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Nature review oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350699/medical-cannabis-the-oncology-nurse-s-role-in-patient-education-about-the-effects-of-marijuana-on-cancer-palliation%C3%A2
#1
Carey S Clark
BACKGROUND: Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is legal either medicinally or recreationally in 29 states and the District of Columbia, with a majority of the U.S. adult population now living in states where cannabis is legal for medicinal use. As an advocate for patient autonomy and informed choice, the oncology nurse has an ethical responsibility to educate patients about and support their use of cannabis for palliation.
. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to discuss the human endocannabinoid system as a basis for better understanding the palliative and curative nature of cannabis as a medicine, as well as review cannabis delivery methods and the emerging role of the oncology nurse in this realm...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347949/effects-of-surgery-and-anesthetic-choice-on-immunosuppression-and-cancer-recurrence
#2
REVIEW
Ryungsa Kim
BACKGROUND: The relationship between surgery and anesthetic-induced immunosuppression and cancer recurrence remains unresolved. Surgery and anesthesia stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to cause immunosuppression through several tumor-derived soluble factors. The potential impact of surgery and anesthesia on cancer recurrence was reviewed to provide guidance for cancer surgical treatment. METHODS: PubMed was searched up to December 31, 2016 using search terms such as, "anesthetic technique and cancer recurrence," "regional anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "local anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "anesthetic technique and immunosuppression," and "anesthetic technique and oncologic surgery...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333423/long-term-outcomes-after-natural-orifice-specimen-extraction-versus-conventional-laparoscopy-assisted-surgery-for-rectal-cancer-a-matched-case-control-study
#3
Jun Seok Park, Hyun Kang, Soo Yeun Park, Hye Jin Kim, In Taek Lee, Gyu-Seog Choi
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of total laparoscopic surgery with Natural Orifice Specimen Extraction (NOSE) with those for conventional laparoscopy (CL)-assisted surgery for treating rectal cancers. Methods: We reviewed the prospectively collected records of 844 patients (163 NOSE and 681 CL) who underwent curative surgery for mid- or upper rectal cancers from January 2006 to November 2012. We applied propensity score analyses and compared oncological outcomes for the NOSE and CL groups in a 1:1 matched cohort...
January 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322117/oncoplastic-breast-conserving-surgery-aesthetic-satisfaction-and-oncological-outcomes
#4
Sevgi Kurt Yazar, Dinçer Altınel, Merdan Serin, Şefika Aksoy, Memet Yazar
Objective: Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery (BCS) involves radical excision of tumors while maintaining the natural breast contours. In this study, we present the results of the oncoplastic BCS surgeries performed in our clinic. Material and Methods: 13 breast cancer patients who had undergone oncoplastic BCS were included in this retrospective study. Postoperative photographs and retrospective chart reviews were used to evaluate the results. Aesthetic satisfaction level was verbally obtained from the patients...
January 2018: European Journal of Breast Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319049/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#5
REVIEW
Russell W Jenkins, David A Barbie, Keith T Flaherty
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting CTLA-4 and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have shown unprecedented clinical activity in several types of cancer and are rapidly transforming the practice of medical oncology. Whereas cytotoxic chemotherapy and small molecule inhibitors ('targeted therapies') largely act on cancer cells directly, immune checkpoint inhibitors reinvigorate anti-tumour immune responses by disrupting co-inhibitory T-cell signalling. While resistance routinely develops in patients treated with conventional cancer therapies and targeted therapies, durable responses suggestive of long-lasting immunologic memory are commonly seen in large subsets of patients treated with ICI...
January 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309533/exploring-immune-checkpoints-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-atherosclerosis
#6
Pascal Kusters, Esther Lutgens, Tom T P Seijkens
In the past decades, the inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis has been well recognized and despite the development of therapeutic strategies targeted at its classical risk factors such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, atherosclerosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Additional strategies targeting the chronic inflammatory pathways underlying the development of atherosclerosis are therefore required. Interactions between different immune cells result in the secretion of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, and fuel atherogenesis...
December 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283221/tumor-microenvironment-enabled-nanotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Liying Wang, Minfeng Huo, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
Cancer is now one of the world's leading threats to human health. With the development of oncology in both biology and biomedicine, it has been demonstrated that abnormal physiochemical conditions and dysregulated biosynthetic intermediates in tumor microenvironment (TME) play a pivotal role in enabling tumor cells to defend or evade the damage by traditional clinical tumor therapeutics including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, etc. The fast advances of TME-enabled theranostic nanomedicine have offered promising perspectives, strategies, and approaches for combating cancer based on the novel concept of TME-enabled nanotherapy...
