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Tick apoptosis

Dana K Shaw, Xiaowei Wang, Lindsey J Brown, Adela S Oliva Chávez, Kathryn E Reif, Alexis A Smith, Alison J Scott, Erin E McClure, Vishant M Boradia, Holly L Hammond, Eric J Sundberg, Greg A Snyder, Lei Liu, Kathleen DePonte, Margarita Villar, Massaro W Ueti, José de la Fuente, Robert K Ernst, Utpal Pal, Erol Fikrig, Joao H F Pedra
The insect immune deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumour necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties activate the IMD signalling cascade remains unknown. Here, we show that infection-derived lipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl diacylglycerol (PODAG) stimulate the IMD pathway of ticks. The tick IMD network protects against colonization by three distinct bacteria, that is the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and the rickettsial agents Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Gisa Gerold, Janina Bruening, Bettina Weigel, Thomas Pietschmann
Protein-protein interactions govern biological functions in cells, in the extracellular milieu, and at the border between cells and extracellular space. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on protein interactions to produce progeny inside host cells and to spread from cell to cell. Usage of host proteins by viruses can have severe consequences e.g. apoptosis, metabolic disequilibria, or altered cell proliferation and mobility. Understanding protein interactions during virus infection can thus educate us on viral infection and pathogenesis mechanisms...
April 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
A B Kon'kova-Reidman
AIM: To study the semiotics of neurological lesions in patients with tick-borne encephalitis, Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITBB) and mixed infection (MI), their immunopathogenesis, and the possibilities of current pathogenetic pharmacological correction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 220 patients with tick-borne encephalitis, ITBB, and MI concurrent with the syndromes of central nervous system lesions were examined. The immunological studies encompassed the examination of mononuclear cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the population and subpopulation composition of lymphocytes, and nitroxidergic processes in the serum and CSF from the total level of final stable nitric oxide metabolites...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Jean Gabriel de Souza, Katia L.P. Morais, Eduardo Anglés-Cano, Pamela Boufleur, Evandro Sobroza de Mello, Durvanei Augusto Maria, Clarice Silvia Taemi Origassa, Hamilton de Campos Zampolli, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Carolina Maria Berra, Rosemary Viola Bosch, Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also called kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma, is highly resistant to current treatments. It has been previously reported that a Kunitz-type inhibitor domain-containing protein, isolated from the salivary glands of the Amblyomma cajennense tick, triggers apoptosis in murine renal adenocarcinoma cells (Renca) by inhibiting the proteasome and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Of note, Amblyomin-X is the corresponding recombinant protein identified in the cDNA library from A. cajennense salivary glands...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Luwanika Mlera, Jennifer Lam, Danielle K Offerdahl, Craig Martens, Daniel Sturdevant, Charles V Turner, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
UNLABELLED: Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) cause febrile illnesses, which may progress to severe encephalitis and/or death in humans globally. Most people who recover from severe acute disease suffer from debilitating neurological sequelae, which may be due to viral persistence, infection-induced neurological cell damage, host response, or some combination of these. Acute TBFV infection of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells in vitro results in the death of >95% of infected cells by day 5...
2016: MBio
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Pilar Alberdi, Nieves Ayllón, James J Valdés, Raymond Pierce, Margarita Villar, José de la Fuente
Epigenetic mechanisms have not been characterized in ticks despite their importance as vectors of human and animal diseases worldwide. The objective of this study was to characterize the histones and histone modifying enzymes (HMEs) of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and their role during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. We first identified 5 histones and 34 HMEs in I. scapularis in comparison with similar proteins in model organisms. Then, we used transcriptomic and proteomic data to analyze the mRNA and protein levels of I...
April 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Pilar Alberdi, Karen L Mansfield, Raúl Manzano-Román, Charlotte Cook, Nieves Ayllón, Margarita Villar, Nicholas Johnson, Anthony R Fooks, José de la Fuente
Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Chaitanya Kurhade, Loreen Zegenhagen, Elvira Weber, Sharmila Nair, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse, Julia Spanier, Nelson O Gekara, Andrea Kröger, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Although type I interferons (IFNs)-key effectors of antiviral innate immunity are known to be induced via different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the cellular source and the relative contribution of different PRRs in host protection against viral infection is often unclear. IPS-1 is a downstream adaptor for retinoid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor signaling. In this study, we investigate the relative contribution of IPS-1 in the innate immune response in the different brain regions during infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus that causes a variety of severe symptoms like hemorrhagic fevers, encephalitis, and meningitis in the human host...
January 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Margarita Villar, Nieves Ayllón, Pilar Alberdi, Andrés Moreno, María Moreno, Raquel Tobes, Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Sabine Weisheit, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, José de la Fuente
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. These intracellular bacteria establish infection by affecting cell function in both the vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Previous studies have characterized the tick transcriptome and proteome in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. However, in the postgenomic era, the integration of omics datasets through a systems biology approach allows network-based analyses to describe the complexity and functionality of biological systems such as host-pathogen interactions and the discovery of new targets for prevention and control of infectious diseases...
December 2015: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Pilar Alberdi, Nieves Ayllón, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Erich Zweygarth, Snorre Stuen, José de la Fuente
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intracellular rickettsial pathogen transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. In the United States, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is highly prevalent while TBF has not been reported. However, in Europe the situation is the opposite, with high prevalence for TBF in sheep and low prevalence of HGA. The origin of these differences has not been identified and our hypothesis is that different A...
