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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920441/nanotechnology-for-environmentally-sustainable-electromobility
#1
Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen, Christine Roxanne Hung, Guillaume Majeau-Bettez, Bhawna Singh, Zhongwei Chen, M Stanley Whittingham, Anders Hammer Strømman
Electric vehicles (EVs) powered by lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) or proton exchange membrane hydrogen fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer important potential climate change mitigation effects when combined with clean energy sources. The development of novel nanomaterials may bring about the next wave of technical improvements for LIBs and PEMFCs. If the next generation of EVs is to lead to not only reduced emissions during use but also environmentally sustainable production chains, the research on nanomaterials for LIBs and PEMFCs should be guided by a life-cycle perspective...
December 6, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919639/-evaluation-of-an-xpert-ev-cepheid-%C3%A2-molecular-diagnostic-technique-for-enteroviral-meningitis
#2
Natalia Alonso Pérez, Belén Sagastizabal Cardelus, Luis Manuel Prieto Tato, Sara Guillén Martín, Ana González Torralba, Isabel García Bermejo, José Tomás Ramos Amador
INTRODUCTION: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have shown to be useful and quick for the diagnosis of enterovirus in aseptic meningitis. The aim of our study was to analyse the changes in clinical practice after the introduction of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique using the Xpert EV (Cepheid(®)) assay for the qualitative detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid specimens from children with suspected viral meningitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in children older than 1year, diagnosed with enterovirus meningitis in a third level hospital from November 2006 to February 2013...
December 2, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918651/rational-design-of-high-performance-wide-bandgap-%C3%A2-2-ev-polymer-semiconductors-as-electron-donors-in-organic-photovoltaics-exhibiting-high-open-circuit-voltages-%C3%A2-1-v
#3
Christos L Chochos, Athanasios Katsouras, Nicola Gasparini, Chrysanthos Koulogiannis, Tayebeh Ameri, Christoph J Brabec, Apostolos Avgeropoulos
Systematic optimization of the chemical structure of wide-bandgap (≈2.0 eV) "donor-acceptor" copolymers consisting of indacenodithiophene or indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene as the electron-rich unit and thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione as the electron-deficient moiety in terms of alkyl side chain engineering and distance of the electron-rich and electron-deficient monomers within the repeat unit of the polymer chain results in high-performance electron donor materials for organic photovoltaics. Specifically, preliminary results demonstrate extremely high open circuit voltages (V oc s) of ≈1...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918646/bionanofiber-assisted-decoration-of-few-layered-mose2-nanosheets-on-3d-conductive-networks-for-efficient-hydrogen-evolution
#4
Feili Lai, Dingyu Yong, Xueliang Ning, Bicai Pan, Yue-E Miao, Tianxi Liu
Molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2 ) has emerged as a promising electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, its properties are still confined due to the limited active sites and poor conductivity. Thus, it remains a great challenge to synergistically achieve structural and electronic modulations for MoSe2 -based HER catalysts because of the contradictory relationship between these two characteristics. Herein, bacterial cellulose-derived carbon nanofibers are used to assist the uniform growth of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets, which effectively increase the active sites of MoSe2 for hydrogen atom adsorption...
December 5, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918268/severe-paediatric-conditions-linked-with-ev-a71-and-ev-d68-france-may-to-october-2016
#5
Denise Antona, Manoëlle Kossorotoff, Isabelle Schuffenecker, Audrey Mirand, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Clément Bassi, Mélodie Aubart, Florence Moulin, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Cécile Henquell, Bruno Lina, Isabelle Desguerre
We report 59 cases of severe paediatric conditions linked with enterovirus (EV)-A71 and EV-D68 in France between May and October 2016. Fifty-two children had severe neurological symptoms. EV sequence-based typing for 42 cases revealed EV-A71 in 21 (18 subgenotype C1, detected for the first time in France) and EV-D68 in eight. Clinicians should be encouraged to obtain stool and respiratory specimens from patients presenting with severe neurological disorders for EV detection and characterisation.
November 17, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918255/outbreak-of-enterovirus-d68-of-the-new-b3-lineage-in-stockholm-sweden-august-to-september-2016
#6
Robert Dyrdak, Malin Grabbe, Berit Hammas, Jonas Ekwall, Karin E Hansson, Joachim Luthander, Pontus Naucler, Henrik Reinius, Maria Rotzén-Östlund, Jan Albert
We report an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) outbreak in Stockholm Sweden in 2016. Between 22 August and 25 September EV-D68 was detected in 74/495 respiratory samples analysed at the Karolinska University Hospital. During the peak week, 30/91 (33%) samples were EV-D68 positive. Viral protein (VP)P4/VP2 sequencing revealed that cases were caused by B3 lineage strains. Forty-four (59%) EV-D68-positive patients were children aged ≤ 5 years. Ten patients had severe respiratory or neurological symptoms and one died...
