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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823858/ambient-temperature-modulates-the-effects-of-the-prader-willi-syndrome-candidate-gene-snord116-on-energy-homeostasis
#1
Y Qi, L Purtell, M Fu, K Sengmany, K Loh, L Zhang, S Zolotukhin, A Sainsbury, L Campbell, H Herzog
Germline deletion of the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) candidate gene Snord116 in mice leads to some classical symptoms of human PWS, notably reductions in body weight, linear growth and bone mass. However, Snord116 deficient mice (Snord116(-/-)) do not develop an obese phenotype despite their increased food intake and the underlying mechanism for that is unknown. We tested the phenotypes of germline Snord116(-/-) as well as neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuron specific Snord116(lox/lox)/NPY(cre/+) mice at 30°C, the thermoneutral temperature of mice, and compared these to previous reports studies conducted at normal room temperature...
October 27, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802308/bone-injury-and-repair-trigger-central-and-peripheral-npy-neuronal-pathways
#2
Cecília J Alves, Inês S Alencastre, Estrela Neto, João Ribas, Sofia Ferreira, Daniel M Vasconcelos, Daniela M Sousa, Teresa Summavielle, Meriem Lamghari
Bone repair is a specialized type of wound repair controlled by complex multi-factorial events. The nervous system is recognized as one of the key regulators of bone mass, thereby suggesting a role for neuronal pathways in bone homeostasis. However, in the context of bone injury and repair, little is known on the interplay between the nervous system and bone. Here, we addressed the neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuronal arm during the initial stages of bone repair encompassing the inflammatory response and ossification phases in femoral-defect mouse model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720230/neuropeptide-y-accelerates-post-fracture-bone-healing-by-promoting-osteogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Xiao-Chuan Gu, Xiao-Bin Zhang, Bing Hu, Ying Zi, Ming Li
Fracture repair is a complex yet well orchestrated regenerative process involving numerous signaling and cell types including osteoblasts. Here we showed that NPY, a neurotransmitter with regulatory functions in bone homeostasis, may contribute to the post-fracture bone healing in patients with traumatic brain injury-fracture combined injuries. Our results suggested NPY levels were increased in patients with the combined injuries, accomplished by arising of bone healing markers, such as ALP, OC, PICP and ICTP, than in those with simple fractures, and NPY have direct actions on MSCs to promote their osteogenic differentiation...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501818/the-central-nervous-system-and-bone-metabolism-an-evolving-story
#4
Paul Dimitri, Cliff Rosen
Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function...
August 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090492/neuropeptide-y-induces-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-mobilization-by-regulating-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-activity-through-y1-receptor-in-osteoblasts
#5
Min Hee Park, Jong Kil Lee, Namoh Kim, Woo-Kie Min, Jeong Eun Lee, Kyoung-Tae Kim, Haruhiko Akiyama, Herbert Herzog, Edward H Schuchman, Hee Kyung Jin, Jae-Sung Bae
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization is an essential homeostatic process regulated by the interaction of cellular and molecular components in bone marrow niches. It has been shown by others that neurotransmitters released from the sympathetic nervous system regulate HSPC egress from bone marrow to peripheral blood. In this study, we investigate the functional role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on this process. NPY deficient mice had significantly impaired HSPC mobilization due to increased expression of HSPC maintenance factors by reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in bone marrow...
August 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080706/neuropeptide-y-mediates-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-and-marrow-adiposity-in-mice
#6
F-S Wang, W-S Lian, W-T Weng, Y-C Sun, H-J Ke, Y-S Chen, J-Y Ko
UNLABELLED: Increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression occurred in the glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic skeleton. NPY knockout mice exhibited a minor response to the glucocorticoid-mediated exacerbation of bone accretion and fatty marrow pathogenesis. NPY deletion restored SITR1 signaling and enhanced PPARγ ubiquitination of bone tissue, an alternative strategy for ameliorating glucocorticoid-induced skeletal deterioration. INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid excess is observed to worsen the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and fatty marrow...
September 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872458/osteoblastic-actions-of-the-neuropeptide-y-system-to-regulate-bone-and-energy-homeostasis
#7
Harry Horsnell, Paul A Baldock
Neural pathways are now a well-appreciated factor in the regulatory milieu controlling the maintenance of bone mass. A number of neural pathways from the brain to bone have been identified. These pathways often involve elements of the energy homeostatic apparatus, indicating links between the regulation of bone metabolism and energy balance. Neuropeptide Y is one such factor that co-regulates these two processes. Initial studies outlined the skeletal actions of NPY from within the brain and the interactions with energy homeostatic processes...
