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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167626/exploring-spatial-and-temporal-patterns-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-endemic-areas-of-bangladesh
#1
Ashraf Dewan, Abu Yousuf Md Abdullah, Md Rakibul Islam Shogib, Razimul Karim, Md Masudur Rahman
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is a considerable public health burden on the Indian subcontinent. The disease is highly endemic in the north-central part of Bangladesh, affecting the poorest and most marginalized communities. Despite the fact that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) results in mortality, severe morbidity, and socioeconomic stress in the region, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease have largely remained unexplored, especially in Bangladesh. Methods: Monthly VL cases between 2010 and 2014, obtained from subdistrict hospitals, were studied in this work...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166896/graph-theoretical-comparison-of-normal-and-tumor-networks-in-identifying-brca-genes
#2
Joaquin Dopazo, Cesim Erten
BACKGROUND: Identification of driver genes related to certain types of cancer is an important research topic. Several systems biology approaches have been suggested, in particular for the identification of breast cancer (BRCA) related genes. Such approaches usually rely on differential gene expression and/or mutational landscape data. In some cases interaction network data is also integrated to identify cancer-related modules computationally. RESULTS: We provide a framework for the comparative graph-theoretical analysis of networks integrating the relevant gene expression, mutations, and potein-protein interaction network data...
November 22, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166298/evaluation-of-a-broad-spectrum-partially-automated-adverse-event-surveillance-system-a-potential-tool-for-patient-safety-improvement-in-hospitals-with-limited-resources
#3
Melody Saikali, Alain Tanios, Antoine Saab
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity and resource efficiency of a partially automated adverse event (AE) surveillance system for routine patient safety efforts in hospitals with limited resources. METHODS: Twenty-eight automated triggers from the hospital information system's clinical and administrative databases identified cases that were then filtered by exclusion criteria per trigger and then reviewed by an interdisciplinary team. The system, developed and implemented using in-house resources, was applied for 45 days of surveillance, for all hospital inpatient admissions (N = 1107)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165484/diffusiophoresis-in-one-dimensional-solute-gradients
#4
Jesse T Ault, Patrick B Warren, Sangwoo Shin, Howard A Stone
The diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γp relative to the solute diffusivity Ds for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains...
November 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165078/pharmaceutical-product-lead-optimization-for-better-in-vivo-bioequivalence-performance-a-case-study-of-diclofenac-sodium-extended-release-matrix-tablets
#5
Aliasgar Shahiwala, Aisha Zarar
BACKGROUND: In order to prove the validity of a new formulation, a considerable amount of efforts is required to study bioequivalence, not only increases the burden of carrying out a number of bioequivalence studies but eventually increase the cost of the optimization process. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop sustained release matrix tablets containing diclofenac sodium using natural polymers and to demonstrate step by step process of product development till the prediction of in vivo marketed product equivalence of the developed product...
November 20, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164520/adrenal-myelolipoma-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Ábel Decmann, Pál Perge, Miklós Tóth, Peter Igaz
INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipoma is an invariably benign neoplasm of the adrenal gland that is the second most common primary adrenal incidentaloma following adrenocortical adenomas. It is composed of elements of adipose tissue and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Hypotheses on stem cells and hormonal factors have been formulated regarding its pathogenesis that is still obscure. Despite its benign behavior, adrenal myelolipoma is clinically relevant as it might cause significant difficulties in the differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors...
