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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024132/expression-of-isotocin-is-male-specifically-upregulated-by-gonadal-androgen-in-the-medaka-brain
#1
Junpei Yamashita, Yukika Kawabata, Kataaki Okubo
Oxytocin, a mammalian neuropeptide primarily synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, mediates a variety of physiological and behavioral processes ranging from parturition and lactation to affiliation and prosociality. Multiple studies in rodents have shown that the expression of the oxytocin gene (Oxt) is stimulated by estrogen, while androgen has no apparent effect. However, this finding is not consistent across all studies, and no study has examined sex steroid regulation of Oxt or its orthologs in other animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945313/severe-infantile-isolated-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-caused-by-the-complete-functional-loss-of-the-spink1-gene
#2
Théa Venet, Emmanuelle Masson, Cécile Talbotec, Kareen Billiemaz, Renaud Touraine, Claire Gay, Sylvie Destombe, David N Cooper, Hugues Patural, Jian-Min Chen, Claude Férec
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is rare in children, with most if not all cases occurring as part of syndromic conditions such as cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. Here we report two cases, both presenting with severe EPI around 5 months of age. Characterized by diffuse pancreatic lipomatosis, they otherwise exhibited no remarkable deficiencies in other organs. Novel non-identical homozygous variants (a deletion removing the entire SPINK1 gene and an insertion of a full-length inverted Alu element into the 3'-untranslated region of the SPINK1 gene) resulting in the complete functional loss of the SPINK1 gene (encoding pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor) were identified in each patient...
September 25, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918649/characterizing-verified-head-impacts-in-high-school-girls-lacrosse
#3
Shane V Caswell, Andrew E Lincoln, Hannah Stone, Patricia Kelshaw, Margot Putukian, Lisa Hepburn, Michael Higgins, Nelson Cortes
BACKGROUND: Girls' high school lacrosse players have higher rates of head and facial injuries than boys. Research indicates that these injuries are caused by stick, player, and ball contacts. Yet, no studies have characterized head impacts in girls' high school lacrosse. PURPOSE: To characterize girls' high school lacrosse game-related impacts by frequency, magnitude, mechanism, player position, and game situation. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911338/organisational-culture-and-trust-as-influences-over-the-implementation-of-equity-oriented-policy-in-two-south-african-case-study-hospitals
#4
Ermin Erasmus, Lucy Gilson, Veloshnee Govender, Moremi Nkosi
BACKGROUND: This paper uses the concepts of organisational culture and organisational trust to explore the implementation of equity-oriented policies - the Uniform Patient Fee Schedule (UPFS) and Patients' Rights Charter (PRC) - in two South African district hospitals. It contributes to the small literatures on organisational culture and trust in low- and middle-income country health systems, and broader work on health systems' people-centeredness and "software". METHODS: The research entailed semi-structured interviews (Hospital A n = 115, Hospital B n = 80) with provincial, regional, district and hospital managers, as well as clinical and non-clinical hospital staff, hospital board members, and patients; observations of policy implementation, organisational functioning, staff interactions and patient-provider interactions; and structured surveys operationalising the Competing Values Framework for measuring organisational culture (Hospital A n = 155, Hospital B n = 77) and Organisational Trust Inventory (Hospital A n = 185, Hospital B n = 92) for assessing staff-manager trust...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887832/extracellular-vesicles-from-oral-squamous-carcinoma-cells-display-pro-and-antiangiogenic-properties
#5
Ana Luiza Dias Leite de Andrade, Carine Ervolino de Oliveira, Maurício Rocha Dourado, Carolina Carneiro Soares Macedo, Flávia Vischi Winck, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Tuula Salo, Ricardo D Coletta, Roseana de AlmeidaFreitas, Hébel Cavalcanti Galvão
BACKGROUND: A new intercellular communication mode established by neoplastic cells and tumor microenvironment components is based on extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, the biological effects of the EVs released by tumor cells on angiogenesis are not completed understood. Here we aimed to understand the biological effects of EVs isolated from two cell lines of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) (SCC15 and HSC3) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis. METHODS: OSCC-derived EVs were isolated with a polymer-based precipitation method, quantified using nanoparticle tracking analysis and verified for EV markers by dot-blot...
