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Nature review oncology

Ari Rosenberg, Mark Agulnik
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare sarcoma, as such it can pose a clinical dilemma based solely on its rarity. Also, the spectrum of disease varies greatly between an indolent disease and aggressive disease with widespread metastases. In our clinical practice, the primary focus has been to get a handle on the aggressive nature of the disease, which will then dictate how urgently one needs to treat the patient. Pathological review with immunohistochemistry and molecular characterization is paramount...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Rita Azevedo, Janine Soares, Andreia Peixoto, Sofia Cotton, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
CONTEXT: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood of cancer patients provide an opportunity for real-time liquid biopsies capable of aiding early intervention, therapeutic decision, response to therapy, and prognostication. Nevertheless, the rare and potentially heterogeneous molecular nature of CTC has delayed the standardization of robust high-throughput capture/enrichment and characterization technologies. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to systematize emerging solutions for CTC analysis in bladder cancer (BC), their opportunities and limitations, while providing key insights on specific technologic aspects that may ultimately guide molecular studies and clinical implementation...
March 9, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Rebecca J Thorne, Rosanne J Bruggink, Stephen J Kelly, Sarah Jl Payne, Simon J Purcell, David A Montgomery
Since 2013, once a medicine receives marketing authorisation in the European Union, it is labelled with an inverted black triangle indicating all adverse reactions should be reported. Our aim was to explore understanding of the black triangle and compliance with adverse event (AE) reporting requirements by UK oncology healthcare professionals (HCPs). A questionnaire was electronically distributed to oncology pharmacists (P) via the British Oncology Pharmacy Association, to oncologists (O) through the Association of Cancer Physicians and also to nurses (N) via the UK Oncology Nursing Society...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Surabhi Ranjan, Martha Quezado, Nancy Garren, Lisa Boris, Christine Siegel, Osorio Lopes Abath Neto, Brett J Theeler, Deric M Park, Edjah Nduom, Kareem A Zaghloul, Mark R Gilbert, Jing Wu
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are being investigated in clinical trials for patients with glioblastoma. While these therapies hold great promise, management of the patients receiving such treatment can be complicated due to the challenges in recognizing immune-related adverse events caused by checkpoint inhibitor treatment. Brain imaging changes that are the consequence of an inflammatory response may be misinterpreted as disease progression leading to inappropriate premature cessation of treatment...
March 1, 2018: BMC Cancer
Ori Barzilai, Charles G Fisher, Mark H Bilsky
Treatment paradigms for patients with spine metastases have evolved significantly over the past decade. Incorporating stereotactic radiosurgery into these paradigms has been particularly transformative, offering precise delivery of tumoricidal radiation doses with sparing of adjacent tissues. Evidence supports the safety and efficacy of radiosurgery as it currently offers durable local tumor control with low complication rates even for tumors previously considered radioresistant to conventional radiation. The role for surgical intervention remains consistent, but a trend has been observed toward less aggressive, often minimally invasive, techniques...
February 22, 2018: Neurosurgery
Manish R Patel
Immune therapy has now been incorporated into the standard of care for non-small-cell lung cancer based on randomized trials showing superiority of anti-PD1 antibodies compared with chemotherapy. Thus there is a renewed interest in immune approaches to treating lung cancer. One promising approach is with oncolytic viruses that either naturally or through engineering, preferentially infect or kill cancer cells. In preclinical models of different thoracic cancers, it has been found that these viruses can induce immune responses through multiple mechanisms...
April 2018: Immunotherapy
L Filograna, N Magarelli, F Cellini, S Manfrida, A Leone, C Colosimo, V Valentini
Malignant spinal bone marrow disorders are one of the major causes of significant morbidity and reduction in quality of life in oncological patients. Thus, the characterization of these conditions is of crucial importance in the management of these patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a vital role in differentiation between benign and malignant spinal bone marrow disorders. However, morphological imaging features, based on T1 and T2 relaxation properties, might fail in differentiating between these conditions because signal characteristics may overlap...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Georgios K Prezerakos, Parag Sayal, Antonios Kourliouros, Periclis Pericleous, George Ladas, Adrian Casey
PURPOSE: Cervicothoracic paravertebral neoplasms extending into the mediastinum pose a surgical challenge due the complex regional anatomy, their biological nature, rarity and surgeon's unfamiliarity with the region. We aim to define a surgical access framework addressing the aforementioned complexities whilst achieving oncological clearance. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of 28 consecutive patients operated in two tertiary referral centres between 1998 and 2015...
February 14, 2018: European Spine Journal
Bradley C Leibovich, Christine M Lohse, John C Cheville, Harras B Zaid, Stephen A Boorjian, Igor Frank, R Houston Thompson, William P Parker
BACKGROUND: Predicting oncologic outcomes is important for patient counseling, clinical trial design, and biomarker study testing. OBJECTIVE: To develop prognostic models for progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), papillary RCC (papRCC), and chromophobe RCC (chrRCC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort review of the Mayo Clinic Nephrectomy registry from 1980 to 2010, for patients with nonmetastatic ccRCC, papRCC, and chrRCC...
