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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896983/learning-parsimonious-ensembles-for-unbalanced-computational-genomics-problems
#1
Ana Stanescu, Gaurav Pandey
Prediction problems in biomedical sciences are generally quite difficult, partially due to incomplete knowledge of how the phenomenon of interest is influenced by the variables and measurements used for prediction, as well as a lack of consensus regarding the ideal predictor(s) for specific problems. In these situations, a powerful approach to improving prediction performance is to construct ensembles that combine the outputs of many individual base predictors, which have been successful for many biomedical prediction tasks...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875513/post-traumatic-trigeminal-neuropathy-caused-by-an-orbital-stab-wound
#2
Shinpei Matsuda, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Tadanori Hamano, Kazuo Sano
Sensory and motor neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve due to trauma is quite rare. Furthermore, there have been no detailed reports on occlusal abnormalities and trismus associated with post-traumatic trigeminal motor neuropathy. Here, the authors report a case of trigeminal motor neuropathy and trigeminal sensory neuropathy in all 3 divisions caused by an orbital stab wound. During kendo practice, a 61-year-old man was injured in his right medial canthus with the splinter of a broken bamboo sword. Imaging examinations did not show a brain injury or orbital bone fracture...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872032/web-based-antismoking-advertising-to-promote-smoking-cessation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Elad Yom-Tov, Peter Muennig, Abdulrahman M El-Sayed
BACKGROUND: Although hundreds of millions of dollars are spent each year on public health advertising, the advertisement content, design, and placement are usually developed by intuition rather than research. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to develop a methodology for testing Web-based advertisements to promote smoking cessation. METHODS: We developed 10 advertisements that varied by their content (those that empower viewers to quit, help viewers to quit, or discuss the effects of smoking)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861394/bilateral-coronary-artery-fistulas-with-a-giant-coronary-aneurysm-complicated-by-aneurysm-rupture-a-case-report
#4
Hui Li, Ying Zhao, Hui-Ping Zhang, Hu Ai, Nai-Xin Zheng, Guo-Dong Tang, Fu-Cheng Sun
RATIONALE: Coronary artery aneurysms and fistulas are not rare conditions in clinical practice, but bilateral fistulas with a giant coronary aneurysm in just one person are quite rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with these 2 coronary abnormalities accompanied with a huge mediastinum mass. INTERVENTIONS: The giant aneurysm was ligated and the mass was resected which was proved to be an organized hematoma finally...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859045/roles-of-maternal-effects-in-maintaining-genetic-variation-maternal-storage-effect
#5
Masato Yamamichi, Masaki Hoso
Understanding the maintenance of genetic variation remains a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Recent empirical studies suggest the importance of temporally varying selection, as allele frequencies have been found to fluctuate substantially in the wild. However, previous theory suggests that the conditions for the maintenance of genetic variation under temporally fluctuating selection are quite restrictive. Using mathematical models, we demonstrate that maternal genetic effects, whereby maternal genotypes affect offspring phenotypes, can facilitate the maintenance of polymorphism in temporally varying environments...
November 9, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852187/prevention-of-breast-cancer
#6
Ian N Olver
Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833989/borderline-brenner-tumors-associated-with-ovarian-cyst-case-presentation
#7
Dinu Florin Albu, Cristina CrenguŢa Albu, Alexandru Marian Gogănău, Ştefan Dimitrie Albu, LaurenŢiu Mogoantă, Antoine Edu, Damian DiŢescu, Constantin Cristian Văduva
Borderline Brenner tumors represent quite a rare entity of ovarian tumors (about 2%) that develop from the surface ovarian epithelium. They are formed from papillary structures made of fibrovascular conjunctive axes covered by a transition epithelium, similar to the urinary bladder epithelium. According to the WHO classification, Brenner tumors present the following forms: benign, borderline and malignant. The benign ones are the most frequent, representing about 95%, the borderline represent about 5%, and the malignant ones less than 1%...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798979/role-of-radiological-parameters-in-predicting-overall-shunt-outcome-after-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-insertion-in-pediatric-patients-with-obstructive-hydrocephalus
#8
Devi Prasad Patra, Shyamal C Bir, Tanmoy K Maiti, Piyush Kalakoti, Hugo Cuellar, Bharat Guthikonda, Hai Sun, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda
OBJECTIVE Despite significant advances in the medical field and shunt technology, shunt malfunction remains a nightmare of pediatric neurosurgeons. In this setting, the ability to preoperatively predict the probability of shunt malfunction is quite compelling. The authors have compared the preoperative radiological findings in obstructive hydrocephalus and the subsequent clinical course of the patient to determine any association with overall shunt outcome. METHODS This retrospective study included all pediatric patients (age < 18 years) who had undergone ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion for obstructive hydrocephalus...