September 2015: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
C C Drewes, R Y Dias, V G Branco, M F Cavalcante, J G Souza, D S P Abdalla, A M Chudzinski-Tavassi, S H P Farsky
Angiogenesis is a pivotal process of homeostasis and tissue repair, but it also favours neovascularisation syndromes and cancer nutrition. The chemical mediation of angiogenesis is complex, involving a balance between serine proteases and their inhibitors. We addressed the mechanisms of action of a Kunitz serine protease inhibitor (KPI) on spontaneous angiogenesis, using Amblyomin-X, a KPI designed from the cDNA library of the Amblyomma cajennense tick. Amblyomin-X treatment (10-1000 ng/10 μL; each 48 h; 3 times) reduced the number of vessels in the subcutaneous dorsal tissue of male Swiss mice, as measured by intravital microscopy, haematoxylin-eosin staining, and PECAM-1 immunofluorescence labeling...
July 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Nieves Ayllón, Margarita Villar, Ruth C Galindo, Katherine M Kocan, Radek Šíma, Juan A López, Jesús Vázquez, Pilar Alberdi, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Petr Kopáček, José de la Fuente
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis nymphs and adult female midguts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum using a systems biology approach combining transcriptomics and proteomics. Apoptosis was selected for pathway-focused analysis due to its role in bacterial infection of tick cells...
March 2015: PLoS Genetics
Chao Yu, Katharina Achazi, Lars Möller, Joerg D Schulzke, Matthias Niedrig, Roland Bücker
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. Its transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. However, consuming milk products from infected livestock animals caused TBEV cases. To better understand TBEV transmission via the alimentary route, we studied viral infection of human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were used to investigate pathological effects of TBEV infection. TBEV-infected Caco-2 monolayers showed morphological changes including cytoskeleton rearrangements and cytoplasmic vacuolization...
2014: PloS One
Gislaine Cristina Roma, Maria Izabel Camargo Mathias, Pablo Henrique Nunes, Gervásio Henrique Bechara
This study performed the ultra-structural analysis of the changes caused by permethrin in the synganglion of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, aiming to understand the toxic action of this substance at cellular level. The results showed that the neural lamella had its structure changed, allowing the influx of the toxic agent into the nervous tissue. The glial cells of the perineurium, as well as the neural cells of the cortex showed great changes, such as: irregular nuclei with chromatin margination, cytoplasmic vacuolation and degenerating mitochondria...
August 2014: Acta Tropica
Luwanika Mlera, Wessam Melik, Marshall E Bloom
In nature, vector-borne flaviviruses are persistently cycled between either the tick or mosquito vector and small mammals such as rodents, skunks, and swine. These viruses account for considerable human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increasing and substantial evidence of viral persistence in humans, which includes the isolation of RNA by RT-PCR and infectious virus by culture, continues to be reported. Viral persistence can also be established in vitro in various human, animal, arachnid, and insect cell lines in culture...
July 2014: Pathogens and Disease
Z Woldehiwet, C Yavari
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has the unique ability to selectively infect and multiply within the hostile environment of the neutrophil. Previous studies have shown that sheep with TBF are more susceptible to other infections and that infected neutrophils have reduced phagocytic ability and delayed apoptosis. This suggests that survival of A. phagocytophilum in these short-lived cells involves the ability to subvert or resist their bacterial killing, but also to modify the host cells such that the host cells survive long after infection...
May 2014: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Christophe Fraisier, Raquel Rodrigues, Vinh Vu Hai, Maya Belghazi, Stéphanie Bourdon, Glaucia Paranhos-Baccala, Luc Camoin, Lionel Almeras, Christophe Nicolas Peyrefitte
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus responsible for hemorrhagic manifestations and multiple organ failure, with a high mortality rate. In infected humans, damage to endothelial cells and vascular leakage may be a direct result of virus infection or an immune response-mediated indirect effect. The main target cells are mononuclear phagocytes, endothelial cells and hepatocytes; the liver being a key target for the virus, which was described as susceptible to interferon host response and to induce apoptosis...
January 22, 2014: Virus Research
Maiara S Severo, Anthony Choy, Kimberly D Stephens, Olivia S Sakhon, Gang Chen, Duk-Won D Chung, Karine G Le Roch, Gregor Blaha, Joao H F Pedra
Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that regulates protein degradation and signaling in eukaryotes. Although it is acknowledged that pathogens exploit ubiquitination to infect mammalian cells, it remains unknown how microbes interact with the ubiquitination machinery in medically relevant arthropods. Here, we show that the ubiquitination machinery is present in the tick Ixodes scapularis and demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase named x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) restricts bacterial colonization of this arthropod vector...
December 1, 2013: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Esragül Akıncı, Hürrem Bodur, Hakan Leblebicioglu
Although Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne disease, little is known about its pathogenesis. The interaction of the virus with host cells is most likely responsible for the pathogenesis of CCHF. The main contributors are endothelial cells (ECs) and immune cells. There are 2 theories underlying the CCHF pathogenesis: One is that the virus interacts with the ECs directly and the other that it interacts indirectly via immune cells with subsequent release of soluble mediators. ECs are activated upon infection by the upregulation of soluble molecules and proinflammatory cytokines...
July 2013: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Nieves Ayllón, Margarita Villar, Ann T Busby, Katherine M Kocan, Edmour F Blouin, Elena Bonzón-Kulichenko, Ruth C Galindo, Atilio J Mangold, Pilar Alberdi, José M Pérez de la Lastra, Jesús Vázquez, José de la Fuente
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects gene expression in both the vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Here, we identified new genes, including spectrin alpha chain or alpha-fodrin (CG8) and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel or mitochondrial porin (T2), that are involved in A. phagocytophilum infection/multiplication and the tick cell response to infection. The pathogen downregulated the expression of CG8 in tick salivary glands and T2 in both the gut and salivary glands to inhibit apoptosis as a mechanism to subvert host cell defenses and increase infection...
July 2013: Infection and Immunity
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