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L A Miles, N Baik, S Lighvani, S Khaldoyanidi, N M Varki, H Bai, B M Mueller, R J Parmer
BACKGROUND: Plg-RKT is a novel integral membrane plasminogen receptor that binds plasminogen via a C-terminal lysine exposed on the cell surface and promotes plasminogen activation on the cell surface by both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of Plg-RKT in vivo we generated Plg-RKT(-/-) mice using a homologous recombination technique. METHODS: We characterized the effect of Plg-RKT deletion on reproduction, viability, health, and spontaneous thrombosis and inflammation...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Christopher T Lefèvre, Paul A Howse, Marian L Schmidt, Monique Sabaty, Nicolas Menguy, George W Luther, Dennis A Bazylinski
Although dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are generally described as strictly anaerobic organisms with regard to growth, several reports have shown that some SRB, particularly Desulfovibrio species, are quite resistant to O2 . For example, SRB remain viable in many aerobic environments while some even reduce O2 to H2 O. However, reproducible aerobic growth of SRB has not been unequivocally documented. Desulfovibrio magneticus is a SRB that is also a magnetotactic bacterium (MTB). MTB biomineralize magnetosomes which are intracellular, membrane-bounded, magnetic iron mineral crystals...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Tsui-Yun Yang, Hung-Ru Lin
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. BACKGROUND: Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31.7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. DESIGN: A qualitative research design was used...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Peter L Falkingham, Angela M Horner
Some primarily aquatic vertebrates make brief forays onto land, creating traces as they do. A lack of studies on aquatic trackmakers raises the possibility that such traces may be ignored or misidentified in the fossil record. Several terrestrial Actinopterygian and Sarcopterygian species have previously been proposed as possible models for ancestral tetrapod locomotion, despite extant fishes being quite distinct from Devonian fishes, both morphologically and phylogenetically. Although locomotion has been well-studied in some of these taxa, trackway production has not...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Barbara Landau
In this article, I revisit Landau and Jackendoff's () paper, "What and where in spatial language and spatial cognition," proposing a friendly amendment and reformulation. The original paper emphasized the distinct geometries that are engaged when objects are represented as members of object kinds (named by count nouns), versus when they are represented as figure and ground in spatial expressions (i.e., play the role of arguments of spatial prepositions). We provided empirical and theoretical arguments for the link between these distinct representations in spatial language and their accompanying nonlinguistic neural representations, emphasizing the "what" and "where" systems of the visual system...
September 16, 2016: Cognitive Science
Johannes K Schultz, Sheraz Yaqub, Tom Øresland
Throughout the last century, the incidence of diverticular disease of the colon has increased tremendously in industrialized countries; nevertheless, the management of this condition is still controversial. Although several international guidelines for the management of diverticular disease are based on the same evidence, the recommendations differ greatly, emphasizing the lack of high-quality prospective studies. In Scandinavia, official guidelines for the management of diverticular disease exist only in Denmark...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Murat Akand, Ozcan Kilic, Mustafa Kucur, Mehmet Kaynar, Serdar Goktas
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare manifestation of renal disease that can occur due to various etiologies, such as renal calculus, chronic pyelonephritis, stricture of the ureteropelvic junction, and renal tuberculosis (TB). An autonephrectomy with a nephrocutaneous fistula due to renal tuberculosis can be diagnosed quite late if it is not suspected. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula with tuberculous autonephrectomy...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
You-Sub Kim, Shin Jung, Woo-Youl Jang, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Kyung-Sub Moon, In-Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is an uncommon neoplasm that arises from olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity near the cribriform plate. Although local recurrence or direct extension along olfactory epithelium and metastasis to the central nervous system has been reported, remote leptomeningeal metastasis is quite rare. In our report of a leptomeningeal metastasis of ONB without recurrence of primary site, we discuss the possible pathogenesis of this rare phenomenon with a review of the literature...
September 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Shuntaro Yoshida, Koichiro Ichimura, Tatsuo Sakai
INTRODUCTION: The quadriceps femoris (QF), a major extensor of the knee joint, plays an important role in human movement. However, descriptions of the three vastus muscles of the QF in anatomy textbooks remain confusing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 33 QFs by a novel approach, using isolated muscle specimens to clarify the structures of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus intermedius (VI) origins. RESULTS: The origins of the VL and VM were quite constant in shape and location, but the VI was much more structurally diverse...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Jun Hirai, Takeshi Kinjo, Takaaki Tome, Mao Hagihara, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hideta Nakamura, Shusaku Haranaga, Hiroshige Mikamo, Jiro Fujita
Neisseria meningitidis often causes meningitis and meningococcemia; however, meningococcal pneumonia is quite rare. Herein, we report a case of non-invasive meningococcal pneumonia initially misdiagnosed as pneumonia due to Moraxella catarrhalis on the basis of a Gram stain in a 43-year-old woman with asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and schizophrenia. She visited our hospital following a 3-day history of fever, productive cough, and shortness of breath. Since her sputum smear revealed Gram-negative diplococcus and the chest radiograph showed infiltration in the lower right lung field, her initial diagnosis was pneumonia caused by M...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Sarah E Donohue, Joseph A Harris, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Marty G Woldorff, Mircea A Schoenfeld
For many smokers, the motivational state of craving is a central feature of their dependence on nicotine, and is often at odds with a general desire to quit. How this desire to quit may influence the craving for a cigarette, however, is unclear. In the current study, we manipulated the level of craving in 24 regular smokers, and recorded EEG measures of brain activity during a rare target detection task utilizing addiction-unrelated stimuli. In response to the non-targets, we observed that smokers wanting to quit showed an enhanced late frontal activation when they were craving versus not craving, whereas smokers not wanting to quit showed the opposite pattern of activity...
