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Pediatric Renal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820061/renin-angiotensin-system-and-cytokines-in-chronic-kidney-disease-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#1
Ariadna Andrade Saldanha Silva, Beranardo Bahia Finotti, Amanda Oliveira Lauar, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues Prestes, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. There are many causes of CKD, being the congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and the glomerular diseases very common in pediatric patients, while diabetic nephropathy, CKD due to chronic arterial hypertension and glomerular diseases are predominant in adult patients. Many endogenous mediators have been related to the pathophysiology of CKD, being relevant the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the immune-inflammatory mediators including cytokines...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820041/a-report-of-7-year-experience-on-pediatric-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#2
Ayse Filiz Yetimakman, Selman Kesici, Murat Tanyildiz, Umut Selda Bayrakci, Benan Bayrakci
BACKGROUND: Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRTs) either as continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) or hemodiafiltration (CVVHD) are used frequently in critically ill children. Many clinical variables and technical issues are known to affect the result. The factors that could be modified to increase the survival of renal replacement are sought. As a contribution, we present the data on 104 patients who underwent CRRT within a 7-year period. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 104 patients admitted between 2009 and 2016 were included in the study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816278/-analysis-of-development-safety-and-efficacy-of-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-for-management-of-upper-urinary-tract-calculi-in-pediatric-patients
#3
L P Yu, T Xu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the development, safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PNL) for management of upper urinary tract calculi in pediatric patients. METHODS: In the study, 77 pediatric patients undergoing 87 PNLs through mini or standard tract for upper urinary tract calculi between January 2005 and December 2016 in Peking University People's hospital were reviewed, including 69 renal calculi, 6 upper ureteral calculi, 12 renal and upper ureteral calculi, 35 single calculi, 43 multiple calculi and 9 staghorn calculi...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806188/tubulointerstitial-nephritis-and-uveitis
#4
Kaivon Pakzad-Vaezi, Kathryn L Pepple
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) is an important yet underrecognized ocular inflammatory syndrome. This review summarizes key historical publications that identified and defined the syndrome, and more recent literature that reveal the importance of urinary β2-microglobulin testing and kidney biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with TINU. Additionally, research studies providing new insights into disease pathogenesis are highlighted. RECENT FINDINGS: In contrast with initial reports of TINU manifesting exclusively as an anterior uveitis in pediatric patients, more recent reports have identified TINU in patients of all ages with a wide range of ocular manifestations...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804814/factors-associated-with-cardiovascular-target-organ-damage-in-children-after-renal-transplantation
#5
Bianca Borchert-Mörlins, Daniela Thurn, Bernhard M W Schmidt, Anja K Büscher, Jun Oh, Tanja Kier, Elena Bauer, Sabrina Baig, Nele Kanzelmeyer, Markus J Kemper, Rainer Büscher, Anette Melk
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the second-most common cause of death in pediatric renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate subclinical cardiovascular target organ damage defined as the presence of arterio- and atherosclerotic lesions and cardiac remodeling and to analyze contributing risk factors in a large cohort of children after renal transplantation (RT). METHODS: A total of 109 children aged 13.1 ± 3.3 years who had undergone RT at one of three German transplant centers were enrolled in this study...
August 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803593/predictors-of-obtaining-follow-up-care-in-the-province-of-ontario-canada-following-a-new-diagnosis-of-atrial-fibrillation-heart-failure-and-hypertension-in-the-emergency-department
#6
Clare L Atzema, Bing Yu, Noah M Ivers, Paula A Rochon, Douglas S Lee, Michael J Schull, Peter C Austin
OBJECTIVE: Patients with cardiovascular diseases are common in the emergency department (ED), and continuity of care following that visit is needed to ensure that they receive evidence-based diagnostic tests and therapy. We examined the frequency of follow-up care after discharge from an ED with a new diagnosis of one of three cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with a new diagnosis of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or hypertension, who were discharged from 157 non-pediatric EDs in Ontario, Canada, between April 2007 and March 2014...
August 14, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802643/update-on-urinary-stones-in-children-current-and-future-concepts-in-surgical-treatment-and-shockwave-lithotripsy
#7
REVIEW
Mesrur Selcuk Silay, Jonathan S Ellison, Thomas Tailly, Paolo Caione
CONTEXT: Miniaturized instrumentation used for endoscopic treatment of urinary stone disease in children has been readily adopted in clinical practice. However, there is a need to optimize and individualize the surgical approach according to the patient's age, body habitus, and stone characteristics. Promising novel equipment and techniques will continue to advance the surgical care of these children. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding surgical and shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) treatment of urinary stone disease in children and provide an overview on future treatment innovations...
