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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470996/default-mode-network-and-deep-gray-matter-analysis-in-neuromyelitis-optica-patients
#1
Fernanda C Rueda-Lopes, Fernanda M C Pessôa, Gustavo Tukamoto, Fabíola Rachid Malfetano, Simone Batista Scherpenhuijzen, Soniza Alves-Leon, Emerson L Gasparetto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to detect functional changes in default-mode network of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance images and the evaluation of subcortical grey-matter structures volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NMO patients (n = 28) and controls patients (N=19) were enrolled. We used the integrated registration and segmentation tool, part of FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) to segment subcortical structures including the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus and amygdalae...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455361/treatment-of-neuromyelitis-optica-with-rituximab-a-2-year-prospective-multicenter-study
#2
Philippe Cabre, M Mejdoubi, S Jeannin, H Merle, Y Plumelle, G Cavillon, D Smadja, R Marignier
OBJECTIVE: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a very severe autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. It affects young subjects and has a poor prognosis both on a functional and vital level. Therefore, it is imperative to reduce the frequency of relapses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and neuroradiological effectiveness of rituximab (RTX) on active forms of NMO. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year open prospective multicenter study that included 32 patients treated with RTX at a dose of 375 mg/m2 /week for 1 month...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454471/severe-course-of-neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-female-patient-with-chronic-c-hepatitis
#3
Krystian Obara, Marta Waliszewska-Prosół, Sławomir Budrewicz, Paweł Szewczyk, Maria Ejma
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare, disabling, recurring inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the spinal cord and optic nerves with predominance in women. We present the case of a female patient with chronic C hepatitis, who, despite treatment, developed severe symptoms of NMO during pregnancy and postpartum.
February 6, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433095/early-relapse-after-rtx-initiation-in-a-patient-with-nmo-ms-overlap-syndrome-how-long-to-conclude-to-a-failure-treatment
#4
Elisabeth Maillart, Anaïs Lippi, Catherine Lubetzki, Céline Louapre, Caroline Papeix
BACKGROUND: We report a dramatic clinical and radiological worsening within two months after rituximab initiation in a patient with NeuroMyelitis Optica/Multiple Sclerosis (NMO/MS) overlap syndrome. METHODS: Case study. RESULTS: A 45-year-old Caucasian woman with NMO/MS overlap syndrome experienced a severe myelitis nine weeks after first rituximab infusion, with extensive new gadolinium-enhanced spinal cord lesions. CONCLUSION: This case report illustrates the limits of MS and NMO-Spectrum Disorder classification and challenges the criteria of therapeutic failure within the 6 months after rituximab initiation...
February 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428821/recombinant-igg1-fc-hexamers-block-cytotoxicity-and-pathological-changes-in-experimental-in-vitro-and-rat-models-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#5
Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Christian M Felix, Rolf Spirig, Adriana Baz Morelli, A S Verkman
Intravenous human immunoglobulin G (IVIG) may have therapeutic benefit in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO), in part because of the anti-inflammatory properties of the IgG Fc region. Here, we evaluated recombinant Fc hexamers consisting of the IgM μ-tailpiece fused with the Fc region of human IgG1. In vitro, the Fc hexamers prevented cytotoxicity in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressing cells and in rat spinal cord slice cultures exposed to NMO anti-AQP4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) and complement, with >500-fold greater potency than IVIG or monomeric Fc fragments...
February 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389745/safety-and-efficacy-of-rituximab-experience-of-a-single-multiple-sclerosis-center
#6
Brett Alldredge, Allison Jordan, Jaime Imitola, Michael K Racke
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. B cells play an important pathogenic role in MS. Rituximab (RTX), a B-cell depleting drug, has been used to treat MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Patient characteristics, safety, and efficacy measures are reviewed to ascertain the therapeutic benefit and safety of RTX in a real-world setting with long-term follow-up. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of patients who received RTX at The Ohio State University's MS clinic from January 2005 to October 2016...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383742/crystal-structure-of-yeast-nitronate-monooxygenase-from-cyberlindnera-saturnus
#7
Johnson Agniswamy, Renata A G Reis, Yuan-Fang Wang, Crystal Smitherman, Dan Su, Irene Weber, Giovanni Gadda
Nitronate monooxygenase (NMO) is an FMN-dependent enzyme that oxidizes the neurotoxin propionate 3-nitronate (P3N) and represents the best-known system for P3N detoxification in different organisms. The crystal structure of the first eukaryotic Class I NMO from Cyberlindnera saturnus (CsNMO) has been solved at 1.65 Å resolution and refined to an R-factor of 14.0%. The three-dimensional structures of yeast CsNMO and bacterial PaNMO are highly conserved with the exception of three additional loops on the surface in the CsNMO enzyme and differences in four active sites residues...
