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Myocardial ischemia

Bhavisha Bakrania, Joey P Granger, Romain Harmancey
The mammalian heart is a major consumer of ATP and requires a constant supply of energy substrates for contraction. Not surprisingly, alterations of myocardial metabolism have been linked to the development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure. Therefore, unraveling the link between metabolism and contraction should shed light on some of the mechanisms governing cardiac adaptation or maladaptation in disease states. The isolated working rat heart preparation can be used to follow, simultaneously and in real time, cardiac contractile function and flux of energy providing substrates into oxidative metabolic pathways...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Markus Zutt, Hagen Rudolph, Kjell Matthias Kaune, Werner Wosniok, Ulrich Gärtner, Rainer Linke
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cardiac comorbidities in psoriasis patients have increasingly moved into the focus of clinical research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate myocardial scintigraphy as a screening method in patients with psoriasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Assessment of various comorbidities in 50 psoriasis patients without clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Myocardial scintigraphy was employed to detect cardiac risk/exercise-induced ischemia...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Jessica Vanhaebost, Kewin Ducrot, Sébastien de Froidmont, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Coraline Egger, Pia Baumann, Gregory Schmit, Silke Grabherr, Cristian Palmiere
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether the identification of pathological myocardial enhancement at multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography was correlated with increased levels of troponin T and I in postmortem serum from femoral blood as well as morphological findings of myocardial ischemia. We further aimed to investigate whether autopsy cases characterized by increased troponin T and I concentrations as well as morphological findings of myocardial ischemia were also characterized by pathological myocardial enhancement at multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography...
October 20, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Swati Agrawal, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions...
October 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Lorenzo Azzalini, Gennaro Giustino, Soledad Ojeda, Antonio Serra, Alessio La Manna, Hung Q Ly, Barbara Bellini, Susanna Benincasa, Jorge Chavarría, Livia L Gheorghe, Giovanni Longo, Eligio Miccichè, Guido D'Agosta, Fabien Picard, Manuel Pan, Corrado Tamburino, Azeem Latib, Mauro Carlino, Alaide Chieffo, Antonio Colombo
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) for the percutaneous treatment of chronic total occlusions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a multicenter registry of consecutive chronic total occlusion patients treated with BRS (Absorb; Abbott Vascular) and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) at 5 institutions. Long-term target-vessel failure (a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization) was the primary end point...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Dongkyu Kim, Sook Hee Ku, Hyosuk Kim, Ji Hoon Jeong, Minhyung Lee, Ick Chan Kwon, Donghoon Choi, Sun Hwa Kim
Gene therapy is aimed at selectively knocking up or knocking down the target genes involved in the development of diseases. In many human diseases, dysregulation of disease-associated genes is occurred concurrently: some genes are abnormally turned up and some are turned down. In the field of non-viral gene therapy, plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) are suggested as representative regulation tools for activating and silencing the expression of genes of interest, representatively. Herein, we simultaneously loaded both siRNA (Src homology region 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 siRNA, siSHP-1) for anti-apoptosis and pDNA (hypoxia-inducible vascular endothelial growth factor expression vector, pHI-VEGF) for angiogenesis in a single polymeric nanocarrier and used to synergistically attenuate ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced myocardial infarction, which is mainly caused by dysregulating of cardiac apoptosis and angiogenesis...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Marc P Bonaca, Mark A Creager, Jeffrey Olin, Benjamin M Scirica, Ian C Gilchrist, Sabina A Murphy, Erica L Goodrich, Eugene Braunwald, David A Morrow
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether the reduction in peripheral revascularization with vorapaxar in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) is directionally consistent across indications, including acute limb ischemia, progressively disabling symptoms, or both. BACKGROUND: The protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist vorapaxar reduces peripheral revascularization in patients with PAD. METHODS: The TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 50) trial randomized 26,449 patients with histories of myocardial infarction, stroke, or symptomatic PAD to vorapaxar or placebo on a background of standard therapy...
October 24, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Roberto Gandini, Costantino Del Giudice
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous catheter-delivered ultrasound energy to improve local paclitaxel delivery effects in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) treated for femoral-popliteal arterial disease. BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with CLI continues to be the greatest challenge in peripheral artery disease; in particular, treatment of femoral-popliteal chronic total occlusion is characterized by poor primary patency...
October 24, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Christian Stoppe, Patrick Meybohm, Andreas Goetzenich
The strategy of Remote Ischaemic Conditionings (RIC) is easy to apply, cost effective, low in side effects and belongs to the most potent cardioprotective strategies evaluated within recent years. Its practical application is carried out by simple use of a blood pressure cuff, more precise by 4 repetitive cycles of inflating the cuff above 200 mmHg for 5 minutes followed by an equal long break between the cycles. First experimental and clinical data repetitively demonstrated a significant reduction in myocardial injury following ischemia/reperfusion...
