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Nature review oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105334/chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-and-the-role-of-epigenetics-future-therapeutic-trajectories
#1
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Henrietta U Okafor, Vivian N Muoneke, Odutola I Odetunde, Chioma L Odimegwu
Global differences in the observed causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children are well documented and are attributed to dissimilarities in clime, race, hereditary, and ancestry. Thus, familial clustering and disparities in CKD prevalence rates across ethnic and racial groups indicate that the progression of renal disease has a strong genetic component. Mammalian studies have demonstrated a feasible nexus between nutrition and non-genetic exposure (around the time of conception and in epigenetic changes) in the expression of major genes identified in renal organogenesis...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104497/robot-assisted-surgery-in-gynecologic-cancers
#2
REVIEW
V Zanagnolo, A Garbi, M T Achilarre, L Minig
Robotic-assisted surgery is a technological advancement that facilitates the application of minimally invasive techniques for complex operations in gynecological oncology. The objective of this article is to review the literature regarding the role of robotic-assisted surgery to treat women with gynecologic cancers. The majority of publications on robotic surgery are still retrospective or descriptive in nature, however, the data for managing patients with a robotic assisted approach shows comparable, and at times an improved outcomes compared to both laparoscopy (2D) and laparotomy approaches...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094573/advanced-gastric-adenocarcinoma-optimizing-therapy-options
#3
Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Kazuto Harada, Yusuke Shimodaira, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Quan Lin, Jaffer A Ajani
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. When localized, cure is achievable with surgery and adjunctive therapies in some patients, however, once advanced, GAC is not a curable condition. Only two targeted agents (trastuzumab and ramucirumab) have been approved and apatinib was approved only in China. Because of the heterogeneous nature of GAC, it is not possible to assess a standard therapeutic approach. Areas Covered: In this review, we aimed to describe the optimal systemic therapy regimens for advanced GAC...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063019/raoultella-spp-clinical-significance-infections-and-susceptibility-to-antibiotics
#4
REVIEW
Alicja Sękowska
The genus Raoultella belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Raoultella spp. are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile rods. This genus can be distinguished from the genus Klebsiella, in that genus use histamine as the only source of carbon in the medium. Also, Raoultella grow at 4 °C and do not produce gas from lactose at 44.5 °C. Raoultella sp. is known to inhabit natural environments (water, soil, plants). The reservoir of Raoultella is the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract. Raoultella spp...
January 6, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047524/su-f-p-05-initial-experience-with-an-independent-certification-program-for-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#5
T Solberg, J Robar, T Gevaert, M Todorovic, J Howe
PURPOSE: The ASTRO document "Safety is no accident: A FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITY RADIATION ONCOLOGY AND CARE" recommends external reviews of specialized modalities. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the implementation of such a program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body radiation Therapy (SBRT). METHODS: The margin of error for SRS and SBRT delivery is significantly smaller than that of conventional radiotherapy and therefore requires special attention and diligence...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042071/the-edmonton-symptom-assessment-system-25-years-later-past-present-and-future-developments
#6
REVIEW
David Hui, Eduardo Bruera
CONTEXT: Routine symptom assessment represents the cornerstone of symptom management. ESAS is one of the first quantitative symptom assessment batteries that allows for simple and rapid documentation of multiple patient-reported symptoms at the same time. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the historical development of ESAS, its current uses in different settings, and future developments. METHODS: Narrative review RESULTS: Since its development in 1991, ESAS has been psychometrically validated and translated into over 20 languages...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998183/systemic-therapy-for-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-who-when-what-and-why
#7
Pooja Virmani, Susan H Hwang, Justin G Hastings, Bradley M Haverkos, Becca Kohnken, Alejandro A Gru, Anjali Mishra, Stephanie K Fabbro, Steve M Horwitz, Pierluigi Porcu
CTCL are rare neoplasms. Optimal care requires integrated use of diagnostic and treatment modalities spanning multiple specialties. Current instruments for patient risk stratification and disease measurement across all anatomical compartments are suboptimal. A common treatment dichotomy between early (Dermatology) and advanced stage (Hematology-Oncology) has hindered accrual of long term outcome data. Thus, important facts about natural history, such as frequency and determinants of stage progression, and the impact of specific treatment modalities on these endpoints, are not known...