January 31, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375997/retinal-ganglion-cell-inner-plexiform-and-nerve-fiber-layers-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#8
Sai-Jing Hu, Pei-Rong Lu
AIM: To determine the thickness of the retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 30 NMO patients with a total of 60 eyes. Based on the presence or absence of optic neuritis (ON), subjects were divided into either the NMO-ON group (30 eyes) or the NMO-ON contra group (10 eyes). A detailed ophthalmologic examination was performed for each group; subsequently, the GCIPL and the RNFL were measured using high-definition optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370683/systematic-review-of-published-data-on-the-worldwide-prevalence-of-john-cunningham-virus-jcv-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Sonia Castedo Paz, Luciana Prats Branco, Marina Alves Camargo Pereira, Caroline Vieira Spessotto, Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Purpose: The John Cunningham virus (JCV) is a polyoma virus that infects humans mainly in childhood or adolescence, and presents no symptomatic manifestations. JCV can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed individuals, including those undergoing treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). PML is a severe and potentially fatal disease of the brain. The prevalence of JCV antibodies has been described to be between 50% and 90% in human serum...
January 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367170/application-of-the-2015-diagnostic-criteria-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-in-a-cohort-of-latin-american-patients
#10
E Carnero Contentti, I Soto de Castillo, V Daccach Marques, P A López, A Antunes Barreira, E Armas, C de Aquino Cruz, A Rubstein, C Lavigne Moreira, O M Molina, A Soto, V Tkachuk
BACKGROUND: The 2015 International Panel for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (NMOSD) diagnosis (IPND) criteria was recently proposed. However, because there are no studies evaluating application of the IPND criteria in Latin American populations, we aimed to assess whether these new criteria improve the diagnostic rate and reduce the time taken to make the diagnosis in a cohort of Latin American patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and applied both the 2006 and 2015 diagnostic criteria to all patients seen in four centers in Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela...
January 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359475/incidence-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-in-the-central-denmark-region
#11
G H Dale, K B Svendsen, M C Gjelstrup, T Christensen, G Houen, E Nielsen, T Bek, T Petersen
OBJECTIVES: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may be misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to (i) to measure AQP4-IgG in patients who fulfilled the clinical and radiological criteria of NMOSD in the Central Denmark Region and (ii) to estimate the incidence of NMOSD in the region, according to both the 2006 Wingerchuk criteria and the 2015 International Panel for NMO Diagnosis criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of all patients diagnosed with a demyelinating disorder in the region from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013 were reviewed...
January 22, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349658/the-il-10-producing-regulatory-b-cells-b10-cells-and-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#12
Eun Bin Cho, Hye-Jin Cho, Jin Myoung Seok, Ju-Hong Min, Eun-Suk Kang, Byoung Joon Kim
B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by producing Aquaporin 4-specific autoantibodies (AQP4-ab); on the other hand, there are certain B cells that suppress immune responses by producing regulatory cytokines, such as IL-10. In this study, we investigated the presence of IL-10-producing Breg cells among lymphocyte subsets. Twenty-two seropositive NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients (29 samples) and 13 healthy controls (HCs) (14 samples) were enrolled. All NMOSD patients have received one or more immunosuppressive drugs...
January 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339316/diagnosis-and-management-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Alice Bruscolini, Marta Sacchetti, Maurizio La Cava, Magda Gharbiya, Massimo Ralli, Alessandro Lambiase, Armando de Virgilio, Antonio Greco
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a group of autoimmune conditions characterized by inflammatory involvement of the optic nerve, spinal cord and central nervous system. Novel evidence showed a key role of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4 IgG) in the pathogenesis of NMOSD and, recently, new classification and diagnostic criteria have been adopted to facilitate an earlier identification and improve the management of these conditions. Diagnosis of NMOSD is currently based on clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features...