November 21, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163935/the-cost-of-diabetes-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-in-2015-evidence-for-decision-and-policy-makers
#7
Alberto Barcelo, Armando Arredondo, Amparo Gordillo-Tobar, Johanna Segovia, Anthony Qiang
BACKGROUND: The financial implications of the increase in the prevalence of diabetes in middle-income countries represents one of the main challenges to health system financing and to the society as a whole. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2015. METHODS: The study used a prevalence-based approach to estimate the direct and indirect costs related to diabetes in 29 LAC countries in 2015...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161854/an-sir-epidemic-model-with-vaccination-in-a-patchy-environment
#8
Qianqian Cui, Zhipeng Qiu, Ling Ding
In this paper, an SIR patch model with vaccination is formulated to investigate the effect of vaccination coverage and the impact of human mobility on the spread of diseases among patches. The control reproduction number Rv is derived. It shows that the disease-free equilibrium is unique and is globally asymptotically stable if Rv< 1, and unstable if Rv>1. The sufficient condition for the local stability of boundary equilibria and the existence of equilibria are obtained for the case n=2. Numerical simulations indicate that vaccines can control and prevent the outbreak of infectious in all patches while migration may magnify the outbreak size in one patch and shrink the outbreak size in other patch...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161026/conditional-reversible-work-coarse-grained-models-of-molecular-liquids-with-coulomb-electrostatics-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-weakly-polar-organic-molecules
#9
Gregor Deichmann, Nico F A van der Vegt
Scale bridging simulations of soft matter rely on the availability of transferable coarse-grained models. In systematic coarse-graining approaches, core principles of statistical mechanics are used to relate the coarse-grained models to the underlying molecular interactions. The conditional reversible work (CRW) method provides effective, nonbonded pair potentials by means of computing coupling free energies between mapped chemical groups. This method has so far been used almost exclusively for systems composed of apolar organic molecules, but additional challenges arise when developing coarse-grained models for polar molecules in which (long-ranged) electrostatic interactions are important...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160626/film-forming-properties-of-cissus-pulpunea-guill-and-perr-and-irvingia-gabonensis-o-rorke-gums
#10
Tolulope Omolola Ajala, Hope Idemudia Olaiya, Oluwatoyin Adepeju Odeku
BACKGROUND: Natural polymers such as gums have gained attention in drug delivery systems due to their availability, compatibility and degradation under natural and physiological conditions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the film forming properties of gums obtained from the stem of Cissus polpunea (Guill and Perr) and the seed of Irvingia gabonensis (O'Rorke). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gums were extracted from the relevant plant parts and characterized using functional, proximate and elemental properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159532/a-multiphysics-approach-for-modeling-early-atherosclerosis
#11
M P Thon, A Hemmler, A Glinzer, M Mayr, M Wildgruber, A Zernecke-Madsen, M W Gee
This work is devoted to the development of a mathematical model of the early stages of atherosclerosis incorporating processes of all time scales of the disease and to show their interactions. The cardiovascular mechanics is modeled by a fluid-structure interaction approach coupling a non-Newtonian fluid to a hyperelastic solid undergoing anisotropic growth and a change of its constitutive equation. Additionally, the transport of low-density lipoproteins and its penetration through the endothelium is considered by a coupled set of advection-diffusion-reaction equations...
November 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158704/a-quality-by-design-approach-for-the-development-of-lyophilized-liposomes-with-simvastatin
#12
Alina Porfire, Dana Maria Muntean, Lucia Rus, Bianca Sylvester, Ioan Tomuţă
Lyophilization is used to ensure an increased shelf-life of liposomes, by preserving them in dry state, more stable than the aqueous dispersions. When stored as aqueous systems, the encapsulated drugs are released and the liposomes might aggregate or fuse. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a lyophilized formulation of simvastatin (SIM) loaded into long circulating liposomes using the Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Pharmaceutical development by QbD aims to identify characteristics that are critical for the final product quality, and to establish how the critical process parameters can be varied to consistently produce a product with the desired characteristics...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158694/the-art-of-removing-nasal-foreign-bodies
#13
Tian-Tee Ng, Michael Nasserallah
Objective: The removal of nasal foreign bodies (NFBs) can be a difficult task for the inexperienced physician, and the more unsuccessful attempts are made, the more difficult the extraction becomes. We have formulated this simple "four-step" approach to improve success, especially on the first try. Methods: A retrospective review of cases requiring NFB removal, seen by one registrar from 2012 to 2016 at Frankston Hospital, was performed. Results: From 2012 to 2016, 93 patients were referred, of whom 65 were confirmed to have NFBs...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157782/comparative-assessment-of-the-effect-of-hyper-glycosylation-on-the-pattern-and-kinetics-of-degradation-of-darbepoetin-alfa-using-a-stability-indicating-orthogonal-testing-protocol
#14
Eman M Moenes, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Abeer A Mohamed, Maissa Y Salem
Darbepoetin alfa (DA); hyper-glycosylated Erythropoietin alfa (EPO) is an essential treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney failure and cancer. In this study, DA and EPO were subjected to physicochemical stress factors that might be encountered during production, transport and storage (pH, temperature, agitation, repeated freeze-thaw and oxidation). An orthogonal stability-indicating assay protocol comprised of SE-HPLC, RP-HPLC, ELISA and SDS-PAGE was developed and validated to investigate the effect of further glycosylation of DA on the pattern and kinetics of degradation...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157288/development-of-a-framework-to-improve-the-utilisation-of-malaria-research-for-policy-development-in-malawi
#15
Chikondi Mwendera, Christiaan de Jager, Herbert Longwe, Charles Hongoro, Kamija Phiri, Clifford M Mutero
BACKGROUND: The existing gap between research evidence and public health practice has attributed to the unmet Millennium Development Goals in Africa and consequently, has stimulated the development of frameworks to enhance knowledge translation. These efforts aim at maximising health research utilisation in policy and practice to address the world's disease burdens, including malaria. This study aimed at developing a contextual framework to improve the utilisation of malaria research for policy development in Malawi...