August 9, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799058/is-cd44-in-glomerular-parietal-epithelial-cells-a-pathological-marker-of-renal-function-deterioration-in-primary-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#8
Brunna Pinto Froes, Stanley de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo Alves Bambirra, Eduardo Araújo Oliveira, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Sérgio Veloso Brant Pinheiro
BACKGROUND: The search for risk factors for chronic kidney disease in children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is important in defining prognosis and individualized treatment. This study preliminarily investigated whether CD44 immunostaining in glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) is a prognostic marker in pediatric FSGS. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 26 patients with FSGS, biopsied from 1985 to 2010, were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry for CD44 was performed in all cases...
August 10, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798828/dimercaptosuccinic-acid-scintigraphy-vs-ultrasound-for-renal-parenchymal-defects-in-children
#9
Maryse Marceau-Grimard, Audrey Marion, Christian Côté, Stephane Bolduc, Marcel Dumont, Katherine Moore
INTRODUCTION: Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy is the gold standard in the evaluation of renal parenchymal defects and is widely used in the pediatric population. As more recent ultrasound equipment was purchased at our tertiary pediatric centre, our objective was to evaluate if renal ultrasound (US) results are equivalent or sufficient when compared to DMSA scintigraphy in the assessment of renal anomalies. METHODS: The charts of all 463 patients who underwent DMSA scintigraphy between January 2009 and May 2014 at our pediatric tertiary centre were reviewed...
August 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795324/the-fgf23-klotho-axis-and-cardiac-tissue-doppler-imaging-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Ylva Tranæus Lindblad, Hannes Olauson, Georgios Vavilis, Ulf Hammar, Maria Herthelius, Jonas Axelsson, Peter Bárány
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease-associated mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is common in pediatric kidney disease patients and a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and Klotho are novel key players in CKD-MBD, and has been suggested to be involved in the development of CVD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 74 pediatric patients; 31 with CKD (age range 0.8-18.8 years, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) range 9-68 mL/min/1...
August 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795150/the-effects-of-tacrolimus-on-t-cell-proliferation-are-short-lived-a-pilot-analysis-of-immune-function-testing
#11
Benjamin L Laskin, Jing Jiao, H Jorge Baluarte, Sandra Amaral, Susan L Furth, Tatiana Akimova, Wayne W Hancock, Matthew H Levine, Peter P Reese, Ulf H Beier
BACKGROUND: Optimal immunosuppression after organ transplant should balance the risks of rejection, infection, and malignancy while minimizing barriers to adherence including frequent or time-sensitive dosing. There is currently no reliable immune function assay to directly measure the degree of immunosuppression after transplantation. METHODS: We developed an immune function assay to mea//sure T-cell proliferation after exposure to immunosuppression in vivo. We tested the assay in mice, and then piloted the approach using single time point samples, 11 pediatric kidney transplant recipients prescribed tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisone 6 months to 5 years posttransplant, with no history of rejection, opportunistic infection, or cancer...
