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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526810/bioinformatics-and-in-vitro-experimental-analyses-identify-the-selective-therapeutic-potential-of-interferon-gamma-and-apigenin-against-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-adenocarcinoma
#1
Pei-Ming Yang, Chia-Jung Chou, Ssu-Hsueh Tseng, Chien-Fu Hung
The clinical management and treatment of cervical cancer, one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related female death, remains a huge challenge for researchers and health professionals. Cervical cancer can be categorized into two major subtypes: common squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC). Although it is a relatively rare histological subtype of cervical cancer, there has been a steady increase in the incidences of AC. Therefore, new strategies to treat cervical cancer are urgently needed...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526262/hypoxic-pathobiology-of-breast-cancer-metastasis
#2
REVIEW
Luana Schito, Sergio Rey
Dissemination of breast cancer cells (BCCs) to distant sites (metastasis) is the ultimate cause of mortality in patient with breast cancer. Hypoxia (low O2) is a microenvironmental hallmark of most solid cancers arising as a mismatch between cellular O2 consumption and supply. Hypoxic selection of BCCs triggers molecular and cellular adaptations dependent upon hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), a family of evolutionarily conserved transcriptional activators that coordinate the expression of numerous genes controlling each step of the metastatic process...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526240/endocrine-actions-of-vitamin-d-in-skin-relevance-for-photocarcinogenesis-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526133/metabolic-reprogramming-and-oncogenesis-one-hallmark-many-organelles
#4
A S H Costa, C Frezza
The process of tumorigenesis can be described by a series of molecular features, among which alteration of cellular metabolism has recently emerged. This metabolic rewiring fulfills the energy and biosynthetic demands of fast proliferating cancer cells and amplifies their metabolic repertoire to survive and proliferate in the poorly oxygenated and nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment. During the last decade, the complex reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism has been widely investigated, revealing cancer-specific metabolic alterations...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525842/indole-coumarin-thiadiazole-hybrids-an-appraisal-of-their-mcf-7%C3%A2-cell-growth-inhibition-apoptotic-antimetastatic-and-computational-bcl-2-binding-potential
#5
Pooja R Kamath, Dhanya Sunil, Manu M Joseph, Abdul Ajees Abdul Salam, Sreelekha T T
Cancer therapeutic potential of thiadiazole hybrids incorporating pharmacologically active indole and coumarin moieties have not been explored much. In the current investigation, three new thiadiazole hybrids with spacers of varying lengths linking indole and thiadiazole units were synthesized and their structures were well-established using various spectroscopic techniques. 3-(1-(5-(3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylimino)ethyl)-6-bromo-2H-chromen-2-one (IPTBC) exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524159/hallmarks-of-response-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#6
Alexandria P Cogdill, Miles C Andrews, Jennifer A Wargo
Unprecedented advances have been made in the treatment of cancer through the use of immune checkpoint blockade, with approval of several checkpoint blockade regimens spanning multiple cancer types. However, responses to this form of therapy are not universal, and insights are clearly needed to identify optimal biomarkers of response and to combat mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. A working knowledge of the hallmarks of cancer yields insight into responses to immune checkpoint blockade, although the focus of this is rather tumour-centric and additional factors are pertinent, including host immunity and environmental influences...
May 18, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523289/core-canonical-pathways-involved-in-developing-human-glioblastoma-multiforme-gbm
#7
Somiranjan Ghosh, Sisir Dutta, Gabriel Thorne, Ava Boston, Alexis Barfield, Narendra Banerjee, Rayshawn Walker, Hirendra Nath Banerjee
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of the primary brain tumors with pathologic hallmarks of necrosis and vascular proliferation. The diagnosis of GBM is currently mostly based on histological examination of brain tumor tissues, after radiological characterization and surgical biopsy. The ability to characterize tumors comprehensively at the molecular level raises the possibility that diagnosis can be made based on molecular profiling with or without histological examination, rather than solely on histological phenotype...