November 17, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917920/transcriptome-and-long-noncoding-rna-sequencing-of-three-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes-released-from-the-human-colon-cancer-lim1863-cell-line
#7
Maoshan Chen, Rong Xu, Hong Ji, David W Greening, Alin Rai, Keiichi Izumikawa, Hideaki Ishikawa, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Richard J Simpson
Previously we reported that LIM1863 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells secrete three distinct extracellular vesicle subtypes - two subpopulations of exosomes (apical EpCAM-Exos and basolateral A33-Exos) and shed microvesicles (sMVs) - with distinct protein and miRNA signatures. Here, we extend our omics approach to understand the fundamental role of LIM1863-derived EVs by performing a comprehensive analysis of their mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) using RNA-Seq. We show that 2,389 mRNAs, 317 pseudogene transcripts, 1,028 lncRNAs and 206 short non-coding RNAs selectively distributed to (i...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917441/size-selective-harvesting-of-extracellular-vesicles-for-strategic-analyses-towards-tumor-diagnoses
#8
Chihiro Manri, Takahide Yokoi, Hirokazu Nishida
Extracellular vesicles (EV), typified by exosomes or microvesicles, are expected to be effective diagnostic markers for cancers. The sizes of the vesicles range from 20 to 1000 nm, but the size-dependent variations of the contents of EVs are still poorly understood. We succeeded in the size-selective harvesting of the vesicles by utilizing the molecular weight-dependent characteristics of a variety of polyethylene glycols (PEG) as precipitating reagents and analyzed the antigens displayed on the surfaces of the vesicles and the miRNAs included in the vesicles from each size group...
December 5, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916848/water-will-be-the-coal-of-the-future-the-untamed-dream-of-jules-verne-for-a-solar-fuel
#9
REVIEW
Vladimir K Ryabchuk, Vyacheslav N Kuznetsov, Alexei V Emeline, Yurii M Artem'ev, Galina V Kataeva, Satoshi Horikoshi, Nick Serpone
This article evokes the futuristic visions of two giants, one a writer, Jules Verne, who foresaw water as the coal of the future, and the other a scientist, Giacomo Ciamician, who foresaw the utilization of solar energy as an energy source with which to drive photochemical and photocatalytic reactions for the betterment of mankind. Specifically, we examine briefly the early work of the 1960s and 1970s on the photosplitting of free water and water adsorbed on solid supports, based mostly on metal oxides, from which both hydrogen and oxygen evolve in the expected stoichiometric ratio of 2 to 1...
November 29, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914351/photocatalytic-degradation-of-industrial-pulp-and-paper-mill-effluent-using-synthesized-magnetic-fe2o3-tio2-treatment-efficiency-and-characterizations-of-reused-photocatalyst
#10
Wennie Subramonian, Ta Yeong Wu, Siang-Piao Chai
In this work, heterogeneous photocatalysis was used to treat pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME). Magnetically retrievable Fe2O3-TiO2 was fabricated by employing a solvent-free mechanochemical process under ambient conditions. Findings elucidated the successful incorporation of Fe2O3 into the TiO2 lattice. Fe2O3-TiO2 was found to be an irregular and slightly agglomerated surface morphology. In comparison to commercial P25, Fe2O3-TiO2 exhibited higher ferromagnetism and better catalyst properties with improvements in surface area (58...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914285/human-parechovirus-and-enterovirus-initiate-distinct-cns-innate-immune-responses-pathogenic-and-diagnostic-implications
#11
Danielle Fortuna, Ana María Cárdenas, Erin H Graf, Larry A Harshyne, D Craig Hooper, Michael Prosniak, John Shields, Mark T Curtis
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) cause a range of human diseases including serious CNS infections. Little is known regarding the immune response to HPeV meningitis compared to EV meningitis or how the immune response to HPeV reflects its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the innate immune response to HPeV CNS infection in order to increase our understanding of HPeV pathogenesis and possibly help identify HPeV in the clinical setting...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911545/angle-resolved-spectroscopy-of-positronium-emission-from-a-cu-110-surface
#12
A C L Jones, H J Rutbeck-Goldman, T H Hisakado, A M Piñeiro, H W K Tom, A P Mills, B Barbiellini, J Kuriplach
The affinity A_{Ps} of positronium (Ps) atoms for a metal is the negative of the maximum kinetic energy with which Ps is emitted into vacuum when thermalized positrons in a metal encounter the surface. When this quantity is measured by ground state Ps time of flight (TOF), the precision is severely limited by the short triplet state lifetime of 142 ns. By quickly converting the emitted Ps atoms into long-lived Rydberg states, we are able to dramatically increase the TOF to allow precision measurements of A_{Ps}...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911481/photoluminescence-and-thermoluminescence-of-k2-mg-so4-2-eu-and-evaluation-of-its-kinetic-parameters
#13
Archana Deshpande, N S Dhoble, S C Gedam, S J Dhoble
The K2 Mg(SO4 )2 :Eu phosphor, synthesized by a solid-state diffusion method, was studied for its photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the material was matched with the standard JCPDF No. 36-1499. For PL characteristics, K2 Mg(SO4 )2 :Eu(2)(+) showed an emission peak at 474 nm when excited at 340 nm, while it showed Eu(3)(+) emission at 580 nm, and 594 nm splitting at 613 nm and 618 nm for an excitation of 396 nm wavelength due to radiative transitions from (5) D0 to (7) Fj (j = 0, 1, 2, 3)...