August 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792509/regional-citrate-anticoagulation-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-pediatric-patients-with-liver-failure
#12
Keila Rodriguez, Poyyapakkam R Srivaths, Leyat Tal, Mary N Watson, Alyssa A Riley, Ryan W Himes, Moreshwar S Desai, Michael C Braun, Ayse Akcan Arikan
Pediatric liver failure patients frequently develop multiple organ failure and require continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) as part of supportive therapy in the pediatric intensive care unit. While many centers employ no anticoagulation for fear of bleeding complications, balanced coagulation disturbance predisposes these patients to clotting as well as bleeding, making maintenance of longer circuit life to deliver adequate dialysis clearance challenging. Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is an attractive option as it avoids systemic anticoagulation, but since citrate metabolism is impaired in liver failure, concerns about toxicity has limited its use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791185/use-of-hemadsorption-in-a-case-of-pediatric-toxic-shock-syndrome
#13
Andrea Berkes, Edit Szikszay, János Kappelmayer, Adrienne Kerényi, Tamás Szabó, László Ujhelyi, Krisztina Bari, György Balla, József Balla
BACKGROUND: Toxic shock syndrome is a potentially fatal toxin-mediated disease. The role of toxins in this clinical entity made us hypothesize that extracorporeal blood purification with CytoSorb® could play a beneficial role in the clinical management of toxic shock syndrome. This case report describes the successful treatment of toxic shock syndrome using a combination of renal replacement therapy and hemadsorption in a pediatric patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old girl with Down's syndrome presented with an inflamed area surrounding an insect bite, signs of systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783810/adaptation-and-validation-of-a-pediatric-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-score-and-evaluation-of-the-sepsis-3-definitions-in-critically-ill-children
#14
Travis J Matics, L Nelson Sanchez-Pinto
Importance: The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) uses the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score to grade organ dysfunction in adult patients with suspected infection. However, the SOFA score is not adjusted for age and therefore not suitable for children. Objectives: To adapt and validate a pediatric version of the SOFA score (pSOFA) in critically ill children and to evaluate the Sepsis-3 definitions in patients with confirmed or suspected infection...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782157/initial-clinical-experiences-with-novel-diagonal-ecls-system-in-pediatric-cardiac-patients
#15
Yildiz Okan, Haydin Sertac, Ozturk Erkut, Kasar Taner, Onan I Selen, Altin H Firat, Cine Nihat, Ayyildiz Pelin, Erkan Halime, Guzeltas Alper
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) provides mechanical support following cardiac surgery when respiratory or cardiac failure occurs. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and feasibility of the Medos Deltastream diagonal pump (DP3) ECLS system in pediatric cardiac patients. We described the technical considerations and risk factors related to the survival outcomes in 102 pediatric cardiac patients who received ECLS support between March 2011 and April 2016. We switched from the DP2 system, which was used for the initial 25 patients, to the DP3 system after November 2012...
August 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780627/primary-pediatric-hypertension-current-understanding-and-emerging-concepts
#16
REVIEW
Andrew C Tiu, Michael D Bishop, Laureano D Asico, Pedro A Jose, Van Anthony M Villar
The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms...
September 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774588/percutaneous-nephrostomy-placement-in-infants-and-young-children
#17
J Y Hwang, J H Shin, Y J Lee, H M Yoon, Y A Cho, K S Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical effectiveness of ultrasound and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) placement in infants and young children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2015, 57 patients had a total of 66 fluoroscopically guided PCN placement procedures. There were 37 boys and 20 girls with a mean age 8.6±15.3 (SD) months (range: 1 day-75.5months). The most common underlying disease was upper-urinary-tract obstruction, including ureteropelvic-junction stenosis (27/66, 40...
July 31, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774288/the-impact-of-igm-deposits-on-the-outcome-of-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children
#18
Sandra Juozapaite, Rimante Cerkauskiene, Arvydas Laurinavicius, Augustina Jankauskiene
BACKGROUND: The significance of IgM deposits in glomerular mesangium has been controversial since they were first described due to the variations in the both the definitions used and described impact on clinical outcome. The aim of our study was to evaluate the significance of the IgM deposits in the glomerular mesangium for outcomes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children. METHODS: Forty-five children with NS who underwent renal biopsy at tertiary pediatric hospital from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2015 and the pathology diagnosis of minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial hypercellularity (MH) were retrospectively analyzed...
August 3, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766875/species-differences-in-renal-development-and-associated-developmental-nephrotoxicity
#19
REVIEW
Kendall S Frazier
The developing kidney is sensitive to both morphological and functional disturbances during the gestational and postnatal phases of growth and differentiation. Exposure to drugs or chemicals during these critical windows of renal development can result in aplasia, dysplasia, polycystic kidney disease, hydronephrosis, or other features characteristic of nephrotoxicity, including tubule dilation, necrosis, or mineralization. Functional effects can occur without associated morphological abnormalities. Differences in the timing of nephrogenesis and morphologic renal development among species help to explain specific phenotypes of various gestational and postnatal teratogens and nephrotoxins...
August 2, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766066/outcome-of-kidney-transplantation-in-pediatric-patients-with-anca-associated-glomerulonephritis-a-single-center-experience
#20
Damien Noone, Rae S M Yeung, Diane Hebert
OBJECTIVES: Data on kidney transplant outcomes for pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody glomerulonephritis (ANCA GN), particularly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), is limited. We describe our experience of kidney transplantation in pediatric ANCA GN patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with ANCA GN who developed ESRD and were transplanted at a single center between the years 2000 and 2014...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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