January 12, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321467/importance-of-regular-and-maintenance-therapy-adherence-in-neuromyelitis-optica-nmo-lessons-from-a-repeating-relapse-case
#14
Jing Miao, Doreen E Aboagye, Boris Chulpayev, Lin Liu, Gary Ishkanian, Bangaruraju Kolanuvada, Dariush Alaie, Richard L Petrillo
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system; NMO predominantly affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. The diagnosis is based on history, clinical presentation, seropositive NMO-IgG antibody, and notably, exclusion of other diseases. Despite the absence of definitive therapeutic strategies for NMO, methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasma exchange are used for acute phase treatment, while immunosuppressive agent(s) are recommended to prevent relapses and improve prognosis...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320331/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-spectrum-of-mr-imaging-findings-and-their-differential-diagnosis
#15
Bruna Garbugio Dutra, Antônio José da Rocha, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Antônio Carlos Martins Maia
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder for which the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels are the major target antigens. Advances in the understanding of NMO have clarified several points of its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and imaging patterns. A major advance was the discovery of the AQP4 antibody, which is highly specific for this disorder. Descriptions of new clinical and radiologic features in seropositive patients have expanded the spectrum of NMO, and the term NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been adopted...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311561/inhibition-of-rgma-alleviates-symptoms-in-a-rat-model-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#16
Kana Harada, Yuki Fujita, Tatsusada Okuno, Shogo Tanabe, Yoshihisa Koyama, Hideki Mochizuki, Toshihide Yamashita
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease associated with NMO immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG), an antibody that selectively binds to the aquaporin-4. Here, we established a localized NMO model by injecting NMO-IgG into the spinal cord, and assessed the efficacy of treating its NMO-like symptoms by blocking repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa), an axon growth inhibitor. The model showed pathological features consistent with NMO. Systemic administration of humanized monoclonal anti-RGMa antibody delayed the onset and attenuated the severity of clinical symptoms...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309416/long-term-safety-of-rituximab-induced-peripheral-b-cell-depletion-in-autoimmune-neurological-diseases
#17
Anza B Memon, Adil Javed, Christina Caon, Shitiz Srivastawa, Fen Bao, Evanthia Bernitsas, Jessica Chorostecki, Alexandros Tselis, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Omar Khan
BACKGROUND: B-cells play a pivotal role in several autoimmune diseases, including patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders (PIMND), such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO), multiple sclerosis (MS), and myasthenia gravis (MG). Targeting B-cells has been an effective approach in ameliorating both central and peripheral autoimmune diseases. However, there is a paucity of literature on the safety of continuous B-cell depletion over a long period of time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term safety, incidence of infections, and malignancies in subjects receiving continuous therapy with a B-cell depleting agent rituximab over at least 3 years or longer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306405/chloride-imbalance-between-serum-and-csf-in-the-acute-phase-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#18
Tetsuya Akaishi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
We collected serum-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-paired samples during the acute phase of clinical episodes in MS and NMO patients, together with paired samples from non-MS/NMO patients, to compare the quotients of proteins and electrolytes among them. In NMO, the quotient of chloride was significantly higher in the acute phase of optic neuritis and brain lesions, but it was significantly lower in the acute phase of myelitis. Such findings were not observed in MS or in non-MS/NMO cases. With the coexistence of serum anti-AQP4-Ab, chloride imbalance between serum and CSF could be associated with the clinical episodes in NMO...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297712/comparison-of-olfactory-function-between-neuromyelitis-optica-and-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Li-Min Li, Hui-Yue Guo, Ning Zhao, Lin-Jie Zhang, Ningnannan Zhang, Jingchun Liu, Li Yang
OBJECTIVES: Olfactory dysfunction (ODF) has been reported in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the comparison of olfactory function and olfactory-related gray matter (GM) between patients with NMO and MS needed to be further elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with NMO and 37 with MS were enrolled. Olfactory function was evaluated with a Japanese T&T olfactometer test kit, and the neuroanatomical features of olfactory-related GM were assessed using voxel-based morphometry...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291482/paraneoplastic-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-single-center-cohort-description-with-two-cases-of-histological-validation
#20
Philippe Beauchemin, Raffaele Iorio, Anthony L Traboulsee, Thalia Field, Anna V Tinker, Robert L Carruthers
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic syndromes are remote effects of cancer caused by an autoimmune response triggered by tumor cells. Paraneoplastic Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) has been previously described, but the underlying mechanism for these rare cases is not well characterized. This paper presents a newly described case series of paraneoplastic NMOSD, including 2 new histological types of cancer and histological validation. METHODS: The UBC NMO clinic database was surveyed and identified 6 patients with paraneoplastic NMOSD...
December 23, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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