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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933606/relaxin-like-peptides-in-male-reproduction-a-human-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Alexander I Agoulnik, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
The relaxin family of peptide hormones and their cognate G-protein coupled receptors are becoming physiologically well characterized in the cardiovascular system and particularly in female reproductive processes. Much less is known about the physiology and pharmacology of these peptides in male reproduction, particularly as regards the human. H2-relaxin is involved in prostate function and growth, while INSL3 is a major product of the testicular Leydig cells and in the adult appears to modulate steroidogenesis and germ cell survival...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931833/hyperglycemia-tumorigenesis-and-chronic-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Shu-Chun Chang, Wei-Chung Vivian Yang
Hyperglycemia is the most prominent sign that characterizes diabetes. Hyperglycemia favors malignant cell growth by providing energy to cancer cells. Clinical studies also showed an increased risk of diabetes being associated with different types of cancers. In addition, poorly regulated glucose metabolism in diabetic patients is often found with increased levels of chronic inflammatory markers, e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and emerging evidence has highlighted activation of the immune response in the progression and development of cancer cells...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931795/ikk%C3%AE-inibition-by-a-glucosamine-derivative-enhances-maspin-expression-in-osteosarcoma-cell-line
#3
Martina Leopizzi, Rossana Cocchiola, Edoardo Milanetti, Domenico Raimondo, Laura Politi, Cesare Giordano, Roberto Scandurra, Anna Scotto d'Abusco
Chronic inflammation has been associated to cancer development by the alteration of several inflammatory pathways, such as Nuclear Factor-κB pathway. In particular, IκB kinase α (IKKα), one of two catalytic subunit of IKK complex, has been described to be associated to cancer progression and metastasis in a number of cancers. The molecular mechanism by which IKKα affects cancer progression is not yet completely clarified, anyway an association between IKKα and the expression of Maspin (Mammary Serine Protease Inhibitor or SerpinB5), a tumor suppressor protein, has been described...
December 5, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931517/glut1-promotes-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-by-regulating-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-and-integrin-signaling-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Sunhwa Oh, Hyungjoo Kim, KeeSoo Nam, Incheol Shin
Elevated glucose levels in cancer cells can be attributed to increased levels of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins. Glut1 expression is increased in human malignant cells. To investigate alternative roles of Glut1 in breast cancer, we silenced Glut1 in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system. Glut1 silencing was verified by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Knockdown of Glut1 resulted in decreased cell proliferation, glucose uptake, migration, and invasion through modulation of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway and integrin β1/Src/FAK signaling pathways...
December 9, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931038/heterogeneity-of-glucose-metabolism-in-esophageal-cancer-measured-by-fractal-analysis-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-image-correlation-between-metabolic-heterogeneity-and-survival
#5
Toru Tochigi, Kiyohiko Shuto, Tsuguaki Kono, Gaku Ohira, Takayuki Tohma, Hisashi Gunji, Koichi Hayano, Kazuo Narushima, Takeshi Fujishiro, Toshiharu Hanaoka, Yasunori Akutsu, Shinichi Okazumi, Hisahiro Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Intratumoral heterogeneity is a well-recognized characteristic feature of cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the heterogeneity of the intratumoral glucose metabolism using fractal analysis, and evaluate its prognostic value in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies of 79 patients who received curative surgery were evaluated. FDG-PET images were analyzed using fractal analysis software, where differential box-counting method was employed to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) of the tumor lesion...
December 9, 2016: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930524/dietary-protein-and-fat-intake-in-relation-to-risk-of-colorectal-adenoma-in-korean
#6
Sun Young Yang, Young Sun Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Jueun Seol, Ji Hyun Song, Goh Eun Chung, Jeong Yoon Yim, Sun Hee Lim, Joo Sung Kim
Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#7
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928469/mechanisms-underlying-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-accumulation-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Kenji Kawada, Masayoshi Iwamoto, Yoshiharu Sakai
Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a diagnostic tool to evaluate metabolic activity by measuring accumulation of FDG, an analogue of glucose, and has been widely used for detecting small tumors, monitoring treatment response and predicting patients' prognosis in a variety of cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of FDG accumulation into tumors remains to be investigated. It is well-known that most cancers are metabolically active with elevated glucose metabolism, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect...