December 28, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260442/cellular-senescence-in-the-aging-and-diseased-kidney
#8
REVIEW
F A Valentijn, L L Falke, T Q Nguyen, Roel Goldschmeding
The program of cellular senescence is involved in both the G1 and G2 phase of the cell cycle, limiting G1/S and G2/M progression respectively, and resulting in prolonged cell cycle arrest. Cellular senescence is involved in normal wound healing. However, multiple organs display increased senescent cell numbers both during natural aging and after injury, suggesting that senescent cells can have beneficial as well as detrimental effects in organismal aging and disease. Also in the kidney, senescent cells accumulate in various compartments with advancing age and renal disease...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243843/signaling-cascades-in-thyroid-cancer-increasing-the-armory-of-archers-to-hit-bullseye
#9
Faiza Abdul Rashid, Qaisar Mansoor, Hafsa Aziz, Sobia Tabassum, Waleed O Arfat, George E Naoum, Muhammad Ismail, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi
Thyroid cancer is a multifaceted and therapeutically challenging disease and rapidly accumulating experimentally verified findings have considerably improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms which underlie its development. Substantial fraction of information has been added into existing landscape of molecular oncology and we have started to develop a sharper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Wealth of information demystified different intracellular signaling cascades which are frequently deregulated in thyroid cancer...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242595/germline-brca-mutation-in-male-carriers-ripe-for-precision-oncology
#10
REVIEW
Ricardo Romão Nazário Leão, Aryeh Joshua Price, Robert James Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the known heritable cancers with individual variations attributed to genetic factors. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumour suppressor genes with crucial roles in repairing DNA and thereby maintaining genomic integrity. Germline BRCA mutations predispose to multiple familial tumour types including PC. METHODS: We performed a Pubmed database search along with review of reference lists from prominent articles to capture papers exploring the association between BRCA mtuations and prostate cancer risk and prognosis...
December 14, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207682/over-forty-years-of-bladder-cancer-glycobiology-where-do-glycans-stand-facing-precision-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Andreia Peixoto, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
The high molecular heterogeneity of bladder tumours is responsible for significant variations in disease course, as well as elevated recurrence and progression rates, thereby hampering the introduction of more effective targeted therapeutics. The implementation of precision oncology settings supported by robust molecular models for individualization of patient management is warranted. This effort requires a comprehensive integration of large sets of panomics data that is yet to be fully achieved. Contributing to this goal, over 40 years of bladder cancer glycobiology have disclosed a plethora of cancer-specific glycans and glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans) accompanying disease progressions and dissemination...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203441/therapeutic-targeting-of-oncogenic-transcription-factors-by-natural-products-in-eye-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Michelle G Zhang, John Y Lee, Ryan A Gallo, Wensi Tao, David Tse, Ravi Doddapaneni, Daniel Pelaez
Carcinogenesis has a multifactorial etiology, and the underlying molecular pathogenesis is still not entirely understood, especially for eye cancers. Primary malignant intraocular neoplasms are relatively rare, but delayed detection and inappropriate management contribute to poor outcomes. Conventional treatment, such as orbital exenteration, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy, alone results in high mortality for many of these malignancies. Recent sequential multimodal therapy with a combination of high-dose chemotherapy, followed by appropriate surgery, radiotherapy, and additional adjuvant chemotherapy has helped dramatically improve management...
December 1, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189878/-quality-indicators-for-colon-cancer-surgery-evidence-based-development-of-a%C3%A2-set-of-indicators-for-the-outcome-quality
#13
REVIEW
J Hardt, H-J Buhr, C Klinger, S Benz, K Ludwig, J Kalff, S Post
BACKGROUND: Quality assessment in surgery is gaining in importance. Although sporadic recommendations for quality indicators (QI) in oncological colon surgery can be found in the literature, these are usually not systematically derived from a solid evidence base. Moreover, reference ranges for QI are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this initiative was the development of evidence-based QI for oncological colon resections by an expert panel invited by the German Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV)...
