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Pediatric Liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540988/pathologic-impact-of-insulin-resistance-and-sensitivity-on-the-severity-of-liver-histopathology-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Byung Han Park, Jung Min Yoon, Ja Hye Kim, Jin Hwa Moon, Young Ho Lee, Se Min Jang, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Insulin resistance (IR) has an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to analyze the association between liver histopathology and IR in pediatric patients with NASH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated whether the hepatic pathologic characteristics have relations with following three biochemical indices; IR index including homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity indices-free fatty acid (ISI-FFA)...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540839/prevalence-of-postoperation-metabolic-syndrome-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-patients-a-single-center-experience
#2
Farzad Vafaei, Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Seyed Ali Malekhoseini, Hamdollah Karamifar, Saman Nikeghbalian
OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome components, such as being overweight or having hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes mellitus, are common complications after liver transplant in pediatric patients with probable multifactorial causes and increase the risk of cardiovascular complications in adulthood. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of these components both before and after transplant surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included all children having liver transplant at our institution over a period of 20 years who were under 18 years old and had at least 6 months of posttransplant follow-up...
May 22, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538851/-antimicrobial-sensitivity-of-the-environmental-microbiota-in-the-intensive-care-units-of-a-peruvian-hospital
#3
José Díaz-Tello, Jesús Rojas-Jaimes, Jimmy Ibarra-Trujillo, Delza Tárraga-Gonzales
The objective was to detect Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci isolated from the environmental microbiota of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) departments of Neonatology, Pediatrics, and Transplants (kidney, liver, and general) in a Lima hospital and determine their antimicrobial sensitivity. Eighty samples were obtained from inanimate surfaces using a wet swab. A total of 61 bacterial strains were identified, including Staphylococcus epidermis (46.0%), Alcaligenes sp. (21.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535186/fxr-gankyrin-axis-is-involved-in-development-of-pediatric-liver-cancer
#4
Leila Valanejad, Kyle Lewis, Mary Wright, Yanjun Jiang, Amber D'Souza, Rebekah Karns, Rachel Sheridan, Anita Gupta, Kevin Bove, David Witte, James Geller, Gregory Tiao, David L Nelson, Lubov Timchenko, Nikolai Timchenko
The development of hepatoblastoma (HBL) is associated with failure of hepatic stem cells (HSC) to differentiate into hepatocytes. Despite intensive investigations, mechanisms of the failure of HSC to differentiate are not known. We found that oncogene Gankyrin (Gank) is involved in the inhibition of differentiation of HSC via triggering degradation of tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs) Rb, p53, C/EBPα and HNF4α. Our data show that the activation of a repressor of Gank, farnesoid X receptor, FXR, after initiation of liver cancer by Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) prevents the development of liver cancer by inhibiting Gank and rescuing tumor suppressor proteins...
May 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532447/clinical-characteristics-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-previously-healthy-children-in-china
#5
Li-Wei Gao, An-Xia Jiao, Xi-Rong Wu, Shun-Ying Zhao, Yun Ma, Gang Liu, Ju Yin, Bao-Ping Xu, Kun-Ling Shen
BACKGROUND: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a rare and fatal disease, and limited data exist regarding it in children. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with disseminated cryptococcosis were enrolled during January 1996 to December 2015 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Data on clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment, and prognosis were evaluated...
May 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531808/prenatal-diagnosis-of-biliary-atresia-a-case-series
#6
O Shen, H Y Sela, H Nagar, R Rabinowitz, E Jacobovich, D Chen, E Granot
BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia is a progressive disease presenting with jaundice, and is the most common indication for liver transplantation in the pediatric population. Prenatal series have yielded conflicting results concerning a possible association between BA and prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder. AIMS: This retrospective case series was performed to assess the association between biliary atresia, prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder and other sonographic signs...