November 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928466/metabolic-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-cancer-pairing-lipid-metabolism-with-glycolysis
#9
EDITORIAL
Sandi A Kwee, John Lim
The limitations of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in detecting some cancers has prompted a longstanding search for other positron emission tomography (PET) tracers to complement the imaging of glycolysis in oncology, with much attention paid to lipogenesis based on observations that the production of various lipid and lipid-containing compounds is increased in most cancers. Radiolabeled analogs of choline and acetate have now been used as oncologic PET probes for over a decade, showing convincingly improved detection sensitivity over FDG for certain cancers...
November 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926487/egf-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stem-like-cell-properties-in-human-oral-cancer-cells-via-promoting-warburg-effect
#10
Qilin Xu, Qunzhou Zhang, Yasutaka Ishida, Souren Hajjar, Xudong Tang, Haoran Shi, Chi V Dang, Anh D Le
"Warburg effect", the enhanced glycolysis or aerobic glycolysis, confers cancer cells the ability to survive and proliferate even under stressed conditions. In this study, we explored the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in orchestrating Warburg effect, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and the acquisition of cancer stem-like cell properties in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Our results showed that EGF induces EMT process in OSCC cells, which correlates with the acquisition of cancer stem-like properties, including the enrichment of CD44+/CD24- population of cancer cells and an increased expression of CSC-related genes, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and Bmi-1...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925323/synthesis-binding-properties-and-differences-on-cell-uptake-of-g-quadruplex-ligands-based-on-carbohydrate-naphthalene-diimide-conjugates
#11
Matilde Arevalo, Filippo Doria, Efres Belmonte-Reche, Aurore De Rache, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Ricardo Lucas, Eva Falomir, Miguel Carda, Jose María Pérez-Victoria, Jean-Louis Mergny, Mauro Freccero, Juan Carlos Morales
G-quadruplex (G4) are currently being explored as therapeutic targets in cancer and other pathologies. We have synthesized six carbohydrate naphthalene diimide conjugates (carb-NDIs) as G4 ligands to investigate their potential selectivity on G4 binding and on cell penetration. Carb-NDIs have shown certain selectivity for G4 structures against DNA duplexes but the different sugar moieties did not induce a preference for a specific G4 topology. Interestingly, when monosaccharides were attached through a short ethylene linker to the NDI scaffold their cellular uptake was 2-3 fold more efficient than when the sugar was directly attached through its anomeric position...
December 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925010/the-effects-of-a-simple-method-for-cryopreservation-and-thawing-procedures-on-cord-blood-derived-dc-based-esophageal-carcinoma-vaccine
#12
J Yu, L Xie, S Chen, J Zhang, G Guo, B Chen
BACKGROUND: Producing sufficient numbers of DCs at one time point and subsequently cryopreserving the generated DCs in ready-for-use aliquots for clinical application is useful in cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of a simplified cryopreservation method and thawing procedures acting on the biological characteristics and specific cytotoxic activity of cord blood derived DC-based esophageal carcinoma vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from cord blood using CD34+ Progenitor Cell Isolation Kit by magnetic cell sorting system (MACS)...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924922/metabolic-adaptation-to-nutritional-stress-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#13
Masaaki Miyo, Masamitsu Konno, Naohiro Nishida, Toshinori Sueda, Kozo Noguchi, Hidetoshi Matsui, Hugh Colvin, Koichi Kawamoto, Jun Koseki, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Noriko Gotoh, Fumio Matsuda, Taroh Satoh, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Hiroshi Shimizu, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii
Tumor cells respond to their microenvironment, which can include hypoxia and malnutrition, and adapt their metabolism to survive and grow. Some oncogenes are associated with cancer metabolism via regulation of the related enzymes or transporters. However, the importance of metabolism and precise metabolic effects of oncogenes in colorectal cancer remain unclear. We found that colorectal cancer cells survived under the condition of glucose depletion, and their resistance to such conditions depended on genomic alterations rather than on KRAS mutation alone...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924298/the-sequence-spectrum-of-frameshift-reversions-obtained-with-a-novel-adaptive-mutation-assay-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Erich Heidenreich, Ferdinand Steinboeck
