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Hallmarks, cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821754/discovery-of-potential-biomarkers-in-human-melanoma-cells-with-different-metastatic-potential-by-metabolic-and-lipidomic-profiling
#1
Hye-Youn Kim, Hwanhui Lee, So-Hyun Kim, Hanyong Jin, Jeehyeon Bae, Hyung-Kyoon Choi
Malignant melanoma, characterized by its ability to metastasize to other organs, is responsible for 90% of skin cancer mortality. To investigate alterations in the cellular metabolome and lipidome related to melanoma metastasis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct infusion-mass spectrometry (DI-MS)-based metabolic and lipidomic profiling were performed on extracts of normal human melanocyte (HEMn-LP), low metastatic melanoma (A375, G361), and highly metastatic melanoma (A2058, SK-MEL-28) cell lines...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819025/mre11-promotes-tumorigenesis-by-facilitating-resistance-to-oncogene-induced-replication-stress
#2
Elizabeth Spehalski, Kayla M Capper, Cheryl J Smith, Mary J Morgan, Maria Dinkelmann, Jeffrey Buis, JoAnn M Sekiguchi, David O Ferguson
Hypomorphic mutations in the genes encoding the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) DNA repair complex lead to cancer-prone syndromes. MRN binds DNA double strand breaks where it functions in repair and triggers cell cycle checkpoints via activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. To gain understanding of MRN in cancer, we engineered mice with B lymphocytes lacking MRN, or harboring MRN in which MRE11 lacks nuclease activities. Both forms of MRN deficiency led to hallmarks of cancer, including oncogenic translocations involving c-Myc and the immunoglobulin locus...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818483/intermittent-hypoxia-and-cancer-undesirable-bed-partners
#3
REVIEW
Isaac Almendros, David Gozal
The deleterious effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cancer biology have been primarily evaluated in the context of the aberrant circulation observed in solid tumors which results in recurrent intra-tumoral episodic hypoxia. From those studies, IH has been linked to an accelerated tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to therapies. More recently, the role of IH in cancer has also been studied in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), since IH is a hallmark characteristic of this condition. Such recent studies are undoubtedly adding more information regarding the role of IH on tumor malignancy...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817102/anticancer-activity-of-ramalin-a-secondary-metabolite-from-the-antarctic-lichen-ramalina-terebrata-against-colorectal-cancer-cells
#4
Sung-Suk Suh, Tai Kyoung Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Ju-Mi Hong, Trang Thu Thi Nguyen, Se Jong Han, Ui Joung Youn, Joung Han Yim, Il-Chan Kim
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and occurs through the highly complex coordination of multiple cellular pathways, resulting in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have increasingly revealed that constituents of lichen extracts exhibit potent pharmaceutical activities, including anticancer activity against various cancer cells, making them promising candidates for new anticancer therapeutic drugs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer capacities of ramalin, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816710/establishment-of-primary-cell-culture-from-ascitic-fluid-and-solid-tumor-obtained-from-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-patients
#5
Rajarshi Kar, Diwesh Chawla, Bindiya Gupta, Mohit Mehndiratta, Neelam Wadhwa, Rachna Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer death worldwide. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high rate of relapse and resistance following chemotherapy. In the present study, we describe simple and cost-effective method to establish primary culture from ascitic fluid and solid tumor obtained from epithelial ovarian carcinoma patient, which may provide a better tool for in vitro testing of drug sensitivity and designing individualized treatment protocol. METHODS: Complete Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was prepared by supplementing DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B)...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815541/long-noncoding-rnas-in-cancer-and-therapeutic-potential
#6
Arun Renganathan, Emanuela Felley-Bosco
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the major elements of the mammalian transcriptome that is emerging as a central player controlling diverse cellular mechanisms. Most of the well-studied lncRNAs so far are found to be crucial in regulating cellular processes such as cell cycle, growth, and apoptosis that ensure homeostasis. Owing to their location and distribution in the genome, lncRNAs influence the transcription of a wide range of proteins directly or indirectly by transcriptional and posttranscriptional alterations, which opens up the "LncRNA-cancer paradigm" in a context-dependent manner, i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814238/structural-insights-for-drugs-developed-for-phospholipase-d-enzymes
#7
Kimberly Stieglitz
BACKGROUND: In recent years human phospholipase D enzymes (PLD1 and PLD2 isozymes) have emerged as drug targets for various diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, infectious diseases and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The interest in PLD as a drug target is due to the fact that PLD enzymes belong to a superfamily of phospholipases that are essential to intracellular and extracellular signaling. Many bioactive lipid signaling molecules are generated by these enzymes including phosphatidic and lysophosphatidic acid, arachidonic acid, and diacylglycerol (DAG)...
