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D Komar, L Kazak, M Almassarani, K-H Meiwes-Broer, J Tiggesbäumker
Ion emission from a nanoplasma produced in the interaction of intense optical laser pulses with argon clusters is studied resolving simultaneously charge states and recoil energies. By applying appropriate static electric fields we observe that a significant fraction of the ions Ar^{q+} (q=1-7) has electrons with binding energies lower than 150 meV; i.e., n_{Ryd}≥15 levels are populated. Charge state changes observed on a μs time scale can be attributed to electron emission due to autoionizing Rydberg states, indicating that high-ℓ Rydberg levels are populated as well...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
A Müller, A Borovik, S Bari, T Buhr, K Holste, M Martins, A Perry-Saßmannshausen, R A Phaneuf, S Reinwardt, S Ricz, K Schubert, S Schippers
Double and triple detachment of the F^{-}(1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}) negative ion by a single photon have been investigated in the photon energy range 660 to 1000 eV. The experimental data provide unambiguous evidence for the dominant role of direct photodouble detachment with a subsequent single-Auger process in the reaction channel leading to F^{2+} product ions. Absolute cross sections were determined for the direct removal of a (1s+2p) pair of electrons from F^{-} by the absorption of a single photon.
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Thomas Kroll, Clemens Weninger, Roberto Alonso-Mori, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Diling Zhu, Laurent Mercadier, Vinay P Majety, Agostino Marinelli, Alberto Lutman, Marc W Guetg, Franz-Josef Decker, Sébastien Boutet, Andy Aquila, Jason Koglin, Jake Koralek, Daniel P DePonte, Jan Kern, Franklin D Fuller, Ernest Pastor, Thomas Fransson, Yu Zhang, Junko Yano, Vittal K Yachandra, Nina Rohringer, Uwe Bergmann
We report the observation and analysis of the gain curve of amplified Kα x-ray emission from solutions of Mn(II) and Mn(VII) complexes using an x-ray free electron laser to create the 1s core-hole population inversion. We find spectra at amplification levels extending over 4 orders of magnitude until saturation. We observe bandwidths below the Mn 1s core-hole lifetime broadening in the onset of the stimulated emission. In the exponential amplification regime the resolution corrected spectral width of ∼1...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Joel Bergé, Philippe Brax, Gilles Métris, Martin Pernot-Borràs, Pierre Touboul, Jean-Philippe Uzan
The existence of a light or massive scalar field with a coupling to matter weaker than gravitational strength is a possible source of violation of the weak equivalence principle. We use the first results on the Eötvös parameter by the MICROSCOPE experiment to set new constraints on such scalar fields. For a massive scalar field of mass smaller than 10^{-12}  eV (i.e., range larger than a few 10^{5}  m), we improve existing constraints by one order of magnitude to |α|<10^{-11} if the scalar field couples to the baryon number and to |α|<10^{-12} if the scalar field couples to the difference between the baryon and the lepton numbers...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Haipeng An, Maxim Pospelov, Josef Pradler, Adam Ritz
If dark matter (DM) particles are lighter than a few   MeV/c^{2} and can scatter off electrons, their interaction within the solar interior results in a considerable hardening of the spectrum of galactic dark matter received on Earth. For a large range of the mass versus cross section parameter space, {m_{e},σ_{e}}, the "reflected" component of the DM flux is far more energetic than the end point of the ambient galactic DM energy distribution, making it detectable with existing DM detectors sensitive to an energy deposition of 10-10^{3}  eV...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
E V Tkalya
The main decay channels of the anomalous low-energy 3/2^{+}(7.8±0.5  eV) isomeric level of the ^{229}Th nucleus, namely the γ emission and internal conversion, inside a dielectric sphere, dielectric thin film, and conducting spherical microcavity are investigated theoretically, taking into account the effect of media interfaces. It is shown that (1) the γ decay rate of the nuclear isomer inside a dielectric thin film and dielectric microsphere placed in a vacuum or in a metal cavity can decrease (increase) in dozen of times, (2) the γ activity of the distributed source as a function of time can be nonexponential, and (3) the metal cavity, whose size is of the order of the radiation wavelength, does not affect the probability of the internal conversion in ^{229}Th, because the virtual photon attenuates at much shorter distances and the reflected wave is very weak...
