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Hallmarks, cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718681/partial-substitution-of-glucose-with-xylitol-suppressed-the-glycolysis-and-selectively-inhibited-the-proliferation-of-oral-cancer-cells
#1
Dunyaporn Trachootham, Pimjai Chingsuwanrote, Penkhair Yoosadiang, Duangsamon Mekkriangkrai, Tanapat Ratchawong, Nicha Buraphacheep, Siripa Kijanukul, Sumrit Saekhow, Orawan Pongpitchayadej, Kittituch Vongvachvasin, Paknisa Sittikornpaiboon, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
Suitable diet for cancer survivors remains an unresolved challenge. Increased glucose utilization is a hallmark of various cancers. Therefore, alternative carbohydrate supplying normal tissue but retarding cancer growth is needed. This study investigated the effect of sugar alcohols on the proliferation of oral cancer cells compared to nontransformed cells and explored the mechanism. Six oral squamous cell carcinoma (CAL-27, FaDu, SCC4, SCC9, SCC15, and SCC25) and one nontransformed oral keratinocyte (OKF6/TERT2) lines were cultured in media containing 1 mg/ml glucose and 5...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718437/mutations-cancer-and-the-telomere-length-paradox
#2
REVIEW
Abraham Aviv, James J Anderson, Jerry W Shay
Individuals with short telomeres should be at increased risk for cancer, since short telomeres lead to genomic instability - a hallmark of cancer. However, individuals with long telomeres also display an increased risk for major cancers, thus creating a cancer-telomere length (TL) paradox. The two-stage clonal expansion model we propose is based on the thesis that a series of mutational hits (1st Hit) at the stem-cell level generates a clone with replicative advantage. A series of additional mutational hits (2nd Hit) transforms the expanding clone into cancer...
April 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718417/exercise-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Ana Ruiz-Casado, Asunción Martín-Ruiz, Laura M Pérez, Mariano Provencio, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Alejandro Lucia
A wealth of evidence supports an association between regular physical activity (PA) and decreased risk for cancer and cancer mortality. This is clearly an important issue given the growing worldwide incidence of both cancer and physical inactivity. Of further importance is unraveling the biological mechanisms that explain the potential preventive effects of PA against the development of cancer, as this might improve our understanding of cancer biology and assist researchers exploring novel treatment strategies...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718407/cell-and-tissue-biology-paves-a-path-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#4
Michael E Todhunter, Mark A LaBarge
We hypothesize that breast cancer susceptibility stems from interactions between difficult-to-modify cultural and dietary habits and aging processes that are modifiable. We propose a pathway to prevention that uses human organotypic systems that recapitulate hallmarks of aging in order to better understand and to modulate the biological consequences of aging in breast.
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718406/targeting-hypoxia-inducible-factors-for-antiangiogenic-cancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Sergio Rey, Luana Schito, Bradly G Wouters, Scott Eliasof, Robert S Kerbel
Hypoxia (low O2) is a pathobiological hallmark of solid cancers, resulting from the imbalance between cellular O2 consumption and availability. Hypoxic cancer cells (CCs) stimulate blood vessel sprouting (angiogenesis), aimed at restoring O2 delivery to the expanding tumor masses through the activation of a transcriptional program mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Here, we review recent data suggesting that the efficacy of antiangiogenic (AA) therapies is limited in some circumstances by HIF-dependent compensatory responses to increased intratumoral hypoxia...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716887/cell-cell-contact-and-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling
#6
Christine Chiasson-MacKenzie, Andrea I McClatchey
The behavior of cells within tissues is governed by the activities of adhesion receptors that provide spatial cues and transmit forces through intercellular junctions, and by growth-factor receptors, particularly receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), that respond to biochemical signals from the environment. Coordination of these two activities is essential for the patterning and polarized migration of cells during morphogenesis and for homeostasis in mature tissues; loss of this coordination is a hallmark of developing cancer and driver of metastatic progression...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716524/the-e3-ligase-hectd3-promotes-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-escc-growth-and-cell-survival-through-targeting-and-inhibiting-caspase-9-activation
#7
Yi Li, Xiaowei Wu, Lin Li, Yongshuo Liu, Chengshan Xu, Dan Su, Zhihua Liu