November 30, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174651/cancer-combination-therapy-of-the-sesquiterpenoid-artesunate-and-the-selective-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-erlotinib
#14
Thomas Efferth
BACKGROUND: The shift from cytotoxic to targeted chemotherapy led to improved treatment outcomes in oncology. Nevertheless, many cancer patients cannot be cured from their disease because of the development of drug resistance and side effects. PURPOSE: There is an ongoing quest for novel compounds, which raised not only the interest in natural products but also in novel combination therapy regimens. STUDY DESIGN: In this review, we report on the inhibition epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by targeted small molecules and their combination with natural products from medicinal plants...
November 10, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166753/interventional-locoregional-treatment-and-metabolic-response-advantages-of-using-pet-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-response-to-treatment
#15
Monica Finessi, Marilena Bellò, Francesca P Giunta, Andrea Veltri, Désirée Deandreis
INTRODUCTION: Interventional oncology locoregional therapies are validated treatment modalities for primary and secondary tumors in liver, lung, kidney and bone. At this time, there is no accordance in the choice of imaging modality to assess treatment response. Morphological imaging and RECIST 1.1 criteria based on size variation are limited by several critical points. On the other hand the role of functional imaging, in particular by [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), in both staging and response evaluation of locoregional treatments remains unclear because of the heterogeneous nature of available data...
November 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150095/-towards-a-better-use-of-midazolam-in-end-of-life-a-survey-in-a-department-of-medical-oncology
#16
Aurélie Beneton, Alexis Vallard, Christelle Brosse, Géraldine Poenou, Cécile Pacaut, Nicolas Magné, Stéphanie Morisson
INTRODUCTION: At the end of life of cancer patients, sedation is sometimes needed, in order to palliate unbearable symptoms that other treatments fail to relieve. Midazolam is currently recommended for sedation and its prescription is guided by national guidelines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the practices of midazolam prescription in a department of medical oncology and to compare the results with French national recommendations in order to improve the midazolam use in case of sedation...
November 14, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141560/growth-kinetics-and-oncologic-outcomes-for-small-renal-masses-managed-with-active-surveillance-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
Benjamin T Ristau, Thomas W Fuller, Ricardo Rios, Cristina Ho, Jeffrey J Tomaszewski
An increasing number of enhancing renal masses are being discovered incidentally on cross-sectional imaging. Many can be characterized as small renal masses (SRMs), the natural history of which is heterogeneous and poorly understood. Active surveillance has been proposed as an initial management strategy for these tumors, particularly in the old and infirmed patient population. Herein, a rigorous review of the literature is provided to explore the incidence and epidemiology of SRMs as well as the growth kinetics and oncologic outcomes of SRMs under observation...
November 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107525/mindful-communication-being-present
#18
REVIEW
Maryjo Prince-Paul, Carol Kelley
OBJECTIVES: To review how mindfulness can be elicited in and strategically managed through communication, with a goal toward enhancing the patient/family relationship in the experience of cancer care. DATA SOURCES: Published, peer-reviewed literature, research reports, and Web-based resources. CONCLUSION: Mindful communication, an active process whereby the health care provider and patient /family unit are attentive to the timing, nature, and context of the dialogue exchange, helps direct care that is patient-centered, reflective, and relational...
October 26, 2017: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090562/-overview-of-research-projects-funding-in-traditional-chinese-medicine-oncology-field-supported-by-national-natural-science-foundation-of-china
#19
Dong-Xin Tang, Lian-Yu Chen, Shu-Zhen Guo, Li-Wei Han, Feng-Zhu Zhang
In this paper, the funding situation of traditional Chinese medicine oncology research projects supported by National Natural Science Fund from 1986-2016 was reviewed. The characteristics of funded projects were summarized from funding amount, funding expenses, funding category, and the main research contents of projects, etc. At the same time, the main problems in the projects were analyzed in this paper, in order to provide reference for the relevant fund applicants.
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081781/antimicrobial-peptides-as-biologic-and-immunotherapeutic-agents-against-cancer-a-comprehensive-overview
#20
REVIEW
Raheleh Roudi, Nicholas L Syn, Maryam Roudbary
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a pervasive and evolutionarily ancient component of innate host defense which is present in virtually all classes of life. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that parallel or de novo mechanisms by which AMPs curb infectious pathologies are also effective at restraining cancer cell proliferation and dissemination, and have consequently stimulated significant interest in their deployment as novel biologic and immunotherapeutic agents against human malignancies. In this review, we explicate the biochemical underpinnings of their tumor-selectivity, and discuss results of recent clinical trials (outside of oncologic indications) which substantiate their safety and tolerability profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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