February 2017: Int J Sci Res Sci Eng Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516062/endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondrial-ca-2-fluxes-underlying-cancer-cell-survival
#8
REVIEW
Hristina Ivanova, Martijn Kerkhofs, Rita M La Rovere, Geert Bultynck
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are crucial, ubiquitous, intracellular second messengers required for functional mitochondrial metabolism during uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. The mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are connected via "mitochondria-associated ER membranes" (MAMs) where ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer occurs, impacting the mitochondrial biology related to several aspects of cellular survival, autophagy, metabolism, cell death sensitivity, and metastasis, all cancer hallmarks. Cancer cells appear addicted to these constitutive ER-mitochondrial Ca(2+) fluxes for their survival, since they drive the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the production of mitochondrial substrates needed for nucleoside synthesis and proper cell cycle progression...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513632/how-to-stomach-an-epigenetic-insult-the-gastric-cancer-epigenome
#9
REVIEW
Nisha Padmanabhan, Toshikazu Ushijima, Patrick Tan
Gastric cancer is a deadly malignancy afflicting close to a million people worldwide. Patient survival is poor and largely due to late diagnosis and suboptimal therapies. Disease heterogeneity is a substantial obstacle, underscoring the need for precision treatment strategies. Studies have identified different subgroups of gastric cancer displaying not just genetic, but also distinct epigenetic hallmarks. Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic abnormalities in gastric cancer are not mere bystander events, but rather promote carcinogenesis through active mechanisms...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513319/effect-of-surface-functionalizations-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-neoplastic-transformation-potential-in-primary-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#10
Todd A Stueckle, Donna C Davidson, Ray Derk, Peng Wang, Sherri Friend, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Peng Zheng, Nianqiang Wu, Vince Castranova, Yon Rojanasakul, Liying Wang
Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (fMWCNT) development has intensified to improve their surface activity for numerous applications, and potentially reduce toxic effects. Although MWCNT exposures are associated with lung tumorigenesis in vivo, adverse responses associated with exposure to different fMWCNTs in human lung epithelium are presently unknown. This study hypothesized that different plasma coating functional groups determine MWCNT neoplastic transformation potential. Using our established model, human primary small airway epithelial cells (pSAECs) were continuously exposed for 8 and 12 weeks at 0...
May 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510691/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-upregulation-through-epigenetic-silencing-of-ldoc1-drives-tumor-biology-and-specific-immunophenotype-in-group-a-ependymoma
#11
Andrea M Griesinger, Davis A Witt, Sydney T Grob, Sabrina R Georgio Westover, Andrew M Donson, Bridget Sanford, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Randall Wong, Daniel C Moreira, John A DeSisto, Ilango Balakrishnan, Lindsey M Hoffman, Michael H Handler, Kenneth L Jones, Rajeev Vibhakar, Sujatha Venkataraman, Nicholas K Foreman
Background.: Inflammation has been identified as a hallmark of high-risk Group A (GpA) ependymoma (EPN). Chronic interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from GpA tumors drives an immune suppressive phenotype by polarizing infiltrating monocytes. This study determines the mechanism by which IL-6 is dysregulated in GpA EPN. Methods.: Twenty pediatric GpA and 21 pediatric Group B (GpB) EPN had gene set enrichment analysis for MSigDB Hallmark gene sets performed. Protein and RNA from patients and cell lines were used to validate transcriptomic findings...
May 16, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508297/adaptation-to-stochastic-temporal-variations-in-intratumoral-blood-flow-the-warburg-effect-as-a-bet-hedging-strategy
#12
Curtis A Gravenmier, Miriam Siddique, Robert A Gatenby
While most cancers promote ingrowth of host blood vessels, the resulting vascular network usually fails to develop a mature organization, resulting in abnormal vascular dynamics with stochastic variations that include slowing, cessation, and even reversal of flow. Thus, substantial spatial and temporal variations in oxygen concentration are commonly observed in most cancers. Cancer cells, like all living systems, are subject to Darwinian dynamics such that their survival and proliferation are dependent on developing optimal phenotypic adaptations to local environmental conditions...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508231/role-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-carcinogenesis-and-potential-as-an-anti-cancer-drug-target
#13
REVIEW
Siva Kumar Kolluri, Un-Ho Jin, Stephen Safe
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was initially identified as the receptor that binds and mediates the toxic effects induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally related halogenated aromatics. Other toxic compounds including some polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons act through the AhR; however, during the last 25 years, it has become apparent that the AhR plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Moreover, the scope of ligands that bind the AhR includes endogenous compounds such as multiple tryptophan metabolites, other endogenous biochemicals, pharmaceuticals and health-promoting phytochemicals including flavonoids, indole-3-carbinol and its metabolites...
May 15, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506929/inhibition-of-cell-proliferation-and-induction-of-autophagy-by-kdm2b-fbxl10-knockdown-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#14
Erhu Zhao, Chunling Tang, Xiaolan Jiang, Xiong Weng, Xiaoxia Zhong, Dunke Zhang, Jianbing Hou, Feng Wang, Mengying Huang, Hongjuan Cui
Gastric cancer is difficult to cure due to its clinical heterogeneity and the complexity of its molecular mechanisms. KDM2B, a member of the JHDM family, functions as a histone lysine demethylase. However, the role and mechanisms of KDM2B in gastric cancer have not been elucidated. Here, we showed that KDM2B is commonly expressed in gastric cancer cells. The downregulation of KDM2B immediately induces autophagy, followed by the inhibition of proliferation. The compound 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of autophagy, largely rescues autophagy and the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by KDM2B knockdown...