February 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824232/prader-willi-critical-region-a-non-translated-imprinted-central-regulator-of-bone-mass-possible-role-in-skeletal-abnormalities-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#8
Ee-Cheng Khor, Bruce Fanshawe, Yue Qi, Sergei Zolotukhin, Rishikesh N Kulkarni, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Louise Purtell, Nicola J Lee, Natalie K Wee, Peter I Croucher, Lesley Campbell, Herbert Herzog, Paul A Baldock
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA). Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728272/neuropeptide-y-protects-kidney-against-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-by-regulating-p53-dependent-apoptosis-pathway
#9
Namoh Kim, Woo-Kie Min, Min Hee Park, Jong Kil Lee, Hee Kyung Jin, Jae-Sung Bae
Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its negative effect on normal tissues, particularly nephrotoxicity. Various mechanisms such as DNA adduct formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are involved in the adverse effect induced by cisplatin treatment. Several studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in neuroprotection as well as restoration of bone marrow dysfunction from chemotherapy induced nerve injury...
May 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26707636/neuropeptide-y-stimulates-osteoblastic-differentiation-and-vegf-expression-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-related-to-canonical-wnt-signaling-activating-in-vitro
#10
Song Liu, Dan Jin, Jian-qun Wu, Zi-yi Xu, Su Fu, Gang Mei, Zhen-Lv Zou, Sheng-hui Ma
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuropeptide secreted by sensory nerve fibers distributed in the marrow and vascular canals of bone tissue. However, the effect of NPY on the osteogenic ability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains controversial and has not been thoroughly investigated. To explore the osteogenic activity and the migration and VEGF expression capabilities of BMSCs affected by NPY, as well as the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the potential relationships among NPY, osteoblastic differentiation, angiogenesis and canonical Wnt signaling in BMSCs...
April 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26538251/role-of-neuropeptide-y-in-the-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-stem-cell-microenvironment
#11
Min Hee Park, Woo-Kie Min, Hee Kyung Jin, Jae-Sung Bae
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or neurotransmitters in the bone marrow microenvironment has been known to regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions such as self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. However, the specific role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated that NPY deficient mice have significantly reduced HSC numbers and impaired bone marrow regeneration due to apoptotic destruction of SNS fibers and/or endothelial cells...
December 2015: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26444586/y2-receptor-signalling-in-npy-neurons-controls-bone-formation-and-fasting-induced-feeding-but-not-spontaneous-feeding
#12
Yue Qi, Melissa Fu, Herbert Herzog
Y2 receptors have been implicated in the development of obesity and are a potential target for obesity treatment due to their known role of inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced feeding responses. However, the precise neuronal population on which Y2 receptors act to fulfil this role is less clear. Here we utilise a novel inducible, postnatal onset NPY neurons specific deletion model to investigate the functional consequences of loss of Y2 signalling in this population of neurons on feeding and energy homeostasis regulation...
February 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26089235/bone-specific-gene-expression-patterns-and-whole-bone-tissue-of-female-mice-are-programmed-by-early-life-exposure-to-soy-isoflavones-and-folic-acid
#13
Jovana Kaludjerovic, Wendy E Ward
Female mice exposed to soy isoflavones (ISO) during early postnatal life have improved bone outcomes at adulthood. Since long-lasting effects may be mediated by DNA methylation, we hypothesized that providing supplemental folic acid (FA), a methyl donor, during early life, would enhance the positive effect of ISO to bone health. Bone-specific gene expression patterns were studied to understand potential mechanisms. CD-1 dams (n=36) were randomized to adequate or supplemental levels of FA (2 or 8 mg/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation, and offspring received corn oil or ISO (7 mg/kg body weight/d) from postnatal day 1 to 10...
October 2015: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26055106/uncoupling-protein-1-is-protective-of-bone-mass-under-mild-cold-stress-conditions
#14
Amy D Nguyen, Nicola J Lee, Natalie K Y Wee, Lei Zhang, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Ee Cheng Khor, Tao Nie, Donghai Wu, Amanda Sainsbury, Paul A Baldock, Herbert Herzog
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), largely controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), has the ability to dissipate energy in the form of heat through the actions of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), thereby critically influencing energy expenditure. Besides BAT, the SNS also strongly influences bone, and recent studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between BAT activity and bone mass, albeit the interactions between BAT and bone remain unclear. Here we show that UCP-1 is critical for protecting bone mass in mice under conditions of permanent mild cold stress for this species (22°C)...
