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Nature review oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770305/the-prostate-cancer-focal-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Filippo Pesapane, Francesca Patella, Enrico Maria Fumarola, Edoardo Zanchetta, Chiara Floridi, Gianpaolo Carrafiello, Chloë Standaert
Despite prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading form of non-cutaneous cancer in men, most patients with PCa die with disease rather than of the disease. Therefore, the risk of overtreatment should be considered by clinicians who have to distinguish between patients with high risk PCa (who would benefit from radical treatment) and patients who may be managed more conservatively, such as through active surveillance or emerging focal therapy (FT). The aim of FT is to eradicate clinically significant disease while protecting key genito-urinary structures and function from injury...
April 2018: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764158/what-is-the-role-of-immunotherapy-in-breast-cancer
#2
Tira J Tan, Jack J Chan, Sulastri Kamis, Rebecca Alexandra Dent
The immune system plays a complex role in the recognition/prevention, early eradication as well as progression of cancer. Recently, we have witnessed great momentum in the field of immuno-oncology. Checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy have now entered the clinic, with impressive and durable clinical responses seen across a broad array of tumor types. There are several lines of evidence supporting the development of an immune targeted approach in breast cancer. Emerging data of early clinical trials evaluating monotherapy checkpoint inhibition have shown modest activity in breast cancer, in particular high grade and aggressive subtypes such as triple negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and luminal B breast cancers...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755780/appendiceal-diverticulosis-a-harbinger-of-underlying-primary-appendiceal-adenocarcinoma
#3
Jia Lin Ng, Shing Lih Wong, Ronnie Mathew
Diagnosis of primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma (PAA) is hindered by its rarity and largely asymptomatic nature. Appendiceal diverticulosis (AD) is equally rare. We report an unusual case of PAA presenting with perforated appendiceal diverticulitis, and discuss a review of the literature about its association, and its surgical and pathological implications. A middle-aged man was admitted with right iliac fossa (RIF) pain and a corresponding tender abdominal mass for 5 days. Computerised tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a thickened appendix with 3 cm abscess at its base...
April 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743988/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-curcumin-mediated-therapeutic-effects-in-type-2-diabetes-and-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Marzena Wojcik, Michal Krawczyk, Pawel Wojcik, Katarzyna Cypryk, Lucyna Alicja Wozniak
The growing prevalence of age-related diseases, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer, has become global health and economic problems. Due to multifactorial nature of both diseases, their pathophysiology is not completely understood so far. Compelling evidence indicates that increased oxidative stress, resulting from an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their clearance by antioxidant defense mechanisms, as well as the proinflammatory state contributes to the development and progression of the diseases...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743943/risk-sharing-agreements-present-and-future
#5
REVIEW
Francisco R Gonçalves, Susana Santos, Catarina Silva, Gabriela Sousa
Risk-sharing agreements between pharmaceutical companies and payers stand out as a recent practice, the use of which has been increasing in the case of innovative medicines, particularly in the field of oncology, which aims to ensure better budgetary control and a lower risk of spending on medicinal products without full evidence of clinical benefit. In this article, the authors discuss the types of existing agreements, as well as those used in Portugal, their advantages, disadvantages and future challenges of implementation, as well as their potential role in access to therapeutic innovation, namely medicines for cancer treatment...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730298/exploring-the-biophysical-properties-of-phytosterols-in-the-plasma-membrane-for-novel-cancer-prevention-strategies
#6
REVIEW
Omar Fakih, Didem Sanver, David Kane, James L Thorne
Cancer is a global problem with no sign that incidences are reducing. The great costs associated with curing cancer, through developing novel treatments and applying patented therapies, is an increasing burden to developed and developing nations alike. These financial and societal problems will be alleviated by research efforts into prevention, or treatments that utilise off-patent or repurposed agents. Phytosterols are natural components of the diet found in an array of seeds, nuts and vegetables and have been added to several consumer food products for the management of cardio-vascular disease through their ability to lower LDL-cholesterol levels...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726723/surgical-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-perihilar-cholangiocarcinoma
#7
Charles W Kimbrough, Jordan M Cloyd, Timothy M Pawlik
Since their initial description, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) has remained one of the more clinically challenging scenarios encountered by hepatobiliary surgeons. Surgery remains the only potentially curative therapy, but requires complex, technically demanding operations with high associated morbidity and mortality. Over the last several decades, advances in surgical technique and perioperative management have improved patient outcomes. Areas Covered: Achievement of optimal outcomes requires a multidisciplinary approach from a team of providers with expertise in hepatobiliary and oncologic surgery, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and advanced gastroenterology...