March 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Chunsheng Wu, Gaohuan Liu, Chong Huang, Qingsheng Liu, Xudong Guan
The Yellow River Delta (YRD), located in Yellow River estuary, is characterized by rich ecological system types, and provides habitats or migration stations for wild birds, all of which makes the delta an ecological barrier or ecotone for inland areas. Nevertheless, the abundant natural resources of YRD have brought huge challenges to the area, and frequent human activities and natural disasters have damaged the ecological systems seriously, and certain ecological functions have been threatened. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the status of the ecological environment based on scientific methods, which can provide scientifically robust data for the managers or stakeholders to adopt timely ecological protection measures...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ineta Popēna, Artūrs Ābols, Līga Saulīte, Kārlis Pleiko, Elīna Zandberga, Kaspars Jēkabsons, Edgars Endzeliņš, Alicia Llorente, Aija Linē, Una Riekstiņa
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are one of the most important players in the tumor microenvironment. The polarization status of tumor associated macrophages into a pro-inflammatory type M1 or anti-inflammatory type M2 may influence cancer progression and patient survival. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles containing different biomolecules that are involved in cell to cell signal transfer. Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer-derived EVs are taken up by macrophages and modulate their phenotype and cytokine profile...
April 24, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Jia Zhong, Andrea A Baccarelli, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Ravit Nahum, Russ Hauser, Valentina Bollati, Catherine Racowsky, Ronit Machtinger
Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerts both short- and long-term adverse effects on the developing fetus. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be uncovered. Maternal-fetal signaling is mediated in part by signaling molecules (eg, microRNAs [miRNAs]) contained in extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are released by the placenta into the maternal circulation. We investigated whether maternal exposure to the EDCs phthalates and personal care products alters the miRNA profile of placental-derived EVs circulating in maternal blood...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Janja Kuharić, Kristina Grabusic, Vlatka Sotosek Tokmadzic, Sanja Štifter, Ksenija Tulić, Olga Shevchuk, Pero Lučin, Alan Šustić
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous nanostructures that can indicate undergoing processes in organs and thus help in diagnostics and prognostics. They are secreted by all cells, contained in body fluids and able to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids to distant cells. Intracranial EVs were shown to change their composition after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and therefore to have biomarker potential to evaluate brain events. However, properties of intracranial EVs early after TBI have not been characterized...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nan-Nan Shen, Min-Lan Cai, Ying Song, Ze-Ping Wang, Fu-Quan Huang, Jian-Rong Li, Xiao-Ying Huang
A series of hybrid tellurium chlorides based on ionic liquids (ILs), namely, α-[Bmim]2 TeCl6 (1, Bmim = 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium), β-[Bmim]2 TeCl6 (2), [HOOCMim]2 TeCl6 (3, HOOCMim = 1-carboxymethyl-3-methyl imidazolium), [Bzmim]2 TeCl6 (4, Bzmim = 1-benzyl-3-methyl imidazolium), [EPy]2 TeCl6 (5, EPy = 1-ethylpyridinium), [Bmmim]2 TeCl6 (6, Bmmim = 1-butyl-2,3-dimethyl imidazolium), have been synthesized and characterized. Different kinds of supramolecular networks have been obtained via self-assemblies of isolated [TeCl6 ]2- anions and various ionic liquid cations...
April 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Chunlei Liu, Gong Zhang, Li Yu, Jiuhui Qu, Huijuan Liu
An outstanding hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst should have a free energy of adsorbed atomic hydrogen of approximately zero, which enables not only a fast proton/electron-transfer step but also rapid hydrogen release. An economic and industrially viable alternative approach for the optimization of atomic hydrogen binding energy is urgently needed. Herein, guided by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, it is theoretically demonstrated that oxygen doping in NiCoP can indeed optimize the atomic hydrogen binding energy (e...