August 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Simon Lacey, Margaret Martinez, Kelly McCormick, K Sathian
Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which an experience in one domain is accompanied by an involuntary secondary experience in another, unrelated domain; in classical synesthesia, these associations are arbitrary and idiosyncratic. Cross-modal correspondences refer to universal associations between seemingly unrelated sensory features, e.g., auditory pitch and visual size. Some argue that these phenomena form a continuum, with classical synesthesia being an exaggeration of universal cross-modal correspondences, whereas others contend that the two are quite different, since cross-modal correspondences are non-arbitrary, non-idiosyncratic, and do not involve secondary experiences...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Gizem Barisik, Asli Isci, Naciye Kutlu, Simel Bagder Elmaci, Bulent Akay
The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different organic acids (maleic, succinic and oxalic acid) on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields of wheat straw. It was also aimed to optimize the process conditions (temperature, acid concentration and pretreatment time) by using response surface methodology (RSM). In line with this objective, the wheat straw samples were pretreated at three different temperatures (170, 190, 210 ˚C), acid concentrations (1%, 3%, 5%) and pretreatment time (10, 20, 30 min)...
August 25, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Michael Daly, Mark Egan
AIMS: To test the relationship between early cognitive ability and major changes in smoking habits across adulthood, and test whether educational attainment mediates these associations. DESIGN: Prospective observational study to examine the link between cognitive ability and smoking initiation, relapse, and cessation at multiple time-points throughout adulthood in a pooled analysis of two cohorts. SETTING: Great Britain 1981-2013. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 16,653 participants from two British cohorts; 7,191 from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS) and 9,462 from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS)...
August 12, 2016: Addiction
Murali Uthamalingam, Dharamjit Singh Jitsweer Singh
Incidences of cerebral palsy (CP) in children are not quite common even though it is the most common motor disorder in children. Further quality of life in CP cases is not so good in young adult stages and has to face certain problems. However scalp haematoma formation in CP patient without injury to head is rarely been reported. The case is being reported for the first time from Malaysia. We report on a unique case of scalp haematoma in an 18-year-old girl of known CP patient with unknown cause. No history of trauma or fall with any of the focal neurological signs or symptoms was found...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Rebeca Robles, Ana Fresán, Hamid Vega-Ramírez, Jeremy Cruz-Islas, Victor Rodríguez-Pérez, Tecelli Domínguez-Martínez, Geoffrey M Reed
BACKGROUND: The conceptualisation of transgender identity as a mental disorder has contributed to precarious legal status, human rights violations, and barriers to appropriate health care among transgender people. The proposed reconceptualisation of categories related to transgender identity in WHO's forthcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 removes categories related to transgender identity from the classification of mental disorders, in part based on the idea that these conditions do not satisfy the definitional requirements of mental disorders...
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Soumya Guha, Vijay Grover, Palash Aiyer, Jaibhagwan Dhull
INTRODUCTION: Cervical aortic arch is a rare anomaly where-in the ascending aorta arises normally from the left ventricle and extends in such a fashion that the aortic arch is situated high in the neck on either side. This anomaly should be suspected in any child exhibiting a pulsatile swelling in the neck. CASE COMMENTARY: An 8 year old child presented with a pulsatile swelling on the right side of the neck since birth. CT angiography revealed right sided cervical aortic arch at C4-C5 level...
August 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
David J Herzfeld, Reza Shadmehr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Enrique Jadresic
Until recently, social blushing was rarely discussed in the medical literature. It was usually considered only a normal and occasional physiological reaction associated with emotions such as embarrassment brought on by social situations. This has changed in recent years with attention increasingly being paid to blushing, either in the context of social anxiety disorder or in its own right. Some argue that blushing has adaptive value, so it may not make sense to treat people for blushing, a view we do not agree with since the blushing experience is not the same for everyone and those who seek medical help do so because their blushing impairs their quality of life...
2016: Medwave
Jeffrey H Kordower, Angel Vinuela, Yaping Chu, Ole Isacson, D Eugene Redmond
Clinical trials testing the hypothesis that fetal dopamine grafts would provide antiparkinsonian benefit in patients who had already developed side-effects from their long-terms use of L-dopa revealed, in some cases, the presence of dyskinesias even in the absence of L-dopa. The form, intensity, and frequency of these dyskinesias were quite variable, but their manifestation slowed down the clinical development of cell replacement therapies. Rodent models of graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs) have been proposed, however their accuracy in modeling GIDs has been questioned since they usually require amphetamine for their presentation...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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