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Cancer, metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906095/resveratrol-and-acetyl-resveratrol-modulate-activity-of-vegf-and-il-8-in-ovarian-cancer-cell-aggregates-via-attenuation-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-protein
#1
Alexandria B Tino, Kenny Chitcholtan, Peter H Sykes, Ashley Garrill
BACKGROUND: Key features of advanced ovarian cancer include metastasis via cell clusters in the abdominal cavity and increased chemoresistance. Resveratrol and derivatives of resveratrol have been shown to have antitumour properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol and acetyl-resveratrol on 3D cell aggregates of ovarian cancer, and establish if NF-κB signalling may be a potential target. METHODS: Poly-HEMA coated wells were used to produce 3D aggregates of two ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV-3 and OVCAR-5...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905651/-current-evidence-on-health-benefits-of-the-mediterranean-diet
#2
Catalina Dussaillant, Guadalupe Echeverría, Inés Urquiaga, Nicolás Velasco, Attilio Rigotti
The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a functional diet with an increasing amount of scientific evidence that supports its beneficial effects in human health. Several observational cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies show an association between this diet and a lower prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases as well as a reduced overall mortality. Additionally, clinical interventional studies, particularly the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) initiative, have shown, with high quality scientific evidence, that a Mediterranean diet -supplemented either with olive oil or nuts- can lower by 30% the incidence of cardiovascular disease, reverse the metabolic syndrome, and prevent the development of diabetes and aging-related cognitive decline...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904769/disruption-of-actin-filaments-and-suppression-of-pancreatic-cancer-cell-viability-and-migration-following-treatment-with-polyisoprenylated-cysteinyl-amides
#3
Augustine T Nkembo, Olufisayo Salako, Rosemary A Poku, Felix Amissah, Elizabeth Ntantie, Hernan Flores-Rozas, Nazarius S Lamango
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by K-Ras mutations in over 90% of the cases. The mutations make the tumors aggressive and resistant to current therapies resulting in very poor prognoses. Valiant efforts to drug mutant K-Ras and related proteins for the treatment of cancers with Ras mutations have been elusive. The need thus persists for therapies to target and suppress the hyperactive K-Ras mutant proteins to normal levels of activity. Polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors (PCAIs) of polyisoprenylated methylated protein methyl esterase (PMPMEase) were designed to disrupt polyisoprenylated protein metabolism and/or functions...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904713/farnesoid-x-receptor-ligand-cdca-suppresses-human-prostate-cancer-cells-growth-by-inhibiting-lipid-metabolism-via-targeting-sterol-response-element-binding-protein-1
#4
Nian Liu, Jun Zhao, Jinguo Wang, Haolin Teng, Yaowen Fu, Hang Yuan
AIM: A wealth of studies have demonstrated that abnormal cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) development. Therefore, manipulating lipid metabolism is a potential PCa therapy strategy. In this study, our goal is to investigate the role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in regulating the proliferation and lipid metabolism of human PCa cells following its ligand chenodexycholic acid (CDCA) treatment. METHODS: Oil Red O was used to stain lipid contents in PCa cells, and siRNA knockdown was performed to deplete FXR expression...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904682/targeting-cancer-cell-metabolism-the-combination-of-metformin-and-2-deoxyglucose-regulates-apoptosis-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-p38-mapk-jnk-signaling-pathway
#5
Jie Zhu, Ya Zheng, Haiyan Zhang, Hong Sun
Targeting cancer cell metabolism is a new promising strategy to fight cancer. Metformin, a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, exerts anti-cancer and anti-proliferative action. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), a glucose analog, works as a competitive inhibitor of glycolysis. In this study, we show for the first time that metformin in combination with 2-DG inhibited growth, migration, invasion and induced cell cycle arrest of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, metformin and 2-DG could efficiently induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, which was achieved by activating p38 MAPK and JNK pathways...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903896/img-abc-new-features-for-bacterial-secondary-metabolism-analysis-and-targeted-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-discovery-in-thousands-of-microbial-genomes
#6
Michalis Hadjithomas, I-Min A Chen, Ken Chu, Jinghua Huang, Anna Ratner, Krishna Palaniappan, Evan Andersen, Victor Markowitz, Nikos C Kyrpides, Natalia N Ivanova