November 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156348/development-of-photoprotective-antiphototoxic-and-antiphotogenotoxic-formulations-of-ocular-drugs-with-fluoroquinolones
#16
Anna Zgadzaj, Joanna Kornacka, Anita Jastrzębska, Andrzej Parzonko, Sylwester Sommer, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki
The development of innovative solutions in photosafety of photolabile pharmaceutical products may help to reduce the adverse effects of these products, caused by light exposure. Providing new data in this area of study is particularly important in case of drugs applied topically on sensitive organs such as eyes. The main goal of this research is to investigate whether two potential excipients, namely: p-coumaric acid and benzophenone-4, affect the photodegradation, phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of water solutions of four fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, fleroxacin and clinafloxacin...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155569/redox-behavior-of-a-dinuclear-ruthenium-ii-complex-bearing-an-uncommon-bridging-ligand-insights-from-high-pressure-electrochemistry
#17
Maximilian Dürr, Johannes Klein, Axel Kahnt, Sabine Becker, Ralph Puchta, Biprajit Sarkar, Ivana Ivanović-Burmazović
A dinuclear ruthenium complex bridged by 2,3,5,6-pyrazinetetracarboxylic acid (μ-LH2(2-)) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry under ambient and elevated pressures, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV/vis-NIR (NIR = near-infrared) spectroelectrochemistry, pulse radiolysis, and computational methods. We probed for the first time in the field of mixed-valency the use of high-pressure electrochemical methods. The investigations were directed toward the influence of the protonation state of the bridging ligand on the electronic communication between the ruthenium ions, since such behavior is interesting in terms of modulating redox chemistry by pH...
November 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153858/an-evaluation-of-the-feedback-loops-in-the-poverty-focus-of-world-bank-operations
#18
Shahrokh Fardoust, Ravi Kanbur, Xubei Luo, Mark Sundberg
The World Bank Group in 2013 made the elimination of extreme poverty by 2030 a central institutional focus and purpose. This paper, based on an evaluation conducted by the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank Group, examines how, and how well, the Bank uses feedback loops to enhance the poverty focus of its operations. Feedback loops are important for every element of the results chain running from data, to diagnostics, to strategy formulation and finally to strategy implementation. The evaluation uses a range of instruments, including surveys of stakeholders and World Bank staff, focus group meetings, country case studies and systematic reviews of Bank lending and non-lending operations...
September 1, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153580/effectiveness-and-safety-of-oro-dispersible-sildenafil-in-a-new-film-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction-comparison-between-sildenafil-100-mg-film-coated-tablet-and-75-mg-oro-dispersible-film
#19
Andrea Cocci, Marco Capece, Gianmartin Cito, Giorgio Ivan Russo, Marco Falcone, Massimiliano Timpano, Michele Rizzo, Pier Andrea Della Camera, Simone Morselli, Riccardo Campi, Francesco Sessa, Giovanni Cacciamani, Andrea Minervini, Mauro Gacci, Vincenzo Mirone, Girolamo Morelli, Nicola Mondaini, Gaia Polloni, Sergio Serni, Alessandro Natali
BACKGROUND: A new oro-dispersible film (ODF) formulation of sildenafil has been developed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) to overcome the drawbacks that some patients experience when taking the conventional film-coated tablet (FCT). AIM: To assess the effectiveness and safety of sildenafil ODF formulation in patients with ED who were using the conventional FCT. METHODS: From May 2017 through July 2017, 139 patients with ED were enrolled...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150680/potential-landscape-of-high-dimensional-nonlinear-stochastic-dynamics-with-large-noise
#20
Ying Tang, Ruoshi Yuan, Gaowei Wang, Xiaomei Zhu, Ping Ao
Quantifying stochastic processes is essential to understand many natural phenomena, particularly in biology, including the cell-fate decision in developmental processes as well as the genesis and progression of cancers. While various attempts have been made to construct potential landscape in high dimensional systems and to estimate transition rates, they are practically limited to the cases where either noise is small or detailed balance condition holds. A general and practical approach to investigate real-world nonequilibrium systems, which are typically high-dimensional and subject to large multiplicative noise and the breakdown of detailed balance, remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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