August 15, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810604/hard-clam-extracts-induce-atypical-apoptosis-in-human-gastric-cancer-cells
#8
Eing-Ju Song, Michael W Y Chan, Jyh-Wei Shin, Che-Chun Chen
Hard clams (HCs) are a nutritionally high-quality and popular seafood, and are established to be a potent antitumor food. The aim of the present study was to determine whether HC extracts induce apoptosis in the human gastric cancer cell line, AGS. In contrast with previously reported methods of extraction, crude extracts of HC were obtained by freezing and thawing and by a method free of hot water or organic solvents. The composition, quality and properties of the HC extracts were demonstrated to be stable since the extracts that were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis and HPLC analysis at different timepoints were similar...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809778/reprimo-a-potential-p53-dependent-tumor-suppressor-gene-is-frequently-hypermethylated-in-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-positive-breast-cancer
#9
Kurt Buchegger, Ismael Riquelme, Tamara Viscarra, Carmen Ili, Priscilla Brebi, Tim Hui-Ming Huang, Juan Carlos Roa
Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of many cancers. Currently, there are four intrinsic molecular subtypes in breast cancer (BC): Luminal A, B, Her2-positive, and triple negative (TNBC). Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has revealed that Luminal subtypes have higher levels of genome-wide methylation that may be a result of Estrogen/Estrogen receptor α (E2/ERα) signaling pathway activation. In this study, we analyze promoter CpG-island (CGIs) of the Reprimo (RPRM) gene in breast cancers (n = 77), cell lines (n = 38), and normal breast tissue (n = 10) using a MBDCap-seq database...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808378/rutamarin-an-active-constituent-from-ruta-angustifolia-pers-induced-apoptotic-cell-death-in-the-ht29-colon-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#10
Shafinah Ahmad Suhaimi, Sok Lai Hong, Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek
BACKGROUND: Ruta angustifolia Pers. is a perennial herb that is cultivated worldwide, including Southeast Asia, for the treatment of various diseases as traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to identify an active principle of R. angustifolia and to investigate its effect on the HT29 cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of R. angustifolia Pers...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808290/molecular-mr-imaging-of-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Miloslav Polasek, Yan Yang, Daniel T Schühle, Mohammad A Yaseen, Young R Kim, Yu Sub Sung, Alexander R Guimaraes, Peter Caravan
Fibrosis with excessive amounts of type I collagen is a hallmark of many solid tumours, and fibrosis is a promising target in cancer therapy, but tools for its non-invasive quantification are missing. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging with a gadolinium-based probe targeted to type I collagen (EP-3533) to image and quantify fibrosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. An orthotopic syngeneic mouse model resulted in tumours with 2.3-fold higher collagen level compared to healthy pancreas. Animals were scanned at 4...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807941/the-rac-gtpase-in-cancer-from-old-concepts-to-new-paradigms
#12
Marcelo G Kazanietz, María-José Caloca
Rho family GTPases are critical regulators of cellular functions that play important roles in cancer progression. Aberrant activity of Rho small G-proteins, particularly Rac1 and their regulators, is a hallmark of cancer, and contributes to the tumorigenic and metastatic phenotypes of cancer cells. This review examines the multiple mechanisms leading to Rac1 hyperactivation, particularly focusing on emerging paradigms that involve gain-of-function mutations in Rac and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), defects in Rac1 degradation, and mislocalization of Rac signaling components...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807816/mtor-in-down-syndrome-role-in-a%C3%A3-and-tau-neuropathology-and-transition-to-alzheimer-disease-like-dementia
#13
REVIEW
Fabio Di Domenico, Antonella Tramutola, Cesira Foppoli, Elisabeth Head, Marzia Perluigi, D Allan Butterfield
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and degradation, longevity and cytoskeletal formation. The mTOR pathway represents a key growth and survival pathway involved in several diseases such as cancer, obesity, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies linked the alterations of mTOR pathway to age-dependent cognitive decline, pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD-like dementia in Down syndrome (DS)...