Secondary metabolites produced by microbes have diverse biological functions, which makes them a great potential source of biotechnologically relevant compounds with antimicrobial, anti-cancer and other activities. The proteins needed to synthesize these natural products are often encoded by clusters of co-located genes called biosynthetic gene clusters (BCs). In order to advance the exploration of microbial secondary metabolism, we developed the largest publically available database of experimentally verified and predicted BCs, the Integrated Microbial Genomes Atlas of Biosynthetic gene Clusters (IMG-ABC) (https://img...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903893/identification-of-a-novel-k311-ubiquitination-site-critical-for-androgen-receptor-transcriptional-activity
#7
Urszula L McClurg, David M W Cork, Steven Darby, Claudia A Ryan-Munden, Sirintra Nakjang, Leticia Mendes Côrtes, Achim Treumann, Luke Gaughan, Craig N Robson
The androgen receptor (AR) is the main driver of prostate cancer (PC) development and progression, and the primary therapeutic target in PC. To date, two functional ubiquitination sites have been identified on AR, both located in its C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD). Recent reports highlight the emergence of AR splice variants lacking the LBD that can arise during disease progression and contribute to castrate resistance. Here, we report a novel N-terminal ubiquitination site at lysine 311. Ubiquitination of this site plays a role in AR stability and is critical for its transcriptional activity...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903865/imaging-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-human-skin-reveals-depth-dependent-hypoxia-and-malignant-potential-for-diagnosis
#8
Dimitra Pouli, Mihaela Balu, Carlo A Alonzo, Zhiyi Liu, Kyle P Quinn, Francisca Rius-Diaz, Ronald M Harris, Kristen M Kelly, Bruce J Tromberg, Irene Georgakoudi
Active changes in mitochondrial structure and organization facilitate cellular homeostasis. Because aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are implicated in a variety of human diseases, their assessment is potentially useful for diagnosis, therapy, and disease monitoring. Because current techniques for evaluating mitochondrial morphology are invasive or necessitate mitochondria-specific dyes, their clinical translation is limited. We report that mitochondrial dynamics can be monitored in vivo, within intact human skin by relying entirely on endogenous two-photon-excited fluorescence from the reduced metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903453/repair-of-8-oxo-7-8-dihydroguanine-in-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-cells-properties-and-biological-roles-of-the-fpg-and-ogg1-dna-n-glycosylases
#9
Serge Boiteux, Franck Coste, Bertrand Castaing
Oxidatively damaged DNA results from the attack of sugar and base moieties by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed as byproducts of normal cell metabolism and during exposure to endogenous or exogenous chemical or physical agents. Guanine, having the lowest redox potential, is the DNA base the most susceptible to oxidation, yielding products such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2-6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG). In DNA, 8-oxoG was shown to be mutagenic yielding GC to TA transversions upon incorporation of dAMP opposite this lesion by replicative DNA polymerases...
November 26, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903435/lack-of-effect-of-selected-sunscreens-applied-on-ex-vivo-human-skin-for-5-methyl-aminolevulinic-acid-penetration-and-protoporphyrin-ix-photoactivation
#10
Hanan Osman-Ponchet, Karine Sevin, Alexandre Gaborit, Magali Kouidhi, Johanna Hanaizi, Pierre Comby, Bernard Ruty, Guy Bouvier
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers. Methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which accumulates in the skin lesion and which generates a painful photochemical toxic reaction upon red light exposure. PDT using daylight (DL) exposure is now used to reduce pain and subjects are advised to protect the areas with sunscreen. This work investigated the effect of sunscreen on MAL penetration and PpIX photoactivation in ex vivo human skin...
November 26, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903235/erythropoietin-enhances-the-cytotoxic-effect-of-hydrogen-peroxide-on-colon-cancer-cells
#11
Tankiewicz-Kwedlo Anna, Hermanowicz Justyna Magdalena, Surażynski Arkadiusz, Kwedlo Wojciech, Rożkiewicz Dariusz, Pawlak Krystyna, Domaniewski Tomasz, Pawlak Dariusz
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients treated with alkylating agents and radiotherapy are exposed to high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissues. ROS can involve superoxide free radicals, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide. It is well documented that increased exposure to oxygen through a high metabolic rate could lead to a shortened life span. Ionizing radiation, use of drugs and the development of cancer can lead to cancer-induced anemia. Recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) supplementation is one of the methods for treating anemia...