May 4, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702221/challenges-in-the-local-delivery-of-peptides-and-proteins-for-oral-mucositis-management
#8
REVIEW
João C Campos, João D Cunha, Domingos C Ferreira, Salette Reis, Paulo J Costa
Oral mucositis, a common inflammatory side effect of oncological treatments, is a disorder of the oral mucosa that can cause painful ulcerations, local motor disabilities, and an increased risk of infections. Due to the discomfort it produces and the associated health risks, it can lead to cancer treatment restrains, such as the need for dose reduction, cycle delays or abandonment. Current mucositis management has low efficiency in prevention and treatment. A topical drug application for a local action can be a more effective approach than systemic routes when addressing oral cavity pathologies...
April 24, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667346/in-situ-vaccination-harvesting-low-hanging-fruit-on-the-cancer-immunotherapy-tree
#9
REVIEW
Mee Rie Sheen, Steven Fiering
After 100 years of debate, it is clear that cancer is recognized by the immune system and this has generated immense interest in cancer immunotherapy. The systemic nature of the immune system gives immunotherapy the ability to treat metastatic disease, which currently requires chemotherapy that frequently fails. Like chemotherapy, most immunotherapy is systemically applied in an effort to generate systemic antitumor immune response. However, local administration of immunostimulatory reagents into a recognized tumor by in situ vaccination (ISV) can also generate systemic antitumor immunity to fight metastatic disease...
April 18, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665804/immediate-implant-replacement-with-diep-flap-a-single-stage-salvage-option-in-failed-implant-based-breast-reconstruction
#10
Miguel De La Parra Marquez, Ricardo Fernandez-Riera, Hector Vela Cardona, Jesus María Rangel Flores
BACKGROUND: Implant-based immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy has shown a significant improvement in patients' quality of life, making the procedure steadily more popular year after year. However, this technique has a high morbidity rate, including skin necrosis and implant exposure. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively held database for autologous breast reconstruction in our institution of the last 5 years found eight cases with exposed implants after nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction...
April 17, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629319/liver-transplantation-for-unresectable-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-with-liver-metastases-in-an-era-of-transplant-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Keita Shimata, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Taizo Hibi
Patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) very often present with a metastatic disease at the first diagnosis. Liver transplantation (LT) for unresectable pNET with liver metastases (pNETLM) has been described to prolong survival in highly selected patients, although outcomes were worse than those of patients who underwent LT for gastrointestinal NETLM (GI-NETLM). In this review, several proposed criteria are described with their rationale and controversies. Most of the data used to establish these criteria do not reflect the recent improvements of non-surgical treatments that has changed the landscape of treatment for pNETs, including the development of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and molecular-targeted agents (sunitinib and everolimus)...
February 2018: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624087/what-does-meaningful-look-like-a-qualitative-study-of-patient-engagement-at-the-pan-canadian-oncology-drug-review-perspectives-of-reviewers-and-payers
#12
Linda Rozmovits, Helen Mai, Alexandra Chambers, Kelvin Chan
Objectives While there is wide support for patient engagement in health technology assessment, determining what constitutes meaningful (as opposed to tokenistic) engagement is complex. This paper explores reviewer and payer perceptions of what constitutes meaningful patient engagement in the Pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review process. Methods Qualitative interview study comprising 24 semi-structured telephone interviews. A qualitative descriptive approach, employing the technique of constant comparison, was used to produce a thematic analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611527/chemotherapy-medication-errors
#13
REVIEW
Saul N Weingart, Lulu Zhang, Megan Sweeney, Michael Hassett
Although chemotherapy is a well established treatment modality, chemotherapy errors represent a potentially serious risk of patient harm. We reviewed published research from 1980 to 2017 to understand the extent and nature of medication errors in cancer chemotherapy, and to identify effective interventions to help prevent mistakes. Chemotherapy errors occur at a rate of about one to four per 1000 orders, affect at least 1-3% of adult and paediatric oncology patients, and occur at all stages of the medication use process...