September 8, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884828/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-acrolein-promoted-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-therapeutic-potential-of-nox2-and-p38mapk-inhibitors
#6
Arumugam Suyavaran, Kesthuru Subbiah Girish, K Kemparaju, Chinnasamy Thirunavukkarasu
Neutrophil is a significant contributor to ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced liver tissue damage. However, the underlying mechanisms of IR induced innate immune activation and liver damage is not quite clear. Our study sheds light on the role of chronic oxidative stress end products in worsening the IR inflammatory process by neutrophil recruitment and activation following liver surgery. We employed specific inhibitors for molecular targets - NOX2 (NADPH oxidase 2) and P38 MAPK (Mitogen activated protein kinase) signal to counteract neutrophil activation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release induced liver damage in IR injury...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874271/in-pursuit-of-our-ancestors-hand-laterality
#7
Amèlia Bargalló, Marina Mosquera, Sergi Lozano
The aim of this paper is to apply a previously published method (Bargalló and Mosquera, 2014) to the archaeological record, allowing us to identify the hand laterality of our ancestors and determine when and how this feature, which is exhibited most strongly in humans, appeared in our evolutionary history. The method focuses on identifying handedness by looking at the technical features of the flakes produced by a single knapper, and discovering how many flakes are required to ascertain their hand preference...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856586/tio2-nanowired-delivery-of-dl-3-n-butylphthalide-dl-nbp-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-brain-edema-formation-and-neuronal-damages-following-concussive-head-injury
#8
Lianyuan Feng, Aruna Sharma, Feng Niu, Yin Huang, José Vicente Lafuente, Dafin Fior Muresanu, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, Hari Shanker Sharma
DL-3-n-butylphthalide (DL-NBP) is one of the constituents of Chinese celery extract that is used to treat stroke, dementia, and ischemic diseases. However, its role in traumatic brain injury is less well known. In this investigation, neuroprotective effects of DL-NBP in concussive head injury (CHI) on brain pathology were explored in a rat model. CHI was inflicted in anesthetized rats by dropping a weight of 114.6 g from a height of 20 cm through a guide tube on the exposed right parietal bone inducing an impact of 0...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810158/a-typology-of-vaping-identifying-differing-beliefs-motivations-for-use-identity-and-political-interest-amongst-e-cigarette-users
#9
Hannah Farrimond
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify and differentiate socially shared accounts of e-cigarette use (vaping) using Q-methodology, combining factor analysis with qualitative comments. METHODS: Seventy statements on e-cigarettes, drawn from media, academic and online discussions, were sorted by participants along a continuum of agreement/disagreement, commenting on strongly ranked items. Each participant thus created their own 'account' of their vaping...
October 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769840/finding-the-snarc-instead-of-hunting-it-a-20-%C3%A2-20-monte-carlo-investigation
#10
Krzysztof Cipora, Guilherme Wood
The Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect describes a stimulus-response association of left with small magnitude and right with large magnitude. Usually, it is estimated by means of regression slopes, where the independent variable only has a limited number of levels. Inspection of the literature reveals that it is not difficult to detect a SNARC effect within a group, but it has been quite unusual to find group differences. Is the SNARC effect as it is usually estimated using regression slopes largely insensitive to group differences, and are there design parameters necessary to increase sensitivity in group comparison analyses? Using numerical simulations, we provide evidence that both sample size and the number of stimulus repetitions, as well as intra-individual variability, contribute in a substantial way to the probability of detecting an existing SNARC effect...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748625/multiple-risk-factor-counseling-to-promote-heart-healthy-lifestyles-in-the-chest-pain-observation-unit-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
David A Katz, Mark Graber, Patricia Lounsbury, Mark W Vander Weg, Emily K Phillips, Christina Clair, Phillip A Horwitz, Xueya Cai, Alan J Christensen
OBJECTIVE: Admission to the chest pain observation unit (CPOU) may be an advantageous time for patients to consider heart-healthy lifestyle changes while undergoing diagnostic evaluation to rule out myocardial ischemia. The aim of this pragmatic trial was to assess the effectiveness of a multiple risk factor intervention in changing CPOU patients' health beliefs and readiness to change health behaviors. A secondary aim was to obtain preliminary estimates of the intervention's effect on diet, physical activity, and smoking...
July 27, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706871/tricuspid-valve-regurgitation-after-heart-transplantation
#12
Murray H Kwon, Richard J Shemin
Tricuspid valve regurgitation (TVR) in the orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) recipient is quite common and has varied clinical sequelae. In its severest forms, it can lead to right-sided failure symptoms indistinguishable from that seen in native heart TVR disease. While certain implantation techniques are widely recognized to reduce the risk of TVR in the cardiac allograft, concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty, while having advocates, is not currently accepted as a routinely established adjunct. Decisions to surgically correct TVR in the OHT recipient must be made carefully, as certain clinical scenarios have high risk of failure...
May 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682738/-it-would-be-easier-if-she-d-died-young-people-with-parents-with-dementia-articulating-inadmissible-stories
#13
Mel Hall, Pat Sikes
In the U.K. context where the emphasis is (quite rightly) on living well with dementia, on positivity and enabling approaches, it can be difficult for researchers to investigate and report negative experiences. Failing to re-present perceptions and experiences as they are lived, however, does a serious disservice to the research endeavor and can prevent policy and service development and positive change. In this article, we present some stories told by participants in an Alzheimer's Society (United Kingdom) Funded project uniquely investigating the perceptions and experiences of children and young people who have a parent with dementia...
