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Zuzana Visnovcova, Michal Mestanik, Michal Gala, Andrea Mestanikova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova
The aim of this study was to evaluate potential changes in the electrodermal activity (EDA) to enable the detection of variations in the sympathetic nervous system during mental load and recovery period. Several EDA parameters were used: SCA (skin conductance amplitude), frequency of NS-EDR (nonspecific electrodermal responses), SIE (symbolic information entropy), and ApEn (approximate entropy). The cohort consisted of 50 healthy students (average age: 23.33±0.24yr., 25 women). The stress profile consisted of five phases: baseline (P1), Stroop test (P2), recovery (P3), mental arithmetic test (P4), and recovery (P5)...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
Insomnia is considered a hyperarousal disorder, in which several psychophysiological domains including the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are over-activated, potentially contributing to increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Here, we aimed to determine whether insomnia that develops in the context of the transition to menopause (menopausal transition insomnia, MTI) is similarly characterized by autonomic arousal. We also took into account modulation of the ANS by the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle, a factor that has not previously been considered in studies on insomnia...
October 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Zi-Qi Shen, Shan-Yan Gao, Shawn Xiang Li, Tie-Ning Zhang, Cai-Xia Liu, Hai-Chen Lv, Yuan Zhang, Ting-Ting Gong, Xin Xu, Chao Ji, Qi-Jun Wu, Da Li
AIM: To perform a meta-analysis of available cohort studies on the association between sertraline use by pregnant women in the first trimester and the findings of congenital anomalies in infants. METHODS: A comprehensive search of articles published from the index date through December 31, 2015 investigating the aforementioned associations was conducted on PubMed and Web of Science. Mesh headings used included the terms "serotonin reuptake inhibitor," "sertraline," "congenital anomalies" and "obstetrical outcome...
October 22, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Zhen Lei, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenshuai Zheng, Xiao Yu, Jingui Yu, Jingxin Li
Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of itch are unclear. Acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Chloroquine (CQ)on ASICs currents in primary sensory neurons or the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat-ASIC1a or- ASIC3. Site-directed mutagenesis of plasmid was performed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Eliane Brito Cortez Lima, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Lucas Nascimento Meneses, Yuri Freitas E Silva Pereira, Natália Castelo Branco Matos, Rayanne Brito de Freitas, Nycole Brito Cortez Lima, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Glauce Socorro Barros Viana, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Extracts from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera are used in folk medicine, but their actions on the central nervous system have not been studied. Here, the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of C. nucifera husk fiber (HECN) were evaluated. Male Swiss mice were treated with HECN (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 60 min before experiments involving the plus maze test, hole-board test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test (FST). HECN was administered orally (p.o.) in acute and repeated-dose treatments...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Jing Zhao, Xin Ye, Yan Xu, Minjiang Chen, Wei Zhong, Yun Sun, Zhenfan Yang, Guanshan Zhu, Yi Gu, Mengzhao Wang
PURPOSE: Central nervous system (CNS) is the prevalent site for metastases in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-relapsed NSCLC patients. To understand the EGFR mutation status in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples after EGFR-TKI treatment failure might be useful to guide the treatment of intra- and extracranial tumors in those patients. METHODS: Paired CSF and plasma samples were collected from seven NSCLC patients with CNS metastases after EGFR-TKI failure...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Vivienne H Tam, Chris Sosa, Rui Liu, Nan Yao, Rodney D Priestley
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle to drug delivery for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). This brief review highlights the current invasive and non-invasive technologies available to address this problem. In particular, nanomedicine has shown much promise as a non-invasive strategy due to its drug loading capabilities, ease of targeting to the BBB, and small size. The versatility of this technology in terms of type of drug and imaging agent, carrier material, and targeting mechanism is highlighted in this review...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Alissa B Forman-Alberti, J Benjamin Hinnant
The somatic marker hypothesis posits that autonomic activity occurring in response to specific stimuli aids in implicit learning, the learning of information without explicit awareness of what has been learned. This study investigated whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, predicted changes in implicit learning. The interaction of resting RSA and RSA reactivity (change in RSA during the implicit learning task) was associated with changes in implicit learning, with those who had higher resting RSA and greater RSA withdrawal during the task performing better...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Muhammad Abid Azam, Joel Katz, Vina Mohabir, Paul Ritvo
BACKGROUND: Current research suggests that associations between headache conditions (migraine, tension) and imbalances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are due to stress-related dysregulation in the activity of the parasympathetic-sympathetic branches. Mindfulness meditation has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing pain-related distress, and in enhancing heart rate variability-a vagal-mediated marker of ANS balance. This study examined HRV during cognitive stress and mindfulness meditation in individuals with migraine and tension headaches...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Tsubasa Furuhashi, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalances are involved in the etiology of cancer, allergy, and collagen diseases. Previously, we hypothesized that FoxO and HSF-1 limit autonomic stress responses via negative feedback on the ANS. Here, we evaluated the role of AKT, a negative regulator of FoxO, during activation of the ANS by loneliness stress in mice. Spontaneous motility was increased during loneliness stress and decreased after release from stress. The AKT activator SC79 attenuated stress-induced spontaneous motility, whereas the AKT inhibitor API-2 prevented decreases in motility after stress release...