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997415/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-focal-therapy-reality-or-pitfall
#8
Ariel A Schulman, Kae J Tay, Cary N Robertson, Thomas J Polascik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progress in imaging, fusion software, and ablative modalities has fostered growth of the latest image-guided generation of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for focal treatment of prostate cancer. Although early reports are encouraging, important questions remain regarding candidate selection, treatment, and outcomes. We review contemporary considerations for the use of HIFU for focal treatment of primary and radio-recurrent prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: HIFU has been used to treat prostate cancer for over two decades...
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984486/a-clinicopathological-study-of-malignant-insulinoma-in-a-contemporary-series
#9
Run Yu, Nicholas N Nissen, Andrew Hendifar, Laura Tang, Yu-Li Song, Yuan-Jia Chen, Xuemo Fan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to address the origin and natural history of malignant insulinoma. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed with insulinoma at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2000 and 2015 was conducted. Hormonal expression in tumor specimens was examined by immunostaining. RESULTS: All the 9 patients with malignant insulinoma (35% of 26 patients with insulinoma) already had liver metastasis at hypoglycemia presentation with bulky cumulative tumor burden...
January 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968908/epb41-a-novel-hepatoma-susceptibility-gene-dysregulated-by-c-myc-an-integrative-functional-genomics-study
#10
Xinyu Yang, Dianke Yu, Yanli Ren, Jinyu Wei, Wenting Pan, Changchun Zhou, Liqing Zhou, Yu Liu, Ming Yang
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided insight into cancer genetics. However, molecular mechanisms whereby many susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by GWAS promote cancer heritability and risk are unknown. New research strategies to evaluate functionality are needed to systematically study causal genetic variants. METHODS: In this study, we developed an integrative functional genomics method to identify cancer susceptibility SNPs in transcription factor binding sites across the whole genome...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960589/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-with-natural-killer-cell-immunotherapy
#11
Jesus I Luna, Steven K Grossenbacher, William J Murphy, Robert J Canter
Standard cytoreductive cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are frequently resisted by a small portion of cancer cells with 'stem-cell' like properties including quiescence and repopulation. Immunotherapy represents a breakthrough modality for improving oncologic outcomes in cancer patients. Since the success of immunotherapy is not contingent on target cell proliferation, it may also be uniquely suited to address the problem of resistance and repopulation exerted by cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
December 23, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854260/cpp-assisted-intracellular-drug-delivery-what-is-next
#12
REVIEW
Junxiao Ye, Ergang Liu, Zhili Yu, Xing Pei, Sunhui Chen, Pengwei Zhang, Meong-Cheol Shin, Junbo Gong, Huining He, Victor C Yang
For the past 20 years, we have witnessed an unprecedented and, indeed, rather miraculous event of how cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), the naturally originated penetrating enhancers, help overcome the membrane barrier that has hindered the access of bio-macromolecular compounds such as genes and proteins into cells, thereby denying their clinical potential to become potent anti-cancer drugs. By taking the advantage of the unique cell-translocation property of these short peptides, various payloads of proteins, nucleic acids, or even nanoparticle-based carriers were delivered into all cell types with unparalleled efficiency...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803596/the-prioritization-preferences-of-pan-canadian-oncology-drug-review-members-and-the-canadian-public-a-stated-preferences-comparison
#13
C Skedgel
The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pcodr) is responsible for making coverage recommendations to provincial and territorial drug plans about cancer drugs. Within the pcodr process, small groups of experts (including public representatives) consider the characteristics of each drug and make a funding recommendation. It is important to understand how the values and preferences of those decision-makers compare with the values and preferences of the citizens on whose behalf they are acting. In the present study, stated preference methods were used to elicit prioritization preferences from a representative sample of the Canadian public and a small convenience sample of pcodr committee members...
October 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802070/nose-laparoscopic-gastrectomies-for-early-gastric-cancer-may-reduce-morbidity-and-hospital-stay-early-results-from-a-prospective-non-randomized-study
#14
Cristiano Gs Hüscher, Marco Maria Lirici, Cecilia Ponzano
BACKGROUND: Natural Orifice Specimen Extraction - NOSE laparoscopy is a promising technique that avoids mini-laparotomy, possibly reducing postoperative pain, wound infections and hospital stay. Recent systematic reviews have shown that postoperative morbidity associated with laparoscopically assisted gastrectomies is similar to that after open gastrectomies. More specifically, there is no difference in wound infection rate. The study objective was to evaluate whether postoperative morbidity and hospital stay may be reduced by transoral specimen extraction after laparoscopically assisted gastrectomy for early gastric cancer...