July 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681921/now-or-never-smoking-cessation-discussions-in-the-face-of-serious-illness
#14
Clara Iversen
Sociological research on medical discussions of lifestyle suggests that smoking patients may be seen as knowingly causing their medical problems. Therefore, it may be interactionally problematic for doctors to raise the issue of smoking cessation in relation to patients' serious health problems. While a serious illness can be expected to bring to the fore the relevance of smoking cessation advice, it may also give rise to questions about patients' right to treatment. This study uses conversation analysis to explicate how patients and doctors manage issues of responsibility in smoking cessation discussions in the face of a serious medical problem that strongly correlates with smoking...
July 6, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664667/pitavastatin-up-regulate-enos-production-by-suppressing-mir-155-expression-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#15
Changqin Jing, Menglong Guo, Xiaodan Bao, Tianhan Li, Juntang Lin, Xinjie Lu, Wenfeng Wang
AIM: Pitavastatin (Pit) has been proved to efficiently inhibit the onset and progression of atheroscleosis. However the mechanism by which Pit exert non-lipid related effects, such as anti-inflammatory actions, is not quite clear. Our study aimed at investigating the effect of Pit on the expression of eNOS and miR-155 in LPS-stimulated HUVECs to reveal the anti-inflammatory mechanism of pitavastatin. METHODS: HUVECs were isolated from newborn umbilical cords and used in the experiments at passages 2-5...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664264/behavioural-changes-sharing-behaviour-and-psychological-responses-after-receiving-direct-to-consumer-genetic-test-results-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Kelly F J Stewart, Anke Wesselius, Maartje A C Schreurs, Annemie M W J Schols, Maurice P Zeegers
It has been hypothesised that direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GTs) could stimulate health behaviour change. However, genetic testing may also lead to anxiety and distress or unnecessarily burden the health care system. The aim is to review and meta-analyse the effects of DTC-GT on (1) behaviour change, (2) psychological response and (3) medical consumption. A systematic literature search was performed in three databases, using "direct-to-consumer genetic testing" as a key search term. Random effects meta-analyses were performed when at least two comparable outcomes were available...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640508/intraglomerular-gap-junctions-enhance-interglomerular-synchrony-in-a-sparsely-connected-olfactory-bulb-network
#17
Frederic Pouille, Thomas S McTavish, Lawrence E Hunter, Diego Restrepo, Nathan E Schoppa
KEY POINTS: Despite sparse connectivity, population-level interactions between mitral cells (MCs) and granule cells (GCs) can generate synchronized oscillations in the rodent olfactory bulb. Intraglomerular gap junctions between MCs at the same glomerulus can greatly enhance synchronized activity of MCs at different glomeruli. The facilitating effect of intraglomerular gap junctions on interglomerular synchrony is through triggering of mutually synchronizing interactions between MCs and GCs...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640457/primordial-like-enzymes-from-bacteria-with-reduced-genomes
#18
Matteo P Ferla, Jodi L Brewster, Kelsi R Hall, Gary B Evans, Wayne M Patrick
The first cells probably possessed rudimentary metabolic networks, built using a handful of multifunctional enzymes. The promiscuous activities of modern enzymes are often assumed to be relics of this primordial era; however, by definition these activities are no longer physiological. There are many fewer examples of enzymes using a single active site to catalyze multiple physiologically-relevant reactions. Previously, we characterized the promiscuous alanine racemase (ALR) activity of Escherichia coli cystathionine β-lyase (CBL)...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600812/temporomandibular-disorders-and-dental-occlusion-a-systematic-review-of-association-studies-end-of-an-era
#19
REVIEW
D Manfredini, L Lombardo, G Siciliani
To answer a clinical research question: 'is there any association between features of dental occlusion and temporomandibular disorders (TMD)?' A systematic literature review was performed. Inclusion was based on: (i) the type of study, viz., clinical studies on adults assessing the association between TMD (e.g., signs, symptoms, specific diagnoses) and features of dental occlusion by means of single or multiple variable analysis, and (ii) their internal validity, viz., use of clinical assessment approaches to TMD diagnosis...
November 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589671/pain-and-mortality-in-older-adults-the-influence-of-pain-phenotype
#20
Diane Smith, Ross Wilkie, Peter Croft, John McBeth
Objective Moderate to severe chronic pain affects one in five adults. Pain may increase the risk of mortality but the relationship is unclear. This study investigated whether mortality risk was influenced by pain phenotype, characterised by pain extent or pain impact on daily life. Methods The study population was drawn from two large population cohorts of adults aged ≥50 years; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) (n=6324) and the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP) (n=10985)...
June 7, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
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