December 2, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910921/bipolar-and-unipolar-silylene-diphenylene-%C3%AF-%C3%AF-conjugated-polymer-route-for-highly-efficient-electrophosphorescence
#14
Yao-Tang Chang, Sunil Sharma, Miao-Ken Hung, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Show-An Chen
σ-π conjugated polymer strategy is proposed for designing electroluminescent host polymers with silylene-diphenylene as the backbone repeat unit giving a high triplet energy (ET = 2.67 eV). By incorporation of high ET (3.0 eV) electron (oxadiazole, OXD) and hole (triphenyl amine, TPA) transport moieties, or TPA alone (in this case, the main chain acts as electron transport channel) as side arms on the silylene, the high ET bipolar and unipolar polymers are formed, allowing a use of iridium green phosphor (Ir(ppy)2(acac), Ir-G) (ET = 2...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910695/understanding-reconstructed-dante-spectra-using-high-resolution-spectroscopy
#15
M J May, J Weaver, K Widmann, G E Kemp, D Thorn, J D Colvin, M B Schneider, A Moore, B E Blue
The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910678/first-results-from-the-thomson-scattering-diagnostic-on-proto-mpex
#16
T M Biewer, S Meitner, J Rapp, H Ray, G Shaw
A Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic has been successfully implemented on the prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic collects the light scattered by plasma electrons and spectroscopically resolves the Doppler shift imparted to the light by the velocity of the electrons. The spread in velocities is proportional to the electron temperature, while the total number of photons is proportional to the electron density. TS is a technique used on many devices to measure the electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) of the plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910664/two-photon-lif-on-the-hit-si3-experiment-absolute-density-and-temperature-measurements-of-deuterium-neutrals
#17
Drew Elliott, Derek Sutherland, Umair Siddiqui, Earl Scime, Chris Everson, Kyle Morgan, Aaron Hossack, Brian Nelson, Tom Jarboe
Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence measurements were performed on the helicity injected torus (HIT-SI3) device to determine the density and temperature of the background neutral deuterium population. Measurements were taken in 2 ms long pulsed plasmas after the inductive helicity injectors were turned off. Attempts to measure neutrals during the main phase of the plasma were unsuccessful, likely due to the density of neutrals being below the detection threshold of the diagnostic. An unexpectedly low density of atomic deuterium was measured in the afterglow; roughly 100 times lower than the theoretical prediction of 10(17) m(-3)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910649/upgrades-to-improve-the-usability-reliability-and-spectral-range-of-the-mst-thomson-scattering-diagnostic
#18
S Z Kubala, M T Borchardt, D J Den Hartog, D J Holly, C M Jacobson, L A Morton, W C Young
The Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST records both equilibrium and fluctuating electron temperature with a range capability of 10 eV-5 keV. Standard operation with two modified commercial Nd:YAG lasers allows measurements at rates of 1 kHz-25 kHz. Several subsystems of the diagnostic are being improved. The power supplies for the avalanche photodiode detectors (APDs) that record the scattered light are being replaced to improve usability, reliability, and maintainability. Each of the 144 APDs will have an individual rack mounted switching supply, with bias voltage adjustable to match the APD...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910646/a-streaked-x-ray-spectroscopy-platform-for-rapidly-heated-near-solid-density-plasmas
#19
C R Stillman, P M Nilson, S T Ivancic, C Mileham, I A Begishev, R K Junquist, D J Nelson, D H Froula
A picosecond, time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy platform was developed to study the thermal line emission from rapidly heated solid targets containing buried aluminum or iron layers. The targets were driven by high-contrast 1ω or 2ω laser pulses at focused intensities up to 1 × 10(19) W/cm(2). The experimental platform combines time-integrating and time-resolved x-ray spectrometers. Picosecond time resolution was achieved with a pair of ultrafast x-ray streak cameras coupled to high-throughput Hall spectrometers...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910640/calibration-of-the-microcalorimeter-spectrometer-on-board-the-hitomi-astro-h-observatory-invited
#20
M E Eckart, K R Boyce, G V Brown, M P Chiao, R Fujimoto, D Haas, J-W den Herder, Y Ishisaki, R L Kelley, C A Kilbourne, M A Leutenegger, D McCammon, K Mitsuda, F S Porter, M Sawada, G A Sneiderman, A E Szymkowiak, Y Takei, M Tashiro, M Tsujimoto, C P de Vries, T Watanabe, S Yamada, N Y Yamasaki
The Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was a pioneering non-dispersive imaging x-ray spectrometer with 5 eV FWHM energy resolution, consisting of an array of 36 silicon-thermistor microcalorimeters at the focus of a high-throughput soft x-ray telescope. The instrument enabled astrophysical plasma diagnostics in the 0.3-12 keV band. We introduce the SXS calibration strategy and corresponding ground calibration measurements that took place from 2012-2015, including both the characterization of the microcalorimeter array and measurements of the x-ray transmission of optical blocking filters...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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