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Cancer, metabolism

Haseeb Khaliq, Zhong Juming, Peng Ke-Mei
Boron is an essential mineral that plays an important role in several biological processes. Boron is required for growth of plants, animals, and humans. There are increasing evidences of this nutrient showing a variety of pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects to the modulation of different body systems. In the past few years, the trials showed disease-related polymorphisms of boron in different species, which has drawn attention of scientists to the significance of boron to health...
March 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
H Zhao, J Wang, D Fang, O Lee, R T Chatterton, V Stearns, S A Khan, S E Bulun
Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal but not in premenopausal women. Many factors may be responsible for this difference. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the genes related to the AMPK pathway, inflammation, and estrogen actions are affected by adiposity in breast tissue with the objective of identifying differences that may explain the different breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Random fine needle aspirates (rFNAs) of breast tissue were collected from 57 premenopausal and 55 postmenopausal women and were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese...
March 15, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Milad Moloudizargari, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Ian M Adcock, Frank A Redegeld, Johan Garssen
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have well established anti-cancer properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are among this biologically active family of macromolecules for which various anti-cancer effects have been explained. These PUFAs have a high safety profile and can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo , following a partially selective manner. They also increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by increasing the sensitivity of different cell lines to specific anti-neoplastic drugs...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Fariba Tayyari, G A Nagana Gowda, Olufunmilayo F Olopade, Richard Berg, Howard H Yang, Maxwell P Lee, Wilfred F Ngwa, Suresh K Mittal, Daniel Raftery, Sulma I Mohammed
Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease with variable pathophysiology and biology, is classified into four major subtypes. While hormonal- and antibody-targeted therapies are effective in the patients with luminal and HER-2 subtypes, the patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype do not benefit from these therapies. The incidence rates of TNBC subtype are higher in African-American women, and the evidence indicates that these women have worse prognosis compared to women of European descent. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear but are often attributed to TNBC biology...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Oscar Illescas, Juan C Gomez-Verjan, Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Tzipe Govezensky, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa
Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a role in several metabolic and inflammatory processes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -173 G/C (rs755622) on MIF gene has been associated with numerous diseases, such as arthritis and cancer. However, most of the reports concerning the association of MIF with these and other pathologies are inconsistent and remain quite controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis from 96 case-control studies on -173 G/C MIF SNP and stratified the data according to the subjects geographic localization or the disease pathophysiology, in order to determine a more meaningful significance to this SNP...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Marco A Moro-García, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Rebeca Alonso-Arias
T lymphocytes, from their first encounter with their specific antigen as naïve cell until the last stages of their differentiation, in a replicative state of senescence, go through a series of phases. In several of these stages, T lymphocytes are subjected to exponential growth in successive encounters with the same antigen. This entire process occurs throughout the life of a human individual and, earlier, in patients with chronic infections/pathologies through inflammatory mediators, first acutely and later in a chronic form...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marija Adzic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic
CD73 is a bifunctional glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein which functions as ecto-5'-nucleotidase and a membrane receptor for extracellular matrix protein (ECM). A large body of evidence demonstrates a critical involvement of altered purine metabolism and particularly, increased expression of CD73 in a number of human disorders, including cancer and immunodeficiency. Massive up-regulation of CD73 was also found in reactive astrocytes in several experimental models of human neuropathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Rokaya El Ansari, Madeleine L Craze, Maria Diez-Rodriguez, Christopher C Nolan, Ian O Ellis, Emad A Rakha, Andrew R Green
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by variant biology, metabolic activity and patient outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the biological and prognostic value of the membrane solute carrier, SLC3A2 in BC with emphasis on the intrinsic molecular subtypes. SLC3A2 was assessed at the genomic level, using METABRIC data (n = 1980), and at the proteomic level, using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray (TMA) sections constructed from a large well-characterised primary BC cohort (n = 2500)...