May 19, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524832/measles-outbreak-in-pediatric-hematology-and-oncology-patients-in-shanghai-2015
#7
Yan-Ling Ge, Xiao-Wen Zhai, Yan-Feng Zhu, Xiang-Shi Wang, Ai-Mei Xia, Yue-Fang Li, Mei Zeng
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. METHODS: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-confirmed based on the presence of measles IgM and/or identification of measles RNA...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521607/intravenous-fish-oil-and-pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-changes-in-plasma-phytosterols-cytokines-and-bile-acids-and-erythrocyte-fatty-acids
#8
Kara L Calkins, Andrea DeBarber, Robert D Steiner, Martiniano J Flores, Tristan R Grogan, Susanne M Henning, Laurie Reyen, Robert S Venick
BACKGROUND: Soybean oil (SO) emulsions are associated with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD); fish oil (FO) emulsions are used to treat IFALD. SO and FO differ with respect to their fatty acid and phytosterol content. In children with IFALD whose SO was replaced with FO, we aimed to (1) quantify changes in erythrocyte fatty acids and plasma phytosterols, cytokines, and bile acids and (2) correlate these changes with direct bilirubin (DB). DESIGN: This study enrolled IFALD children who received 6 months of FO...
May 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521077/clinical-case-series-of-pediatric-hepatic-angiosarcoma
#9
Kalee L Grassia, Caitlin M Peterman, Ionela Iacobas, Judith F Margolin, Ewa Bien, Bhavna Padhye, Rebecka L Meyers, Denise M Adams
Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant neoplasm with fewer than 50 cases reported in children. Prognosis is poor, with a minority surviving beyond 2 years after diagnosis. We report eight cases of pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma, diagnosed at a mean age of 3 years. Seven were initially diagnosed with an infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHHE) or hemangioma and the eighth with a "vascular tumor." Two patients, who received liver transplant, survived. We suggest hepatic hemangiomas can rarely transform into angiosarcomas and a subset of IHHEs (Type II) are actually a low-grade form of angiosarcoma rather than a benign lesion...
May 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520981/clinical-presentation-and-outcomes-of-children-with-human-granulocytic-anaplasmosis
#10
Anna M Schotthoefer, Matthew C Hall, Satya Vittala, Raza Bajwa, Holly M Frost
Background.: Adults with the tick-borne disease human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) have a spectrum of acute febrile illnesses that, if untreated, might be severe. Clinical presentation and outcomes of children with HGA have been poorly described. Methods.: A retrospective analysis was conducted to determine the frequency, presentation, and outcomes of pediatric patients with HGA between 1994 and 2015 in a region of Wisconsin in which HGA is highly endemic. Patients with related International Classification of Diseases Ninth and Tenth Revision (ICD-9 and ICD-10, respectively) codes or positive HGA laboratory test results were evaluated and classified as having had confirmed, probable, or suspected HGA on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515413/magnetic-susceptibility-changes-in-the-basal-ganglia-and-brain-stem-of-patients-with-wilson-s-disease-evaluation-with-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#11
Selim Doganay, Kazim Gumus, Gonca Koc, Ayse Kacar Bayram, Mehmet Sait Dogan, Duran Arslan, Hakan Gumus, Sureyya Burcu Gorkem, Saliha Ciraci, Halil Ibrahim Serin, Abdulhakim Coskun
OBJECTIVES: Wilson's disease (WD) is characterized with the accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. The objective of this study is to quantitatively measure the susceptibility changes of basal ganglia and brain stem of pediatric patients with neurological WD using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in comparison to healthy controls. METHODS: Eleven patients with neurological WD (mean age 15 ± 3.3 years, range 10-22 years) and 14 age-matched controls were prospectively recruited...
May 18, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514463/pediatric-psoriasis-comorbidity-screening-guidelines
#12
Emily Osier, Audrey S Wang, Megha M Tollefson, Kelly M Cordoro, Stephen R Daniels, Andrew Eichenfield, Joel M Gelfand, Alice B Gottlieb, Alexa B Kimball, Mark Lebwohl, Nehal N Mehta, Amy S Paller, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Dennis M Styne, Abby S Van Voorhees, Wynnis L Tom, Lawrence F Eichenfield
Importance: Psoriasis is a complex inflammatory skin condition associated with serious medical comorbidities in adults, including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, psoriatic arthritis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, depression, anxiety, and decreased quality of life. Because psoriasis begins in childhood in almost one-third of patients, early identification of risk may be critical to minimizing effects on future health. Objective: To develop the first set of guidelines for comorbidity screening for patients with pediatric psoriasis based on current evidence...