April 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603386/natural-history-of-myocardial-deformation-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-exposed-to-anthracyclines-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Mirela Tuzovic, Pei-Tzu Wu, Samuel Kianmahd, Kim-Lien Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: Anthracyclines are widely used to treat solid and hematologic malignancies, but are known to cause cardiotoxicity. As more childhood cancer survivors reach adulthood due to improvements in oncologic treatments, they become susceptible to late and progressive anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Nonetheless, diagnostic criteria for early detection of cardiac dysfunction are not well defined in children, adolescent, and young adults (CAYA, ages 1-40 years). We present a natural history of the changes in myocardial deformation in CAYA patients after anthracycline therapy...
March 30, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579624/modulating-ion-channel-function-with-antibodies-and-nanobodies
#15
REVIEW
Catelijne Stortelers, Carolina Pinto-Espinoza, Diane Van Hoorick, Friedrich Koch-Nolte
Immune cells express various voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the influx and efflux of charged ions across the plasma membrane, thereby controlling the membrane potential and mediating intracellular signal transduction pathways. These channels thus present potential targets for experimental modulation of immune responses and for therapeutic interventions in immune disease. Small molecule drugs and natural toxins acting on ion channels have illustrated the potential therapeutic benefit of targeting ion channels on immune cells...
March 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573835/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-medium-term-experience
#16
A Durán-Rivera, A Montoliu García, J Juan Escudero, P Garrido Abad, M Fernández Arjona, E López Alcina
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of localised prostate cancer seeks to minimise the impact on sexual function and urinary continence. In this respect, therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound offers important results. We present our experience with this technique in 2 Spanish centres. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 75 patients with localised prostate cancer treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound between March 2007 and July 2016...
March 21, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556926/nutrition-impact-symptoms-and-associated-outcomes-in-post-chemoradiotherapy-head-and-neck-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Sylvia L Crowder, Katherine G Douglas, M Yanina Pepino, Kalika P Sarma, Anna E Arthur
PURPOSE: It is estimated that more than 90% of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors who underwent chemoradiotherapy experience one or more nutrition impact symptoms (NIS) in the months or years thereafter. Despite the high prevalence, there is limited research addressing long-term impact of NIS on outcomes such as nutrition and quality of life in HNC survivors treated with chemoradiotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature pertaining to the presence of nutrition impact symptoms and their associated outcomes in post-chemoradiotherapy head and neck cancer survivors...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546487/epithelioid-hemangioendothelioma-update-on-diagnosis-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Ari Rosenberg, Mark Agulnik
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare sarcoma, as such it can pose a clinical dilemma based solely on its rarity. Also, the spectrum of disease varies greatly between an indolent disease and aggressive disease with widespread metastases. In our clinical practice, the primary focus has been to get a handle on the aggressive nature of the disease, which will then dictate how urgently one needs to treat the patient. Pathological review with immunohistochemistry and molecular characterization is paramount...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530466/circulating-tumor-cells-in-bladder-cancer-emerging-technologies-and-clinical-implications-foreseeing-precision-oncology
#19
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Janine Soares, Andreia Peixoto, Sofia Cotton, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
CONTEXT: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood of cancer patients provide an opportunity for real-time liquid biopsies capable of aiding early intervention, therapeutic decision, response to therapy, and prognostication. Nevertheless, the rare and potentially heterogeneous molecular nature of CTC has delayed the standardization of robust high-throughput capture/enrichment and characterization technologies. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to systematize emerging solutions for CTC analysis in bladder cancer (BC), their opportunities and limitations, while providing key insights on specific technologic aspects that may ultimately guide molecular studies and clinical implementation...
March 9, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492103/awareness-and-compliance-with-pharmacovigilance-requirements-amongst-uk-oncology-healthcare-professionals
#20
Rebecca J Thorne, Rosanne J Bruggink, Stephen J Kelly, Sarah Jl Payne, Simon J Purcell, David A Montgomery
Since 2013, once a medicine receives marketing authorisation in the European Union, it is labelled with an inverted black triangle indicating all adverse reactions should be reported. Our aim was to explore understanding of the black triangle and compliance with adverse event (AE) reporting requirements by UK oncology healthcare professionals (HCPs). A questionnaire was electronically distributed to oncology pharmacists (P) via the British Oncology Pharmacy Association, to oncologists (O) through the Association of Cancer Physicians and also to nurses (N) via the UK Oncology Nursing Society...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
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