February 2, 2018: European Urology
Belen Hernandez, Hibret A Adissu, Bih-Rong Wei, Helen T Michael, Glenn Merlino, R Mark Simpson
Melanoma remains mostly an untreatable fatal disease despite advances in decoding cancer genomics and developing new therapeutic modalities. Progress in patient care would benefit from additional predictive models germane for human disease mechanisms, tumor heterogeneity, and therapeutic responses. Toward this aim, this review documents comparative aspects of human and naturally occurring canine melanomas. Clinical presentation, pathology, therapies, and genetic alterations are highlighted in the context of current basic and translational research in comparative oncology...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hélène Kaplon, Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean
The role of B lymphocytes in tumor immuno-surveillance has been neglected for a long time because it has been often considered to be ineffective if not pro-tumoral. Extensive studies of the tumor immune microenvironment, particularly in humans, has now made it possible to specify the nature of the interactions between B cells and their cellular partners. This review will present a number of parameters that dictate the fate of B cells toward a pro-tumor versus an anti-tumor function. Thus, the ability to elicit a B cell-and/or an antibody-dependent anti-tumor immunity involves a wide variety of molecular and cellular mechanisms, some of which may represent novel therapeutic targets in oncology...
January 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Daniel L Gustafson, Dawn L Duval, Daniel P Regan, Douglas H Thamm
Pet dogs are becoming increasingly recognized as a population with the potential to inform medical research through their treatment for a variety of maladies by veterinary health professionals. This is the basis of the One Health initiative, supporting the idea of collaboration between human and animal health researchers and clinicians to study spontaneous disease processes and treatment in animals to inform human health. Cancer is a major health burden in pet dogs, accounting for approximately 30% of deaths across breeds...
January 26, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kevin Dzobo, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Arielle Rowe, Collet Dandara, M Iqbal Parker
Disruptive innovations in medicine are game-changing in nature and bring about radical shifts in the way we understand human diseases, their treatment, and/or prevention. Yet, disruptive innovations in cancer drug design and development are still limited. Therapies that cure all cancer patients are in short supply or do not exist at all. Chief among the causes of this predicament is drug resistance, a mechanism that is much more dynamic than previously understood. Drug resistance has limited the initial success experienced with biomarker-guided targeted therapies as well...
January 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Chris Skedgel, Dominika Wranik, Min Hu
BACKGROUND: Most Canadian provinces and territories rely on the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) to provide recommendations regarding public reimbursement of cancer drugs. The pCODR review process considers four dimensions of value-clinical benefit, economic evaluation, patient-based values and adoption feasibility-but they do not define weights for individual decision criteria or an acceptable threshold for any of the criteria. Given this implicit review process, it is of interest to understand which factors appear to carry the most weight in pCODR recommendations using a revealed preferences approach...
January 20, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Carey S Clark
BACKGROUND: Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is legal either medicinally or recreationally in 29 states and the District of Columbia, with a majority of the U.S. adult population now living in states where cannabis is legal for medicinal use. As an advocate for patient autonomy and informed choice, the oncology nurse has an ethical responsibility to educate patients about and support their use of cannabis for palliation. . OBJECTIVES: This article aims to discuss the human endocannabinoid system as a basis for better understanding the palliative and curative nature of cannabis as a medicine, as well as review cannabis delivery methods and the emerging role of the oncology nurse in this realm...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Ryungsa Kim
BACKGROUND: The relationship between surgery and anesthetic-induced immunosuppression and cancer recurrence remains unresolved. Surgery and anesthesia stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to cause immunosuppression through several tumor-derived soluble factors. The potential impact of surgery and anesthesia on cancer recurrence was reviewed to provide guidance for cancer surgical treatment. METHODS: PubMed was searched up to December 31, 2016 using search terms such as, "anesthetic technique and cancer recurrence," "regional anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "local anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "anesthetic technique and immunosuppression," and "anesthetic technique and oncologic surgery...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jun Seok Park, Hyun Kang, Soo Yeun Park, Hye Jin Kim, In Taek Lee, Gyu-Seog Choi
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of total laparoscopic surgery with Natural Orifice Specimen Extraction (NOSE) with those for conventional laparoscopy (CL)-assisted surgery for treating rectal cancers. Methods: We reviewed the prospectively collected records of 844 patients (163 NOSE and 681 CL) who underwent curative surgery for mid- or upper rectal cancers from January 2006 to November 2012. We applied propensity score analyses and compared oncological outcomes for the NOSE and CL groups in a 1:1 matched cohort...
January 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Sevgi Kurt Yazar, Dinçer Altınel, Merdan Serin, Şefika Aksoy, Memet Yazar
Objective: Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery (BCS) involves radical excision of tumors while maintaining the natural breast contours. In this study, we present the results of the oncoplastic BCS surgeries performed in our clinic. Material and Methods: 13 breast cancer patients who had undergone oncoplastic BCS were included in this retrospective study. Postoperative photographs and retrospective chart reviews were used to evaluate the results. Aesthetic satisfaction level was verbally obtained from the patients...
January 2018: European Journal of Breast Health
Russell W Jenkins, David A Barbie, Keith T Flaherty
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting CTLA-4 and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have shown unprecedented clinical activity in several types of cancer and are rapidly transforming the practice of medical oncology. Whereas cytotoxic chemotherapy and small molecule inhibitors ('targeted therapies') largely act on cancer cells directly, immune checkpoint inhibitors reinvigorate anti-tumour immune responses by disrupting co-inhibitory T-cell signalling. While resistance routinely develops in patients treated with conventional cancer therapies and targeted therapies, durable responses suggestive of long-lasting immunologic memory are commonly seen in large subsets of patients treated with ICI...
January 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Pascal Kusters, Esther Lutgens, Tom T P Seijkens
In the past decades, the inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis has been well recognized and despite the development of therapeutic strategies targeted at its classical risk factors such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, atherosclerosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Additional strategies targeting the chronic inflammatory pathways underlying the development of atherosclerosis are therefore required. Interactions between different immune cells result in the secretion of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, and fuel atherogenesis...
December 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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