October 18, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Da-Shi Qi, Jin-Hao Tao, Lian-Qin Zhang, Mei Wang, Rui Qu, Lian-Qin Zhang, Pei Liu, Jian-Cheng Miu, Jing-Yi Ma, Xin-Yu Mei
Cilostazol(CTL) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which has been widely used as anti-platelet agent. It also has preventive effects on various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of CTL is still unclear, and whether CTL can prevent I/R induced cognitive deficit has not been reported. Transient global brain ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
V M Kovalzon, L S Moiseenko, A V Ambaryan, S Kurtenbach, V I Shestopalov, Y V Panchin
Pannexins are membrane channel proteins that play a role in a number of critical biological processes (Panchin et al., 2000; Shestopalov, Panchin, 2008). Among other cellular functions, pannexin hemichannels serve as purine nucleoside conduits providing ATP efflux into the extracellular space (Dahl, 2015), where it is rapidly degraded to adenosine. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is abundantly expressed in the brain and has been shown to contribute to adenosine signaling in nervous system tissues (Prochnow, 2012)...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Eiji Matsuura, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Karen Yao, Unsong Oh, Yuetsu Tanaka, Hiroshi Takashima, Steven Jacobson
Pathology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is believed to be the result of "bystander damage" involving effector CD8 (+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) killing of virus infected cells. But the specific cellular events leading up to tissue injury are still unclear. Here, we developed the Microscopy Imaging of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay with Fluorescence emission (MI-CaFé), an optimized visualization analysis to explore the interactions between CTLs and virus infected or viral antigen presenting target cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Cheng-Fu Chang, Yi-Chao Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee, Hui-Ching Lin, Chia-Ling Chen, Che-Kun James Shen, Chi-Chen Huang
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system regions of the sporadic and familial FTLD and ALS patients, TDP-43 has been identified as the major component of UBIs inclusions which is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved into C-terminal fragments to form detergent-insoluble aggregates. So far, the effective drugs for FTLD and ALS neurodegenerative diseases are yet to be developed. Autophagy has been demonstrated as the major metabolism route of the pathological TDP-43 inclusions, hence activation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic strategy for TDP-43 pathogenesis in FTLD and ALS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Kathrin Fielitz, Kristina Althoff, Katleen De Preter, Julie Nonnekens, Jasmin Ohli, Sandra Elges, Wolfgang Hartmann, Günter Klöppel, Thomas Knösel, Marc Schulte, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Daniela Beisser, Henning Reis, Annette Eyking, Elke Cario, Johannes H Schulte, Alexander Schramm, Ulrich Schüller
Amplification or overexpression of MYCN is involved in development and maintenance of multiple malignancies. A subset of these tumors originates from neural precursors, including the most aggressive forms of the childhood tumors, neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. In order to model the spectrum of MYCN-driven neoplasms in mice, we transgenically overexpressed MYCN under the control of the human GFAP-promoter that, among other targets, drives expression in neural progenitor cells. However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Giulia Suarato, Seong-Il Lee, Weiyi Li, Sneha Rao, Tanvir Khan, Yizhi Meng, Maya Shelly
During mammalian embryonic development, neurons polarize to create distinct cellular compartments of axon and dendrite that inherently differ in form and function, providing the foundation for directional signaling in the nervous system. Polarization results from spatio-temporal segregation of specific proteins' activities to discrete regions of the neuron to dictate axonal vs. dendritic fate. We aim to manipulate axon formation by directed subcellular localization of crucial intracellular protein function...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Julien Muffat, Yun Li, Rudolf Jaenisch
In vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells provides a systematic platform to investigate the physiological development and function of the human nervous system, as well as the etiology and consequence when these processes go awry. Recent development in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture systems allows modeling of the complex structure formation of the human CNS, and the intricate interactions between various resident neuronal and glial cell types. Combined with an ever-expanding genome editing and regulation toolkit such as CRISPR/Cas9, it is now a possibility to study human neurological disease in the relevant molecular, cellular and anatomical context...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Gustav Kuhn, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling...
2016: PloS One
Neimar de Paula Silva, Rejane de Souza Reis, Rafael Garcia Cunha, Júlio Fernando Pinto Oliveira, Marceli de Oliveira Santos, Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira, Beatriz de Camargo
BACKGROUND: Several maternal and birth characteristics have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of many childhood cancers. Our goal was to evaluate the risk of childhood embryonal solid tumors in relation to pre- and perinatal characteristics. METHODS: A case-cohort study was performed using two population-based datasets, which were linked through R software. Tumors were classified as central nervous system (CNS) or non-CNS-embryonal (retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, renal tumors, germ cell tumors, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcoma)...
2016: PloS One
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