October 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Yang Li, Jian Li, Zhiwen Hou, Yang Yu, Bo Yu
The primary physiological function of Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor (KLF5) is the regulation of cardiovascular remodeling. Vascular remodeling is closely related to the amelioration of various ischemic diseases. However, the underlying correlation of KLF5 and ischemia is not clear. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of KLF5 in myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury and the potential mechanisms involved. Cultured H9C2 cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/Rep) to mimic myocardial IR injury in vivo...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shi Jia, Xue Qiao, Jingjing Ye, Xuan Fang, Chunling Xu, Yangpo Cao, Ming Zheng
Myocardial infarction is caused by insufficient coronary blood supply, which leads to myocardial damage and eventually the heart failure. Molecular mechanisms associated with the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-related cardiac diseases are not yet fully understood. Nogo-C is an endoplasmic reticulum protein ubiquitously expressed in tissues including in the heart, however, the cardiac function of Nogo-C is still unknown. In the present study, we found that Nogo-C was upregulated in mouse hearts after MI, and hypoxic treatments also increased Nogo-C protein level in cardiomyocytes...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Tomoyuki Tobushi, Soichiro Kashihara, Toshiaki Kadokami
Some acute complications are known during permanent pacemaker implantation such as pneumothorax, lead perforation, lead dislodgement, and hemorrhage. ST-segment elevation in electrocardiogram during implantation is rare, but it might indicate critical complication like myocardial ischemia or ventricular perforation. Physicians should pay attention about ST-segment change during pacemaker implantation.
October 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Chris Amdisen, Anna K Keller, Rie Schultz Hansen, Rikke Nørregaard, Søren Palmelund Krag, Ulla Møldrup, Michael Pedersen, Bente Jespersen, Henrik Birn
INTRODUCTION: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R-I) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with increased mortality. Danegaptide is a selective modifier of the gap junction protein connexion 43. It has cytoprotective as well as anti-arrhythmic properties and has been shown to reduce the size of myocardial infarct in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the ischemia-protective effect of Danegaptide in a porcine renal I/R-I model with two weeks follow up...
2016: PloS One
Yang Sun, Dajun Zhao, Yang Yang, Chao Gao, Xing Zhang, Zhiqiang Ma, Shuai Jiang, Lin Zhao, Wenhao Chen, Kai Ren, Wei Yi, Feng Gao
The underlying mechanisms of cardioprotection of adiponectin (APN) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whether calreticulin (CRT) mediated APN's cardioprotection against I/R injury. We inhibited mice cardiac CRT expression via intra-myocardial injection of CRT SiRNA, performed transient LAD ligation, measured the cardiac function, apoptosis and oxidative stress to identify CRT's effects on cardioprotective actions of APN against I/R injury in vivo...
October 18, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Abdul Jalil Rufaihah, Nurul Azizah Johari, Srirangam Ramanujam Vaibavi, Marian Plotkin, Do Thi Di Thien, Theodoros Kofidis, Dror Seliktar
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) caused by ischemia is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction. While growth factor therapy is promising, the retention in the highly vascularized myocardium is limited and prevents sustained activation needed for adequate cellular responses. Here, we demonstrated the use of polyethylene glycol-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogels for sustained dual delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) to enhance myocardial repair and function. VEGF and ANG-1 were incorporated in PF hydrogels and their in vitro characteristics were studied...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Stephen B Smith, Zhaobin Xu, Tatiana Novitskaya, Bo Zhang, Elena Chepurko, Xin-An Pu, Debra G Wheeler, Mark Ziolo, Richard J Gumina
AIMS: Prior work suggests that ischemic preconditioning increases the level of CD39 in the heart and contributes to cardiac protection. Therefore, we examined if targeted cardiac expression of CD39 protects against myocardial injury. MAIN METHODS: Mice with cardiac-specific expression of human CD39 (αMHC/hCD39-Tg) were generated, characterized and subjected to left coronary artery ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarct size at 24h following injury quantified. KEY FINDINGS: αMHC/hCD39-Tg mice have increased in cardiac ATPase and ADPase activity compared to WT littermates...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
M Namdari, A Eatemadi, B Negahdari
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as a B-type natriuretic peptide, is one of the important biomarkers with a proven role in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF). Researchers from the different clinical field have researched into the performance features of BNP testing in the acute care set-up to assist and improve in diagnosing CHF and in predicting future morbidity and mortality rates. The potency of BNP has also been researched into in cases like myocardial ischemia and infarction, cor pulmonale, and acute pulmonary embolism (PE)...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Aneta Kruszec, Przemysław Kotyla
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is coccenctive tissue disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs leading to their failure, autoimmune dysfunction and the morphological and functional changes in the blood vessels. Primary cardiac involvement is common for patients with SSc, and when it becomes clinically evident appears as a bad prognostic factor. There is increasing evidence that heart failure occurs as a result of repeated episodes of ischemia leading to focal irreversible myocardial fibrosis...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ching-Hui Huang, Chen-Ling Kuo, Ching-Shan Huang, Wan-Min Tseng, Ie Bin Lian, Chia-Chu Chang, Chin-San Liu
Exogenous administration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been shown in experimental models to have a protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, it is unclear whether follow-up plasma CoQ10 concentration is prognostic of left ventricular (LV) performance after primary balloon angioplasty in patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).We prospectively recruited 55 patients with STEMI who were treated with primary coronary balloon angioplasty. Plasma CoQ10 concentrations were measured before primary angioplasty (baseline) and 3 days, 7 days, and 1 month after STEMI using high-performance liquid chromatography...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nicola Maurea, Paolo Spallarossa, Christian Cadeddu, Rosalinda Madonna, Donato Mele, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Pasquale Pagliaro, Alessia Pepe, Carlo G Tocchetti, Concetta Zito, Giuseppe Mercuro
The US National Cancer Institute estimates that cardiotoxicity (CTX) from target therapy refers mostly to four groups of drugs: epidermal growth factor receptor 2 inhibitors, angiogenic inhibitors, directed Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and proteasome inhibitors. The main cardiotoxic side-effects related to antiepidermal growth factor receptor 2 therapy are left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure. Angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, myocardial ischemia, QT prolongation, and thrombosis...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
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