March 16, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Anthony J Kee, Jayshan Chagan, Jeng Yie Chan, Nicole S Bryce, Christine A Lucas, Jun Zeng, Jeff Hook, Herbert Treutlein, D Ross Laybutt, Justine R Stehn, Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman
The development of novel small molecule inhibitors of the cancer-associated tropomyosin 3.1 (Tpm3.1) provides the ability to examine the metabolic function of specific actin filament populations. We have determined the ability of these anti-Tpm (ATM) compounds to regulate glucose metabolism in mice. Acute treatment (1 h) of wild-type (WT) mice with the compounds (TR100 and ATM1001) led to a decrease in glucose clearance due mainly to suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic islets...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hyeon Jeong Lee, Jie Li, Renee E Vickman, Junjie Li, Rui Liu, Abigail Durkes, Bennett D Elzey, Shuhua Yue, Xiaoqi Liu, Timothy L Ratliff, Ji-Xin Cheng
Dysregulation of cholesterol is a common characteristic of human cancers including prostate cancer. This study observed an aberrant accumulation of cholesteryl ester in metastatic lesions using Raman spectroscopic analysis of lipid droplets in human prostate cancer patient tissues. Inhibition of cholesterol esterification in prostate cancer cells significantly suppresses the development and growth of metastatic cancer lesions in both orthotopic and intra-cardiac injection mouse models. Gene expression profiling reveals that cholesteryl ester depletion suppresses the metastatic potential through upregulation of multiple regulators that negatively impact metastasis...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC), a key enzyme in endogenous glucose production. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term complications of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated steatosis leads to defective autophagy that is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. We now show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency also leads to enhancement of hepatic glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) that can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
G Vázquez-Gómez, L Rocha-Zavaleta, M Rodríguez-Sosa, P Petrosyan, J Rubio-Lightbourn
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), the most extensively studied carcinogen in cigarette smoke, has been regarded as a critical mediator of lung cancer. It is known that B[a]P-mediated Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activation stimulates the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling cascade in different cell models. MAPK pathway disturbances drive alterations in cellular processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and the disturbances may also modify the AhR pathway itself. However, MAPK involvement in B[a]P metabolic activation and toxicity in lung tissues is not well understood...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Siyabulela S B N Ntuli, Wentzel C A Gelderblom, David R Katerere
BACKGROUND: Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br is endemic to Southern Africa where it has been traditionally used for cancer and diabetes. In recent times it has been marketed for its reputed (but not proven) anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-HIV properties. Little is known about the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential of extracts and common marker compounds of Sutherlandia frutescens. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the putative efficacy and possible long-term adverse effects of using this herb...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are present in most individuals with cancer where they inhibit adaptive and innate antitumor immunity and are an obstacle to cancer immunotherapies. Chronic inflammation is characteristic of adipose tissue and is a risk factor for the onset and progression of cancer in obese individuals. Because MDSC accumulate in response to inflammation, it has been hypothesized that one of the mechanisms by which obesity promotes malignancy is through the induction of MDSC. This article reviews the data supporting this hypothesis, the role of leptin and fatty acid metabolism in the induction of MDSC, and the surprising finding that although MDSC promote tumor progression, they are protective against some of the metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Feng Peng, Yingzi Liu, Chenjie He, Yi Kong, Qianying Ouyang, Xiaonv Xie, Tong Liu, Zhaoqian Liu, Jingbo Peng
Lung cancer is the common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment for lung cancer. Platinum sensitivity is a major possibility for effective cancer treatment. In this study, several potential biomarkers were identified for evaluating and predicting the response to platinum-based chemotherapy. LC-MS-based metabolomics was performed on plasma samples from 43 lung cancer patients with different chemotherapy efficacy. By combing multivariate statistical analysis, pathway analysis with correlation analysis, 8 potential biomarkers were significantly associated with platinum chemotherapy response...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Wenge Chen, Yunlong Cheng, Jianzhong Chen, Jiahang Chen, Kai Jiang, Yuyang Zhou, Lee Jia
Mifepristone (RU486) is developed originally as a contraceptive used by hundreds of millions of women world-wide, and also reported as a safe and long-term psychotic depressant, or as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent used by both sexes. In our preliminary study aimed at developing mifepristone as a cancer metastatic chemopreventive, we coincidentally observed that blood mifepristone concentrations in female rats seem to be higher than those in male ones post administration. To substantiate if the pharmacokinetic differences between sexes exist, we established a fast UPLC-MS/MS method to determine mifepristone concentrations in plasma, and analyzed blood concentrations of mifepristone over time in rats and dogs of both sexes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
David Vrana, Viktor Hlavac, Veronika Brynychova, Radka Vaclavikova, Cestmir Neoral, Jiri Vrba, Rene Aujesky, Marcel Matzenauer, Bohuslav Melichar, Pavel Soucek
The prognosis of esophageal cancer (EC) is poor, despite considerable effort of both experimental scientists and clinicians. The tri-modality treatment consisting of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has remained the gold standard over decades, unfortunately, without significant progress in recent years. Suitable prognostic factors indicating which patients will benefit from this tri-modality treatment are missing. Some patients rapidly progress on the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, which is thus useless and sometimes even harmful...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Karolina Pierzynowska, Lidia Gaffke, Zuzanna Cyske, Michał Puchalski, Estera Rintz, Michał Bartkowski, Marta Osiadły, Michał Pierzynowski, Jagoda Mantej, Ewa Piotrowska, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
Autophagy is a process of degradation of macromolecules in the cytoplasm, particularly proteins of a long half-life, as well as whole organelles, in eukaryotic cells. Lysosomes play crucial roles during this degradation. Autophagy is a phylogenetically old, and evolutionarily conserved phenomenon which occurs in all eukaryotic cells. It can be found in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, insect Drosophila melanogaster, and mammals, including humans. Its high importance for cell physiology has been recognized, and in fact, dysfunctions causing impaired autophagy are associated with many severe disorders, including cancer and metabolic brain diseases...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
A Zarzavadjian Le Bian, C Denet, N Tabchouri, H Levard, R Besson, T Perniceni, R Costi, P Wind, D Fuks, B Gayet
BACKGROUND: Among the criteria used to diagnose metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with poor postoperative outcomes following colectomy. MS is also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticulosis, both of which may be treated with colectomy. However, the effect of MS on postoperative outcomes following laparoscopic colectomy has yet to be clarified. METHODS: In an academic tertiary hospital, data from all consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy from 2005 to 2014 were prospectively recorded and analysed...
March 14, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
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