May 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505071/myc-master-regulator-of-the-cancer-epigenome-and-transcriptome
#15
REVIEW
Candace J Poole, Jan van Riggelen
Overexpression of MYC is a hallmark of many human cancers. The MYC oncogene has long been thought to execute its neoplastic functions by acting as a classic transcription factor, deregulating the expression of a large number of specific target genes. However, MYC's influence on many of these target genes is rather modest and there is little overlap between MYC regulated genes in different cell types, leaving many mechanistic questions unanswered. Recent advances in the field challenge the dogma further, revealing a role for MYC that extends beyond the traditional concept of a sequence-specific transcription factor...
May 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504702/pgbd5-promotes-site-specific-oncogenic-mutations-in-human-tumors
#16
Anton G Henssen, Richard Koche, Jiali Zhuang, Eileen Jiang, Casie Reed, Amy Eisenberg, Eric Still, Ian C MacArthur, Elias Rodríguez-Fos, Santiago Gonzalez, Montserrat Puiggròs, Andrew N Blackford, Christopher E Mason, Elisa de Stanchina, Mithat Gönen, Anne-Katrin Emde, Minita Shah, Kanika Arora, Catherine Reeves, Nicholas D Socci, Elizabeth Perlman, Cristina R Antonescu, Charles W M Roberts, Hanno Steen, Elizabeth Mullen, Stephen P Jackson, David Torrents, Zhiping Weng, Scott A Armstrong, Alex Kentsis
Genomic rearrangements are a hallmark of human cancers. Here, we identify the piggyBac transposable element derived 5 (PGBD5) gene as encoding an active DNA transposase expressed in the majority of childhood solid tumors, including lethal rhabdoid tumors. Using assembly-based whole-genome DNA sequencing, we found previously undefined genomic rearrangements in human rhabdoid tumors. These rearrangements involved PGBD5-specific signal (PSS) sequences at their breakpoints and recurrently inactivated tumor-suppressor genes...
May 15, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504691/cxcr3-mediates-ascites-directed-tumor-cell-migration-and-predicts-poor-outcome-in-ovarian-cancer-patients
#17
C Windmüller, D Zech, S Avril, M Boxberg, T Dawidek, B Schmalfeldt, M Schmitt, M Kiechle, H Bronger
Intraabdominal tumor dissemination is a major hallmark of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The CXCR3 chemokine receptor supports migration of tumor cells to metastatic sites, but its role in ovarian cancer metastasis is largely unknown. Herein, we first screened two independent cohorts of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs, discovery set n=60, validation set n=117) and 102 metastatic lesions for CXCR3 expression. In primary tumors, CXCR3 was particularly overexpressed by tumor cells at the invasive front...
May 15, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504653/metabolic-shifts-in-residual-breast-cancer-drive-tumor-recurrence
#18
Kristina M Havas, Vladislava Milchevskaya, Ksenija Radic, Ashna Alladin, Eleni Kafkia, Marta Garcia, Jens Stolte, Bernd Klaus, Nicole Rotmensz, Toby J Gibson, Barbara Burwinkel, Andreas Schneeweiss, Giancarlo Pruneri, Kiran R Patil, Rocio Sotillo, Martin Jechlinger
Tumor recurrence is the leading cause of breast cancer-related death. Recurrences are largely driven by cancer cells that survive therapeutic intervention. This poorly understood population is referred to as minimal residual disease. Here, using mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human disease together with organoid cultures, we have demonstrated that residual cells acquire a transcriptionally distinct state from normal epithelium and primary tumors. Gene expression changes and functional characterization revealed altered lipid metabolism and elevated ROS as hallmarks of the cells that survive tumor regression...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503213/epigenetic-modifications-of-the-immune-checkpoint-genes-ctla4-and-pdcd1-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-results-in-increased-expression
#19
Sebastian Marwitz, Swetlana Scheufele, Sven Perner, Martin Reck, Ole Ammerpohl, Torsten Goldmann
Targeting checkpoint inhibitors using monoclonal antibodies results in significantly better outcome of cancer patients compared to conventional chemotherapy. However, the current companion diagnostics to predict response is so far suboptimal, since they base on more or less reliable immunohistochemical approaches. In order to overcome these limitations, we analyzed epigenetic modifications of PDCD1 (PD1), CD274 (PD-L1), and CTLA4 in NSCLC tissues from 39 patients. Results were correlated with transcriptome data...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503089/anticancer-chemodiversity-of-ranunculaceae-medicinal-plants-molecular-mechanisms-and-functions
#20
REVIEW
Da-Cheng Hao, Chun-Nian He, Jie Shen, Pei-Gen Xiao
The buttercup family, Ranunculaceae, comprising more than 2,200 species in at least 62 genera, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine since the beginning of human civilization. Various medicinal phytometabolites have been found in Ranunculaceae plants, many of which, such as alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, and polysaccharides, have shown anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. Most concerns have been raised for two epiphany molecules, the monoterpene thymoquinone and the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine...
February 2017: Current Genomics
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