Apoptosis resistance is an acquired hallmark of cancer cells and many factors can contribute to the tumor cell apoptosis resistance. In this study, we demonstrated that HECTD3, overexpressed in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), confers cells resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and promotes cancer cell survival. HECTD3 can bind and ubiquitinate caspase-9, which leads to inhibiting caspase-9 oligomerization and association with Apaf-1, and results in suppressing caspase-9 activation and inhibiting apoptosis...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713773/the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-subunit-cdtb-of-helicobacter-hepaticus-promotes-senescence-and-endoreplication-in-xenograft-mouse-models-of-hepatic-and-intestinal-cell-lines
#8
Christelle Péré-Védrenne, Martina Prochazkova-Carlotti, Benoit Rousseau, Wencan He, Lucie Chambonnier, Elodie Sifré, Alice Buissonnière, Pierre Dubus, Francis Mégraud, Christine Varon, Armelle Ménard
Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are common among pathogenic bacteria of the human and animal microbiota. CDTs exert cytopathic effets, via their active CdtB subunit. No clear description of those cytopathic effects has been reported at the cellular level in the target organs in vivo. In the present study, xenograft mouse models of colon and liver cell lines were set up to study the effects of the CdtB subunit of Helicobacter hepaticus. Conditional transgenic cell lines were established, validated in vitro and then engrafted into immunodeficient mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711921/mir-30e-is-overexpressed-in-prostate-cancer-and-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#9
Shawn M Egan, Ellen Karasik, Leigh Ellis, Sandra O Gollnick
According to the CDC prostate cancer (CaP) has the highest incidence and second highest mortality rate amongst cancers in American men. Constitutive NF-κB activation is a hallmark of CaP and this pathway drives many pro-tumorigenic characteristics of CaP cells, including cell proliferation and survival. An activated NF-κB gene signature is predictive of CaP progression and biochemical recurrence following therapeutic intervention. However, the mechanisms that perpetuate NF-κB activation are incompletely understood...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710693/driving-cancer-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis-through-upr-signaling
#10
Alexandra Papaioannou, Eric Chevet
In the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells encounter both external and internal factors that can lead to the accumulation of improperly folded proteins in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) lumen, thus causing ER stress. When this happens, an adaptive mechanism named the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is triggered to help the cell cope with this change and restore protein homeostasis in the ER. Sequentially, one would expect that the activation of the three UPR branches, driven namely by IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, are crucial for the adaptation of cancer cells to the changing environment and thus for their survival and further propagation...
July 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709407/trop2-enhances-invasion-of-thyroid-cancer-by-inducing-mmp2-through-erk-and-jnk-pathways
#11
Hongyu Guan, Zejun Guo, Weiwei Liang, Hai Li, Guohong Wei, Lijuan Xu, Haipeng Xiao, Yanbing Li
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence has showed that Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (Trop2) is upregulated in various kinds of human cancers and plays important roles in tumorigenesis. However, the expression status and functional significance of Trop2 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown. METHODS: We first determined the expression of Trop2 by using RNAseqV2 data sets for thyroid cancer deposited on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) website. The expression of Trop2 was then confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assays...
July 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708239/novel-non-neutral-mitochondrial-dna-mutations-found-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#12
Tekla Järviaho, Anri Hurme-Niiranen, Heidi K Soini, Riitta Niinimäki, Merja Möttönen, Eeva-Riitta Savolainen, Reetta Hinttala, Arja Harila-Saari, Johanna Uusimaa
Mitochondria produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for energy requirements via the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. One of the hallmarks of cancer is the energy shift towards glycolysis. Low OXPHOS activity and increased glycolysis are associated with aggressive types of cancer. Mitochondria have their own genome (mtDNA) encoding for 13 essential subunits of the OXPHOS enzyme complexes. We studied mtDNA in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to detect potential pathogenic mutations in OXPHOS complexes...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708071/evolutionary-origins-of-cancer-driver-genes-and-implications-for-cancer-prognosis
#13
Xin-Yi Chu, Ling-Han Jiang, Xiong-Hui Zhou, Ze-Jia Cui, Hong-Yu Zhang
The cancer atavistic theory suggests that carcinogenesis is a reverse evolution process. It is thus of great interest to explore the evolutionary origins of cancer driver genes and the relevant mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis. Moreover, the evolutionary features of cancer driver genes could be helpful in selecting cancer biomarkers from high-throughput data. In this study, through analyzing the cancer endogenous molecular networks, we revealed that the subnetwork originating from eukaryota could control the unlimited proliferation of cancer cells, and the subnetwork originating from eumetazoa could recapitulate the other hallmarks of cancer...