November 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779846/hybrid-light-matter-states-in-a-molecular-and-material-science-perspective
#9
Thomas W Ebbesen
The notion that light and matter states can be hybridized the way s and p orbitals are mixed is a concept that is not familiar to most chemists and material scientists. Yet it has much potential for molecular and material sciences that is just beginning to be explored. For instance, it has already been demonstrated that the rate and yield of chemical reactions can be modified and that the conductivity of organic semiconductors and nonradiative energy transfer can be enhanced through the hybridization of electronic transitions...
October 25, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714956/deficiency-of-plasminogen-receptor-plg-rkt-causes-defects-in-plasminogen-binding-and-inflammatory-macrophage-recruitment-in-vivo
#10
L A Miles, N Baik, S Lighvani, S Khaldoyanidi, N M Varki, H Bai, B M Mueller, R J Parmer
BACKGROUND: Plg-RKT is a novel integral membrane plasminogen receptor that binds plasminogen via a C-terminal lysine exposed on the cell surface and promotes plasminogen activation on the cell surface by both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of Plg-RKT in vivo we generated Plg-RKT(-/-) mice using a homologous recombination technique. METHODS: We characterized the effect of Plg-RKT deletion on reproduction, viability, health, and spontaneous thrombosis and inflammation...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701830/growth-of-magnetotactic-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-in-oxygen-concentration-gradient-medium
#11
Christopher T Lefèvre, Paul A Howse, Marian L Schmidt, Monique Sabaty, Nicolas Menguy, George W Luther, Dennis A Bazylinski
Although dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are generally described as strictly anaerobic organisms with regard to growth, several reports have shown that some SRB, particularly Desulfovibrio species, are quite resistant to O2 . For example, SRB remain viable in many aerobic environments while some even reduce O2 to H2 O. However, reproducible aerobic growth of SRB has not been unequivocally documented. Desulfovibrio magneticus is a SRB that is also a magnetotactic bacterium (MTB). MTB biomineralize magnetosomes which are intracellular, membrane-bounded, magnetic iron mineral crystals...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681205/taking-actions-to-quit-chewing-betel-nuts-and-starting-a-new-life-taxi-drivers-successful-experiences-of-quitting-betel-nut-chewing
#12
Tsui-Yun Yang, Hung-Ru Lin
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. BACKGROUND: Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31.7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. DESIGN: A qualitative research design was used...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670758/trackways-produced-by-lungfish-during-terrestrial-locomotion
#13
Peter L Falkingham, Angela M Horner
Some primarily aquatic vertebrates make brief forays onto land, creating traces as they do. A lack of studies on aquatic trackmakers raises the possibility that such traces may be ignored or misidentified in the fossil record. Several terrestrial Actinopterygian and Sarcopterygian species have previously been proposed as possible models for ancestral tetrapod locomotion, despite extant fishes being quite distinct from Devonian fishes, both morphologically and phylogenetically. Although locomotion has been well-studied in some of these taxa, trackway production has not...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634685/update-on-what-and-where-in-spatial-language-a-new-division-of-labor-for-spatial-terms
#14
Barbara Landau
In this article, I revisit Landau and Jackendoff's () paper, "What and where in spatial language and spatial cognition," proposing a friendly amendment and reformulation. The original paper emphasized the distinct geometries that are engaged when objects are represented as members of object kinds (named by count nouns), versus when they are represented as figure and ground in spatial expressions (i.e., play the role of arguments of spatial prepositions). We provided empirical and theoretical arguments for the link between these distinct representations in spatial language and their accompanying nonlinguistic neural representations, emphasizing the "what" and "where" systems of the visual system...