August 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806945/tumor-microenvironment-conditions-alter-akt-and-na-h-exchanger-nhe1-expression-in-endothelial-cells-more-than-hypoxia-alone-implications-for-endothelial-cell-function-in-cancer
#14
A K Pedersen, J Mendes Lopes de Melo, N Mørup, K Tritsaris, S F Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Chronic angiogenesis is a hallmark of most tumors and takes place in a hostile tumor microenvironment (TME) characterized by hypoxia, low nutrient and glucose levels, elevated lactate and low pH. Despite this, most studies addressing angiogenic signaling use hypoxia as a proxy for tumor conditions. Here, we compared the effects of hypoxia and TME conditions on regulation of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1, Ser/Thr kinases Akt1-3, and downstream effectors in endothelial cells...
August 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805788/nrf2-keap1-pathway-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-diminishes-ferroptosis
#15
Z Fan, A-K Wirth, D Chen, C J Wruck, M Rauh, M Buchfelder, N Savaskan
Cancer cells are hallmarked by high proliferation and imbalanced redox consumption and signaling. Various oncogenic pathways such as proliferation and evading cell death converge on redox-dependent signaling processes. Nrf2 is a key regulator in these redox-dependent events and operates in cytoprotection, drug metabolism and malignant progression in cancer cells. Here, we show that patients with primary malignant brain tumors (glioblastomas, WHO °IV gliomas, GBM) have a devastating outcome and overall reduced survival when Nrf2 levels are upregulated...
August 14, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804724/microrna-regulation-of-glycolytic-metabolism-in-glioblastoma
#16
REVIEW
Huda Alfardus, Alan McIntyre, Stuart Smith
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and common malignant brain tumour in adults. A well-known hallmark of GMB and many other tumours is aerobic glycolysis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short nonprotein coding sequences that exert posttranscriptional controls on gene expression and represent critical regulators of aerobic glycolysis in GBM. In GBM, miRNAs regulate the expression of glycolytic genes directly and via the regulation of metabolism-associated tumour suppressors and oncogenic signalling pathways...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804630/protected-cytoskeletal-related-proteins-towards-a-resolution-of-contradictions-regarding-the-role-of-the-cytoskeleton-in-cancer
#17
Daniel T Segarra, John M Yavorski, George Blanck
Initial reports of the role of the cytoskeleton in cancer indicated that tumor cells with a more disorganized cytoskeleton were more tumorigenic. These reports were based on stains for the F-actin cytoskeleton, for example, using phalloidin or anti-F-actin antibody reagents, and gave a basic impression of F-actin-based cytoskeletal integrity. Later developments emphasized the significance of the cytoskeletal elements in cell migration, presumably associated with either basement membrane invasion or metastasis, or both, with several specific proteins implicated in the formation of cell invadopodia...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804522/nanomaterials-for-the-capture-and-therapeutic-targeting-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#18
REVIEW
Zhenjiang Zhang, Michael R King
Circulating tumor cells are a hallmark of cancer metastasis which accounts for approximately 90% of all cancer-related deaths. Their detection and characterization have significant implications in cancer biology and clinical practice. However, CTCs are rare cells and consist of heterogeneous subpopulations, requiring highly sensitive and specific techniques to identify and isolate them with high efficiency. Nanomaterials, with unique structural and functional properties, have shown strong promise to meet the challenging demands...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803894/exosomes-in-cancer-use-them-or-target-them
#19
REVIEW
Nuno Bastos, Carolina F Ruivo, Soraia Silva, Sonia A Melo
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles with a significant role in most processes associated with cancer. On one hand, exosomes role in the different hallmarks of cancer has been widely described, highlighting the urge to understand the potential to target communication mediated by exosomes as a novel therapeutic approach in cancer. On the other hand, exosomes stability in circulation and tumor-targeting capacity shows their applicability in the delivery of anti-cancer molecules. This review will discuss the dual applicability of exosomes in cancer focusing on their usage for therapy improvement, or their targeting to block their supportive role in tumor progression and response to therapy...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803777/paraoxonase-2-facilitates-pancreatic-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-by-stimulating-glut1-mediated-glucose-transport
#20
Arvindhan Nagarajan, Shaillay Kumar Dogra, Lisha Sun, Neeru Gandotra, Thuy Ho, Guoping Cai, Gary Cline, Priti Kumar, Robert A Cowles, Narendra Wajapeyee
Metabolic deregulation is a hallmark of human cancers, and the glycolytic and glutamine metabolism pathways were shown to be deregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To identify new metabolic regulators of PDAC tumor growth and metastasis, we systematically knocked down metabolic genes that were overexpressed in human PDAC tumor samples using short hairpin RNAs. We found that p53 transcriptionally represses paraoxonase 2 (PON2), which regulates GLUT1-mediated glucose transport via stomatin. The loss of PON2 initiates the cellular starvation response and activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Cell
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