November 15, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903155/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-tumor-microenvironment-and-inflammation
#12
Neil M Iyengar, Ayca Gucalp, Andrew J Dannenberg, Clifford A Hudis
Purpose There is growing evidence that inflammation is a central and reversible mechanism through which obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Methods We review recent findings regarding obesity-associated alterations in the microenvironment and the local and systemic mechanisms through which these changes support tumor growth. Results Locally, hyperadiposity is associated with altered adipose tissue function, adipocyte death, and chronic low-grade inflammation. Most individuals who are obese harbor inflamed adipose tissue, which resembles chronically injured tissue, with immune cell infiltration and remodeling...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903154/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-cancer-the-role-of-pharmacotherapy
#13
Gadi Shlomai, Brian Neel, Derek LeRoith, Emily Jane Gallagher
Purpose Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Epidemiologic data suggest that T2DM is associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The purpose of this review is to discuss the links between diabetes and cancer, the effects of various antidiabetic medications on cancer incidence and mortality, and the effects of anticancer therapies on diabetes. Design This study is a review of preclinical and clinical data regarding the effects of antidiabetic medications on cancer incidence and mortality and the effects of anticancer therapies on glucose homeostasis...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#14
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903146/association-of-obesity-related-metabolic-disruptions-with-cancer-risk-and-outcome
#15
Ana Elisa Lohmann, Pamela J Goodwin, Rowan T Chlebowski, Kathy Pan, Vuk Stambolic, Ryan J O Dowling
Over the past 40 years, the prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically worldwide, which raises significant concerns regarding public health and the associated economic burden. Obesity is a major risk factor for several conditions including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and recent evidence suggests that obesity negatively affects cancer risk and outcome. The relationship between obesity and cancer is complex and involves multiple factors both at the systemic and cellular level. Indeed, disruptions in insulin metabolism, adipokines, inflammation, and sex hormones all contribute to the adverse effects of obesity in cancer development and progression...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902968/selenite-inhibits-glutamine-metabolism-and-induces-apoptosis-by-regulating-gls1-protein-degradation-via-apc-c-cdh1-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#16
Junzhang Zhao, Rui Zhou, Kaiyuan Hui, Yang Yang, QiuYue Zhang, Yali Ci, Lei Shi, Caimin Xu, Fang Huang, Yu Hu
Glutaminolysis is important for metabolism and biosynthesis of cancer cells, and GLS is essential in the process. Selenite is widely regarded as a chemopreventive agent against cancer risk. Emerging evidence suggests that it also has chemotherapeutic potential in various cancer types, but the mechanism remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that supranutritional dose of selenite suppresses glutaminolysis by promoting GLS1 protein degradation and apoptosis. Mechanistically, selenite promotes association of APC/C-CDH1 with GLS1 and leads to GLS1 degradation by ubiquitination, this process is related to induction of PTEN expression...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902459/anti-tumor-activity-of-metformin-from-metabolic-and-epigenetic-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Xilan Yu, Wuxiang Mao, Yansheng Zhai, Chong Tong, Min Liu, Lixin Ma, Xiaolan Yu, Shanshan Li
Metformin has been used to treat type 2 diabetes for over 50 years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that metformin treatment reduces cancer incidence in diabetes patients. Due to its potential as an anti-cancer agent and its low cost, metformin has gained intense research interest. Its traditional anti-cancer mechanisms involve both indirect and direct insulin-dependent pathways. Here, we discussed the anti-tumor mechanism of metformin from the aspects of cell metabolism and epigenetic modifications...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902422/microbiota-dysbiosis-a-new-piece-in-the-understanding-of-carcinogenesis-puzzle
#18
Valeria García-Castillo, Enrique Sanhueza, Eileen McNerney, Sergio A Onate, Apolinaria García
Cancer is defined as an uncontrolled proliferation of malignant cells in a host and it is one of the main causes of death worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in its development and the involvement of microbial communities has also recently been recognized. The close relationship that characterizes the colonization of human commensal communities involves health risks particularly when the homeostasis is disturbed. It has been hypothesized that this process may lead to cancer by modulating the inflammatory response of the host, by the production of carcinogenic metabolic products or by the production of toxins which disrupt the cell cycle...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901478/efficacy-and-safety-of-angiogenesis-inhibitors-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Heng Lin, Lina Li, Shuimei Luo, Sijing Zhou, Ruifen Shen, Haitao Yang, Huijuan Chen, Xianhe Xie
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of angiogenesis inhibitors for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). METHODS: Totally, 16 controlled trials (1898 cases) involving angiogenesis inhibitors plus chemotherapy (ACT group) versus chemotherapy alone group (CT group) were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Wanfang Data before March 2016. RESULTS: Compared with CT group, ACT group obtained a significant benefit on objective response rate (ORR) (RR = 1...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900757/unsuspected-axillary-lymph-node-metastasis-of-nasopharyngeal-and-cervical-cancer-on-18fdg-pet-ct-a-case-report
#20
Sungmin Kang
Axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) from cancer except breast cancer is rare. Whole body 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) that simultaneously offers anatomic and metabolic information is widely used and has become an effective modality in many clinical fields, especially oncology, and also may detect an unexpected metastasis. We report two cases of ALMN of nasopharyngeal and cervical cancer that was detected on whole body PET/CT.
2016: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
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