April 24, 2018: Small
Lidong Gao, Gang Zou, Qiaohong Liao, Yonghong Zhou, Fengfeng Liu, Bingbing Dai, Jia Liu, Zhiyong Chen, Weijia Xing, Le Yang, Hong Liang, Yi Zhang, Zhenhua Chen, Li Luo, Qing Li, Kaiwei Luo, Peng Wu, Xiaowei Mo, Lili Wang, Ke Lan, Peter W Horby, Benjamin J Cowling, Peter Simmonds, Ralf Altmeyer, H Rogier van Doorn, Hongjie Yu
Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) represents a substantial disease burden in the Western Pacific region. We investigated the spectrum of causative enteroviruses of HFMD, and evaluated different clinical samples' diagnostic yield for enteroviruses. Methods: We enrolled pediatric patients hospitalized for HFMD among six hospitals in Anhua County, Hunan Province, China between October 2013 and September 2016. Throat swabs and stool samples (or rectal swabs) were collected to detect the enterovirus serotypes by real time RT-PCR or nested PCR...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Zheng Li, Noushin Omidvar, Wei Shan Chin, Esther Robb, Amanda J Morris, Luke E K Achenie, Hongliang Xin
Molecular functionalization of porphyrins opens countless new opportunities in tailoring their physicochemical properties for light-harvesting applications. However, the immense materials space spanned by a vast number of substituent ligands and chelating metal ions prohibits high-throughput screening of combinatorial libraries. In this work, machine learning algorithms equipped with the domain knowledge of chemical graph theory were employed for predicting the energy gaps of >12000 porphyrins from the Computational Materials Repository...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Niloufar Shafizadeh, Séverine Boyé-Péronne, Satchin Soorkia, Barbara K Cunha de Miranda, Gustavo A Garcia, Laurent Nahon, Shufeng Chen, Aurélien de la Lande, Lionel Poisson, Benoît Soep
A combined theoretical and experimental approach has been used to investigate the binding energy of a ruthenium metalloporphyrin ligated with CO, ruthenium tetraphenylporphyrin [RuII TPP], in the RuII oxidation degree. Measurements performed with VUV ionization using the DESIRS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL led to adiabatic ionization energies of [RuII TPP] and its complex with CO, [RuII TPP-CO], of 6.48 ± 0.03 eV and 6.60 ± 0.03 eV, respectively, while the ion dissociation threshold of [RuII TPP-CO]+ is measured to be 8...
April 24, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Ying Zhang, Lichun Wang, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) remain the predominant etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses are obviously different. CV-A16 usually triggers a repeated infection, and airway epithelial integrity is often the potential causative factor of respiratory repeated infections. Our previous studies have demonstrated that there were some differentially expressed miRNAs involved in the regulation of adhesion function of epithelial barrier in EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Daofu Yuan, Shengrui Yu, Wentao Chen, Jiwei Sang, Chang Luo, Tao Wang, Xin Xu, Piergiorgio Casavecchia, Xingan Wang, Zhigang Sun, Dong H Zhang, Xueming Yang
Accurate measurements of product state-resolved angular distributions are central to fundamental studies of chemical reaction dynamics. Yet, fine quantum-mechanical structures in product angular distributions of a reactive scattering process, such as the fast oscillations in the forward-scattering direction, have never been observed experimentally and the nature of these oscillations has not been fully explored. Here we report the crossed-molecular-beam experimental observation of these fast forward-scattering oscillations in the product angular distribution of the benchmark chemical reaction, H + HD → H2  + D...
April 23, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Yicheng Zhao, Hairen Tan, Haifeng Yuan, Zhenyu Yang, James Z Fan, Junghwan Kim, Oleksandr Voznyy, Xiwen Gong, Li Na Quan, Chih Shan Tan, Johan Hofkens, Dapeng Yu, Qing Zhao, Edward H Sargent
Formamidinium-lead-iodide (FAPbI3 )-based perovskites with bandgap below 1.55 eV are of interest for photovoltaics in view of their close-to-ideal bandgap. Record-performance FAPbI3 -based solar cells have relied on fabrication via the sequential-deposition method; however, these devices exhibit unstable output under illumination due to the difficulty of incorporating cesium cations (stabilizer) in sequentially deposited films. Here we devise a perovskite seeding method that efficiently incorporates cesium and beneficially modulates perovskite crystallization...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Navjot Shah, Masakii Ishii, Carlene Brandon, Zsolt Ablonczy, Jingwen Cai, Yutao Liu, James Chou, Bärbel Rohrer
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alterations in age-related macular degeneration occur in patches, potentially involving long-distance communication between damaged and healthy areas. Communication along the epithelium might be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). To test this hypothesis, EVs were collected from supernatants of polarized ARPE-19 and primary porcine RPE monolayers for functional and biochemical assays. EVs from oxidatively stressed donor cells reduced barrier function in recipient RPE monolayers when compared to control EVs...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rebeca Blázquez, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Verónica Álvarez, Elvira Matilla, Nuria Hernández, Federica Marinaro, María Gómez-Serrano, Inmaculada Jorge, Javier G Casado, Beatriz Macías-García
Endometrial Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (endMSCs) are multipotent cells with immunomodulatory and pro-regenerative activity which is mainly mediated by a paracrine effect. The exosomes released by MSCs have become a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. More specifically, extracellular vesicles derived from endMSCs (EV-endMSCs) have demonstrated a cardioprotective effect through the release of anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic factors. Here we hypothesize that EV-endMSCs may be used as a co-adjuvant to improve in vitro fertilization outcomes and embryo quality...
2018: PloS One
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