September 16, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622365/management-of-diverticular-disease-in-scandinavia
#15
Johannes K Schultz, Sheraz Yaqub, Tom Øresland
Throughout the last century, the incidence of diverticular disease of the colon has increased tremendously in industrialized countries; nevertheless, the management of this condition is still controversial. Although several international guidelines for the management of diverticular disease are based on the same evidence, the recommendations differ greatly, emphasizing the lack of high-quality prospective studies. In Scandinavia, official guidelines for the management of diverticular disease exist only in Denmark...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621917/spontaneous-nephrocutaneous-fistula-with-tuberculous-autonephrectomy-a-case-report-of-a-delayed-diagnosis
#16
Murat Akand, Ozcan Kilic, Mustafa Kucur, Mehmet Kaynar, Serdar Goktas
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare manifestation of renal disease that can occur due to various etiologies, such as renal calculus, chronic pyelonephritis, stricture of the ureteropelvic junction, and renal tuberculosis (TB). An autonephrectomy with a nephrocutaneous fistula due to renal tuberculosis can be diagnosed quite late if it is not suspected. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula with tuberculous autonephrectomy...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609444/recurrent-olfactory-neuroblastoma-in-remote-leptomeninges-mimicking-intracranial-meningioma
#17
You-Sub Kim, Shin Jung, Woo-Youl Jang, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Kyung-Sub Moon, In-Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is an uncommon neoplasm that arises from olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity near the cribriform plate. Although local recurrence or direct extension along olfactory epithelium and metastasis to the central nervous system has been reported, remote leptomeningeal metastasis is quite rare. In our report of a leptomeningeal metastasis of ONB without recurrence of primary site, we discuss the possible pathogenesis of this rare phenomenon with a review of the literature...
September 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598432/structural-diversity-of-the-vastus-intermedius-origin-revealed-by-analysis-of-isolated-muscle-specimens
#18
Shuntaro Yoshida, Koichiro Ichimura, Tatsuo Sakai
INTRODUCTION: The quadriceps femoris (QF), a major extensor of the knee joint, plays an important role in human movement. However, descriptions of the three vastus muscles of the QF in anatomy textbooks remain confusing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 33 QFs by a novel approach, using isolated muscle specimens to clarify the structures of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus intermedius (VI) origins. RESULTS: The origins of the VL and VM were quite constant in shape and location, but the VI was much more structurally diverse...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591787/meningococcal-pneumonia-in-japan-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Jun Hirai, Takeshi Kinjo, Takaaki Tome, Mao Hagihara, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hideta Nakamura, Shusaku Haranaga, Hiroshige Mikamo, Jiro Fujita
Neisseria meningitidis often causes meningitis and meningococcemia; however, meningococcal pneumonia is quite rare. Herein, we report a case of non-invasive meningococcal pneumonia initially misdiagnosed as pneumonia due to Moraxella catarrhalis on the basis of a Gram stain in a 43-year-old woman with asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and schizophrenia. She visited our hospital following a 3-day history of fever, productive cough, and shortness of breath. Since her sputum smear revealed Gram-negative diplococcus and the chest radiograph showed infiltration in the lower right lung field, her initial diagnosis was pneumonia caused by M...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566681/an-electrophysiological-marker-of-the-desire-to-quit-in-smokers
#20
Sarah E Donohue, Joseph A Harris, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Marty G Woldorff, Mircea A Schoenfeld
For many smokers, the motivational state of craving is a central feature of their dependence on nicotine, and is often at odds with a general desire to quit. How this desire to quit may influence the craving for a cigarette, however, is unclear. In the current study, we manipulated the level of craving in 24 regular smokers, and recorded EEG measures of brain activity during a rare target detection task utilizing addiction-unrelated stimuli. In response to the non-targets, we observed that smokers wanting to quit showed an enhanced late frontal activation when they were craving versus not craving, whereas smokers not wanting to quit showed the opposite pattern of activity...
August 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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