May 17, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512555/assessment-of-obesity-and-hepatic-late-adverse-effects-in-the-egyptian-survivors-of-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-single-center-study
#13
Farida H El-Rashedy, Mahmoud A El-Hawy, Sally M El Hefnawy, Mona M Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with current cure rates reaching 80% emphasizes the necessity to determine treatment-related long-term effects. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hepatic late adverse effects in a cohort of ALL survivors treated at the Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatrics Department, Menoufia University, Egypt. METHODS: In this case-control study, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed for 35 pediatric ALL survivors and 35 healthy children...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511265/diagnostic-value-of-diffusion-weighted-mri-for-tumor-characterization-differentiation-and-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients-with-neuroblastic-tumors
#14
Henning Neubauer, Mengxia Li, Verena Rabea Müller, Thomas Pabst, Meinrad Beer
Purpose We explored the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for tumor characterization, differentiation and therapy monitoring in pediatric patients with extracranial neuroblastic tumors. Materials and Methods All 29 patients (14 girls, median age: 3 years) with neuroblastoma (NB, n = 19), ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB, n = 4) and ganglioneuroma (GN, n = 6) who had had at least one in-house DWI examination since 2005 were identified and retrospectively analyzed. Two independent blinded readers measured ADC values (unit: 10-3 mm(2)/s) and signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of the primary tumor and, if applicable, of the tumor after chemotherapy, metastases and tumor relapse...
May 16, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506869/model-based-clinical-dose-optimization-for-phenobarbital-in-neonates-an-illustration-of-the-importance-of-data-sharing-and-external-validation
#15
Swantje Völler, Robert B Flint, Leo M Stolk, Pieter L J Degraeuwe, Sinno H P Simons, Paula Pokorna, David M Burger, Ronald de Groot, Dick Tibboel, Catherijne A J Knibbe
BACKGROUND: Particularly in the pediatric clinical pharmacology field, data-sharing offers the possibility of making the most of all available data. In this study, we utilize previously collected therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data of term and preterm newborns to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for phenobarbital. We externally validate the model using prospective phenobarbital data from an ongoing pharmacokinetic study in preterm neonates. METHODS: TDM data from 53 neonates (gestational age (GA): 37 (24-42) weeks, bodyweight: 2...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506363/contemporary-evaluation-of-the-pediatric-liver-biopsy
#16
REVIEW
Deborah A Schady, Milton J Finegold
Liver disease in the neonate, infant, child, and adolescent may manifest differently depending on the type of disorder. These disorders show marked overlap clinically and on light microscopy. Histology and ultrastructural examination are used in tandem for the diagnosis of most disorders. A final diagnosis or interpretation of the pediatric liver biopsy depends on appropriate and adequate clinical history, laboratory test results, biochemical assays, and molecular analyses, as indicated by the light microscopic and ultrastructural examination...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506362/current-concepts-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
Sarah E Fleet, Jay H Lefkowitch, Joel E Lavine
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease. Its increasing prevalence is a direct result of historically high rates of obesity. Hepatocyte lipid accumulation is the first step in a cascade of metabolic and inflammatory events thought to precipitate NAFLD. Histologic findings provide insight into these events. Lifestyle modification remains the primary therapy in children. Current recommendations include vitamin E treatment in those with biopsy-proven NASH. Trials of novel drugs are ongoing in adults...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506338/-clinical-efficacy-of-compound-glycyrrhizin-tablets-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Yu-Wen Li, Yu-Hua Hu, Tian-Tian Zhu, An-Zhen Chu, Chuan-Long Zhu
Department of Pediatrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China. zhuchuanlong@jsph.org.cn.
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504496/echinococcosis-in-children-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-outside-the-endemic-area
#19
Griselda Berberian, Teresa Rosanova, Laura Inda, Claudia Sarkis, Horacio Questa, Patricia Paulin, Marina Costa, Moira Taicz
Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely spread across Argentina and worldwide. It is acquired during childhood but it is more common during adulthood. The pediatric population accounts for 10-20% of all cases. This study included 47 children diagnosed with echinococcosis over a 20-year period. Their median age was 8 years old (range: 3-17); most patients had some epidemiological history, such as having lived or living in an endemic or rural area and/ or having dogs that are fed with viscera. Findings included 85% of single cysts in only one parenchyma...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502445/pediatric-liver-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Nidhi Rawal, Nada Yazigi
Excellent outcomes over the last 3 decades have made liver transplantation the treatment of choice for many advanced liver disorders. This success also opened liver transplantation to new indications such as liver tumors and metabolic disorders. The emergence of such new indications for liver transplantation is bringing a new stream of patients along with disease-specific challenges. The cumulative number of liver transplant recipients is peaking, requiring novel systems of health care delivery that meet the needs of this special patient population...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
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