developed mutant rice lines, which lack one or two gene(s) related to starch synthesis, and evaluated their effects. Powder of mutant rice lines or other grains was loaded to rats fasted overnight (oral grain powder loading test). Incremental area under time-concentration curves (iAUC) were calculated with monitored blood glucose levels...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Joan Fledelius, Anne Winther-Larsen, Azza A Khalil, Karin Hjorthaug, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Meldgaard
We evaluated whether changes in18 F-Fluoro-D-Glucose (18 F-FDG)-uptake evaluated early during erlotinib treatment predict survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans from 56 NSCLC patients before and after 7-10 days of erlotinib treatment were analyzed with four different methods: Visual evaluation and percentage change in lean body mass corrected standardized uptake values (SULs): SULpeak , SULmax and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). The semi-quantitative parameters abilities to predict progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared and we found that percentage change in SULpeak , SULmax and TLG all correlated with PFS and OS with the strongest correlation found for TLG (R=0...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yuanyuan Weng, Xueyu Fan, Yongfeng Bai, Siwei Wang, Hui Huang, Huimin Yang, Jin Zhu, Feng Zhang
The metabolism of cancer cells is highly plastic. Cancer cells can change their preference for nutrient uptake under nutrient stress. Fructose is one of the most common carbohydrates in diet and its metabolism is also involved in the development and progression of tumors. GLUT5, encoded by SLC2A5 , is the specific fructose transporter in mammalian cells. In this study, we found that SLC2A5 is significantly upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients and overexpression of SLC2A5 is highly correlated with poor prognosis of LUAD patients...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Min Liu, Lingxiao Cheng, Yuchen Jin, Maomei Ruan, Shiwei Sheng, Libo Chen
The quantitative relationship between iodine and glucose metabolism in metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains unknown. Aim of the prospective study was to establish the value of18 F-FDG PET/CT in predicting131 I-avidity of metastases from DTC before the first radioiodine therapy. A total of 121 postoperative DTC patients with elevated stimulated serum thyroglobulin (ssTg) who underwent131 I adjuvant therapy or therapy after18 F-FDG PET/CT scan were enrolled. The Receiver operating characteristic curve was established to create an optimal cut-off point and evaluate the value of SUVmax for predicting131 I-avidity...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaohai Liu, Yang Liu, Jun Gao, Ming Feng, Xinjie Bao, Kan Deng, Yong Yao, Renzhi Wang
BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary adenomas, and dopamine agonists (DAs) are the primary therapy. However, some patients are resistant to DAs. Recently, metformin has been proposed as a cancer treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: This study is a retrospective review of two cases, including one patient with prolactinoma who was resistant to bromocriptine, diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance and administered metformin. Surprisingly, combining the patient's treatment with metformin decreased prolactin (PRL) levels to 12 ng/ml and had significantly decreased the size of the tumor after one year of combination therapy...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Hui Ran, Yemin Zhu, Ruyuan Deng, Qi Zhang, Xisheng Liu, Ming Feng, Jie Zhong, Shuhai Lin, Xuemei Tong, Qing Su
BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients have a higher risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the main enzyme responsible for producing monounsaturated fatty acids(MUFA) from saturated fatty acids, is frequently deregulated in both diabetes and CRC. The function and mechanism of SCD1 in metastasis of CRC and its relevance to glucose remains largely unknown. METHODS: SCD1 expression levels were analyzed in human CRC tissues and the Cancer Browser database ( https://genome-cancer...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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