November 1, 2016: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795832/fertility-sparing-management-in-cervical-cancer-balancing-oncologic-outcomes-with-reproductive-success
#15
REVIEW
Karla Willows, Genevieve Lennox, Allan Covens
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, many of who are still within their reproductive lifespan. Advances in screening and treatment have increased the 5-year survival for early stage disease to over 90 % in developed countries. The focus is now shifting to reducing morbidity and improving fertility outcomes for cervical cancer patients. Radical trachelectomy with lymph node assessment became the standard of care for selected women with lesions <2 cm who desire fertility preservation...
2016: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792437/preventing-intraluminal-occlusion-in-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters
#16
Jan Hitchcock
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are used in a variety of specialties. Infective and thrombotic complications are widely reported but little has been written about the complications of persistent withdrawal occlusion (PWO) or complete luminal occlusion in PICCs. An audit was conducted of all patients who had a PICC in situ for a 6-week period, using a combination of reviewing clinical documentation and local departmental databases, physical review of inpatients and discussion with the relevant clinical nurse specialists in haematology, oncology, outpatient antibiotic therapy and the vascular access team, to determine the degree of PWO or occlusion but also to review possible financial implications in the introduction of a more expensive product...
October 27, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791830/contralateral-osteotomy-of-the-pedicle-and-posterolateral-elements-for-en-bloc-resection-a-technique-for-oncological-resection-of-posterolateral-spinal-tumors
#17
Viren S Vasudeva, Alexander E Ropper, Samuel Rodriguez, Kyle C Wu, John H Chi
En bloc resection of tumors involving the spinal column is technically challenging and is associated with high morbidity to the patient due to the proximity of critical neurological and vascular structures and the destabilizing nature of this surgery. Nevertheless, evidence has shown improved progression-free survival with en bloc resection for certain low-grade malignant and aggressive benign musculoskeletal tumors. To avoid the morbidity of en bloc spondylectomy in patients with tumors localized to the lateral and posterolateral spinal column, the authors have found that the goals of surgery can be accomplished through a contralateral osteotomy of the pedicle and posterolateral elements for en bloc resection (COPPER)...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754995/prognostic-role-of-the-cumulative-toxicity-in-patients-affected-by-metastatic-renal-cells-carcinoma-and-treated-with-first-line-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#18
Roberto Iacovelli, Elena Verri, Maria Cossu Rocca, Gaetano Aurilio, Daniela Cullurà, Ottavio de Cobelli, Franco Nolè
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related toxicities have been reported to be predictive and/or prognostic factors in patients affected by metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We aim to investigate the incidence of cumulative toxicity and its prognostic role in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib. mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib at the European Institute of Oncology in Milan were reviewed for the incidence of adverse events. Cumulative toxicity was defined as the presence of more than one selected adverse event of any grade...
February 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730018/aesthetic-outcomes-of-inframammary-fold-recreation-in-two-stage-implant-based-breast-reconstruction
#19
Koichi Tomita, Kenji Yano, Akimitsu Nishibayashi, Shien Seike, Ko Hosokawa
BACKGROUND: When the inframammary fold (IMF) is excised in mastectomy procedures for oncologic reasons, it must be recreated to restore a natural breast shape. Despite refinements in surgical techniques, postoperative loss of a well-defined IMF can occur. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of IMF recreation after two-stage, implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 75 consecutive patients who underwent unilateral, two-stage, implant-based breast reconstruction between 2013 and 2015 at the authors' institution...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718433/liver-angiosarcoma-rare-tumour-associated-with-a-poor-prognosis-literature-review-and-case-report
#20
Mauricio Millan, Alejandro Delgado, Luis A Caicedo, Ana M Arrunategui, Carlos A Meneses, Jorge I Villegas, Oscar Serrano, Liliana Caicedo, Mauricio Duque, Gabriel J Echeverri
INTRODUCTION: Liver angiosarcoma is a very uncommon tumour of mesenchymal origin, representing between 0.1-2% of all primary tumours of the liver, affecting mainly men in their sixth or seventh decade of life, with a high mortality in the first years (Chaudhary et al., 2015). Literature reports of its surgical treatment vary from a total or partial hepatectomy with or without liver transplant. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 37year old male, with a 7year history of a fatty liver, was found to have a 12cm diameter tumour in a cirrhotic liver, during an abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) scan...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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