Research on the mechanisms of adaptive mutagenesis in resting, i.e. non-replicating cells relies on appropriate mutation assays. Here we provide a novel procedure for the detection of frameshift-reverting mutations in yeast. Proliferation of non-reverted cells in this assay is suppressed by the lack of a fermentable carbon source. The test allele was constructed in a way that the reversions mimic microsatellite instability, a condition often found in cancer cells. We show the cell numbers during these starvation conditions and provide a DNA sequence spectrum of a representative set of revertants...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923829/glucose-metabolism-reprogrammed-by-overexpression-of-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-promotes-pancreatic-tumor-growth
#15
Haseeb Zubair, Shafquat Azim, Sanjeev Kumar Srivastava, Aamir Ahmad, Arun Bhardwaj, Mohammad Aslam Khan, Girijesh Kumar Patel, Sumit Arora, James Elliot Carter, Seema Singh, Ajay Pratap Singh
Aberrant expression of the kinase IKKε in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we define a pathobiologic function for IKKε in reprogramming glucose metabolism and driving progression in PDAC. Silencing IKKε in PDAC cells, which overexpressed it endogenously, was sufficient to reduce malignant cell growth, clonogenic potential, glucose consumption, lactate secretion, and expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism, without impacting the basal oxygen consumption rate...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923774/mechanistic-insights-into-selective-killing-of-oxphos-dependent-cancer-cells-by-arctigenin
#16
Karin Brecht, Virginie Riebel, Philippe Couttet, Franziska Paech, Armin Wolf, Salah-Dine Chibout, Francois Pognan, Stephan Krähenbühl, Marianne Uteng
Arctigenin has previously been identified as a potential anti-tumor treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanism of how arctigenin kills cancer cells is not fully understood. In the present work we studied arctigenin's mechanism of toxicity in the human pancreatic cell line, Panc-1, with special emphasis on the mitochondria. A comparison of Panc-1 cells cultured in glucose versus galactose medium was applied, allowing assessments of effects in glycolytic versus oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent Panc-1 cells...
December 3, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922662/metabolic-reprogramming-and-ampk%C3%AE-1-pathway-activation-by-caulerpin-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#17
Hua Yu, Huiqin Zhang, Mingjun Dong, Zhou Wu, Zhonglei Shen, Yangyang Xie, Zhenfang Kong, Xiaoyu Dai, Binbin Xu
Caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunctions. In this study, the anticancer property of caulerpin was assessed in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that caulerpin inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and facilitated an early intervention of the mitochondrial function, via inhibiting mitochondrial complex I, accompanied by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and a surge of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922540/prognostic-value-of-quantitative-pet-ct-in-patients-with-a-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-and-another-primary-cancer
#18
Xuee Zhu, Chuanhong Liao, Bill C Penney, Feng Li, Mark K Ferguson, Cassie A Simon, Tianming Wu, Haiyan Liu, Yonglin Pu
OBJECTIVE: The staging and management of patients with newly diagnosed nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the setting of recently diagnosed other (metachronous or synchronous) primary cancer are challenging. This retrospective cohort study was carried out to test our hypothesis that baseline 2-deoxy-2-[F]fluoro-D-glucose (F-FDG) PET/CT parameters, including whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTVWB), total lesion glycolysis (TLGWB), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmaxWB), are associated with the overall survival (OS) of such patients...
December 2, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921518/increased-radio-toxicity-in-two-cancerous-cell-lines-irradiated-by-low-and-high-energy-photons-in-the-presence-of-thio-glucose-bound-gold-nanoparticles
#19
Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Atefeh Rostami, Seyed Amir Aledavood, Maryam Moghadam Matin, Ameneh Sazgarnia
PURPOSE: Gold nanoparticles modified by thio-glucose have been believed to increase the toxicity of radiotherapy in human malignant cells. We report the effect of thio-glucose-bound gold nanoparticles (Glu-G nanoparticles), 16 nm in size, on two human lung (QU-DB) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines combined with kilo and megavoltage X-rays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The shape and surface characteristics, the size distribution and light absorption spectrum of the prepared nanoparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometry, respectively...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921045/clinical-scenario-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Swantje Brede, Georg Serfling, Johanna Klement, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert
The term metabolic syndrome (MeS) refers to a cluster of associated symptoms composed of impaired fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. MeS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. The increased amount of visceral fat together with a chronic inflammatory state predisposes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia are associated with fatty liver disease. In addition, MeS is linked to non-cardiovascular diseases such as cancer as well as psychiatric or endocrine disorders...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
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