June 5, 2015: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25916827/neuropeptide-y-regulates-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-microenvironment-and-prevents-nerve-injury-in-the-bone-marrow
#15
Min Hee Park, Hee Kyung Jin, Woo-Kie Min, Won Woo Lee, Jeong Eun Lee, Haruhiko Akiyama, Herbert Herzog, Grigori N Enikolopov, Edward H Schuchman, Jae-sung Bae
Many reports have revealed the importance of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the control of the bone marrow environment. However, the specific role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process has not been systematically studied. Here we show that NPY-deficient mice have significantly reduced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers and impaired regeneration in bone marrow due to apoptotic destruction of SNS fibers and/or endothelial cells. Furthermore, pharmacological elevation of NPY prevented bone marrow impairments in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced SNS injury, while NPY injection into conditional knockout mice lacking the Y1 receptor in macrophages did not relieve bone marrow dysfunction...
June 12, 2015: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25871004/polymorphisms-in-neuropeptide-genes-and-bone-mineral-density-in-korean-postmenopausal-women
#16
Eun Hee Chun, Hoon Kim, Chang Suk Suh, Jong Hak Kim, Dong Yeon Kim, Jung Gu Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in neuropeptide genes and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean postmenopausal women. METHODS: Twenty polymorphisms in NMU (neuromedin U; two polymorphisms), NMU2R (NMU receptor 2; six polymorphisms), CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript; three polymorphisms), NPY (neuropeptide Y; four polymorphisms), NPY2R (NPY type 2 receptor; two polymorphisms), NOS1 (neuronal nitric oxide synthase; two polymorphisms), and MC4R (melanocortin 4 receptor; one polymorphism) genes were analyzed in 482 Korean postmenopausal women...
November 2015: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25714881/neuropeptide-y-substance-p-and-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-stimulate-human-osteoblast-osteogenic-activity-by-enhancing-gap-junction-intercellular-communication
#17
W H Ma, Y J Liu, W Wang, Y Z Zhang
Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle "cross talk" between the nervous system and "osteo-neuromediators" that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations...
April 2015: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25714031/high-neuropeptide-y-release-associates-with-ewing-sarcoma-bone-dissemination-in-vivo-model-of-site-specific-metastases
#18
Sung-Hyeok Hong, Jason U Tilan, Susana Galli, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Taylor Polk, Meredith Horton, Akanksha Mahajan, David Christian, Shari Jenkins, Rachel Acree, Katherine Connors, Phuong Ledo, Congyi Lu, Yi-Chien Lee, Olga Rodriguez, Jeffrey A Toretsky, Chris Albanese, Joanna Kitlinska
Ewing sarcoma (ES) develops in bones or soft tissues of children and adolescents. The presence of bone metastases is one of the most adverse prognostic factors, yet the mechanisms governing their formation remain unclear. As a transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1, the fusion protein driving ES transformation, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed and released from ES tumors. Hypoxia up-regulates NPY and activates its pro-metastatic functions. To test the impact of NPY on ES metastatic pattern, ES cell lines, SK-ES1 and TC71, with high and low peptide release, respectively, were used in an orthotopic xenograft model...
March 30, 2015: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25550462/p38%C3%AE-function-in-osteoblasts-influences-adipose-tissue-homeostasis
#19
Edgardo Rodríguez-Carballo, Beatriz Gámez, Andrés Méndez-Lucas, Manuela Sánchez-Freutrie, Antonio Zorzano, Ramon Bartrons, Soledad Alcántara, José Carlos Perales, Francesc Ventura
The skeleton acts as an endocrine organ that regulates energy metabolism and calcium and phosphorous homeostasis through the secretion of osteocalcin (Oc) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). However, evidence suggests that osteoblasts secrete additional unknown factors that contribute to the endocrine function of bone. To search for these additional factors, we generated mice with a conditional osteoblast-specific deletion of p38α MAPK known to display profound defects in bone homeostasis. Herein, we show that impaired osteoblast function is associated with a strong decrease in body weight and adiposity (P < 0...
April 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25387699/systemic-levels-of-neuropeptide-y-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-activity-in-patients-with-ewing-sarcoma-associations-with-tumor-phenotype-and-survival
#20
Jason U Tilan, Mark Krailo, Donald A Barkauskas, Susana Galli, Haifa Mtaweh, Jessica Long, Hongkun Wang, Kirsten Hawkins, Congyi Lu, Dima Jeha, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Elizabeth R Lawlor, Jeffrey A Toretsky, Joanna B Kitlinska
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is driven by fusion of the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 gene (EWSR1) with an E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor (EWS-ETS), most often the Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor (FLI1). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an EWS-FLI1 transcriptional target; it is highly expressed in ES and exerts opposing effects, ranging from ES cell death to angiogenesis and cancer stem cell propagation. The functions of NPY are regulated by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), a hypoxia-inducible enzyme that cleaves the peptide and activates its growth-promoting actions...
March 1, 2015: Cancer
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