July 14, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707979/emerging-roles-for-sirt5-in-metabolism-and-cancer
#14
Lauren Rose Bringman-Rodenbarger, Angela H Guo, Costas A Lyssiotis, David B Lombard
SIGNIFICANCE: Developing evidence in the literature suggests that SIRT5 may be involved in metabolic reprogramming, an emerging hallmark of cancer by which neoplastic cells reconfigure their metabolism to support the anabolic demands of rapid cell division. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is one of the seven members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent sirtuin family of lysine deacylases. It removes succinyl, malonyl, and glutaryl groups from protein targets within the mitochondrial matrix and other subcellular compartments...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707601/potential-role-of-natural-compounds-as-anti-angiogenic-agents-in-cancer
#15
Muthu K Shanmugam, Sudha Warrier, Alan Prem Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Frank Arfuso
BACKGROUND: Neovascularization, also known as angiogenesis, is the process of capillary sprouting from pre-existing blood vessels. This physiological process is a hallmark event in normal embryonic development as blood vessels generally supply both oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body. Any disruption in this process can lead to the development of various chronic diseases, including cancer. In cancer, aberrant angiogenesis plays a prominent role in maintaining sustained tumor growth to malignant phenotypes and promoting metastasis...
July 12, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704715/differential-effect-of-the-overexpression-of-rad2-xpg-family-endonucleases-on-genome-integrity-in-yeast-and-human-cells
#16
Sonia Jimeno, Emilia Herrera-Moyano, Pedro Ortega, Andrés Aguilera
Eukaryotic cells possess several DNA endonucleases that are necessary to complete different steps in DNA metabolism. Rad2/XPG and Rad27/FEN1 belong to a group of evolutionary conserved proteins that constitute the Rad2 family. Given the important roles carried out by these nucleases in DNA repair and their capacity to create DNA breaks, we have investigated the effect that in vivo imbalance of these nucleases and others of the family have on genome integrity and cell proliferation. We show that overexpression of these nucleases causes genetic instability in both yeast and human cells...
July 3, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701864/induction-of-forkhead-class-box-o3a-and-apoptosis-by-a-standardized-ginsenoside-formulation-kg-135-is-potentiated-by-autophagy-blockade-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#17
Chih-Jung Yao, Jyh-Ming Chow, Shuang-En Chuang, Chia-Lun Chang, Ming-De Yan, Hsin-Lun Lee, I-Chun Lai, Pei-Chun Lin, Gi-Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: KG-135, a standardized formulation enriched with Rk1, Rg3, and Rg5 ginsenosides, has been shown to inhibit various types of cancer cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored its effects in A549 human lung cancer cells to investigate the induction of Forkhead Class box O3a (FOXO3a) and autophagy. METHODS: Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine B staining. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were analyzed using flow cytometry...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700401/wiesner-nevus-of-the-eyelid
#18
Marie Somogyi, Lance J Lyons, Vikram Durairaj
A healthy 31-year-old female presented with an elevated vascular lesion on the right lower eyelid margin. Histology results from excisional biopsy demonstrated a range of intradermally nested atypical melanocytes with negative staining for BRCA1-associated protein 1, confirming the diagnosis of Wiesner nevus. Wiesner nevi may be a cutaneous hallmark of the BRCA1-associated protein 1-associated cancer susceptibility syndrome, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of such a lesion presenting anywhere on the ocular adnexa...
July 10, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700333/onc201-selectively-induces-apoptosis-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-cells-via-activating-pro-apoptotic-integrated-stress-response-and-inactivating-jak-stat-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#19
Xiao Ni, Xiang Zhang, Cheng-Hui Hu, Timothy Langridge, Rohinton S Tarapore, Joshua E Allen, Wolfgang Oster, Madeleine Duvic
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are extremely symptomatic and still incurable, and more effective and less toxic therapies are urgently needed. ONC201, an imipridone compound, has shown efficacy in pre-clinical studies in multiple advanced cancers. This study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of ONC201 on CTCL cells. The effect of ONC201 on the cell growth and apoptosis were evaluated in CTCL cell lines (n=8) and primary CD4+ malignant T cells isolated from CTCL patients (n=5). ONC201 showed a time-dependent cell growth inhibition in all treated cell lines with a concentration range of 1...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698530/the-role-of-mirnas-in-angiogenesis-invasion-and-metabolism-and-their-therapeutic-implications-in-gliomas
#20
REVIEW
Sasha Beyer, Jessica Fleming, Wei Meng, Rajbir Singh, S Jaharul Haque, Arnab Chakravarti
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, endogenous RNA molecules that function in gene silencing by post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The dysregulation of miRNA plays a pivotal role in cancer tumorigenesis, including the development and progression of gliomas. Their small size, stability and ability to target multiple oncogenes have simultaneously distinguished miRNAs as attractive candidates for biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for glioma patients. In this review, we summarize the most frequently cited miRNAs known to contribute to gliomagenesis and progression by regulating the defining hallmarks of gliomas, including angiogenesis, invasion, and cell metabolism...
July 10, 2017: Cancers
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