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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346647/validation-of-olfactory-threshold-testing-methods
#1
Alan Hirsch, Alexander Roussos, Sally Freels
In patients with chemosensory complaints, a head-to-head comparison of unilateral olfaction threshold testing with the Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol Smell Threshold Test (PEA) and the OLFACT-RL Odor Threshold Test (OLFACT-RL) was undertaken. The charts of 23 consecutive patients presenting with chemosensory complaints seen at the Smell and Taste Treatment and Research Foundation were reviewed and information extracted per Institutional Review Board guidelines. All patients had undergone olfactory testing with the PEA test and the OLFACT-RL test in accordance with their published administration manuals...
March 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344901/can-video-playback-provide-social-information-for-foraging-blue-tits
#2
Liisa Hämäläinen, Hannah M Rowland, Johanna Mappes, Rose Thorogood
Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex) from coloured feeding cups...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342799/lost-in-processing-perceived-healthfulness-taste-and-caloric-content-of-whole-and-processed-organic-food
#3
Marília Prada, Margarida V Garrido, David Rodrigues
The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives...
March 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339990/detecting-thresholds-for-bitter-umami-and-sweet-tastants-in-broiler-chicken-using-a-2-choice-test-method
#4
Shira L Cheled-Shoval, Naama Reicher, Masha Y Niv, Zehava Uni
The sense of taste has a key role in nutrient sensing and food intake in animals. A standardized and simple method for determination of tastant-detection thresholds is required for chemosensory research in poultry. We established a 24-h, 2-alternative, forced-choice solution-consumption method and applied it to measure detection thresholds for 3 G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated taste modalities-bitter, sweet, and umami-in chicken. Four parameters were used to determine a significant response: 1) tastant-solution consumption; 2) water (tasteless) consumption; 3) total consumption (tastant and water together); 4) ratio of tastant consumption to total consumption...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337691/purification-and-characterization-of-elizabethkingia-l-amino-acid-esterase-an-enzyme-useful-for-enzymatic-synthesis-of-the-dipeptide-valyl-glycine
#5
Takahiro Tanaka, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Hossain Md Saddam, Yoichi Takeda, Mamoru Wakayama
Valyl-glycine (Val-Gly) is useful as a synthetic substrate of γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine (γ-Glu-Val-Gly), which exhibits a strong taste of "kokumi." For efficient enzymatic synthesis of Val-Gly from valine methylester and glycine using L-amino acid esterase (LAE), we screened microorganisms producing LAE with synthetic activity toward Val-Gly. Among 17 isolates showing LAE activity, Elizabethkingia sp. TT1, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, showed the highest synthetic activity toward Val-Gly...
March 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334404/calcium-homeostasis-modulator-1-like-currents-in-rat-fungiform-taste-cells-expressing-amiloride-sensitive-sodium-currents
#6
Albertino Bigiani
Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels...
March 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334357/sweetener-intake-by-rats-selectively-bred-for-differential-saccharin-intake-sucralose-stevia-and-acesulfame-potassium
#7
Nancy K Dess, Kiana Dobson, Brandon T Roberts, Clinton D Chapman
Behavioral responses to sweeteners have been used to study the evolution, mechanisms, and functions of taste. Occidental low and high saccharin consuming rats (respectively, LoS and HiS) have been selectively outbred on the basis of saccharin intake and are a valuable tool for studying variation among individuals in sweetener intake and its correlates. Relative to HiS rats, LoS rats consume smaller amounts of all nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners tested to date, except aspartame. The lines also differ in intake of the commercial product Splenda; the roles of sucralose and saccharides in the difference are unclear...
March 15, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334294/an-examination-of-the-role-of-l-glutamate-and-inosine-5-monophosphate-in-hedonic-taste-guided-behavior-by-mice-lacking-the-t1r1-t1r3-receptor
#8
Ginger D Blonde, Alan C Spector
The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332980/a-receptor-and-neuron-that-activate-a-circuit-limiting-sucrose-consumption
#9
Ryan M Joseph, Jennifer S Sun, Edric Tam, John R Carlson
The neural control of sugar consumption is critical for normal metabolism. In contrast to sugar-sensing taste neurons that promote consumption, we identify a taste neuron that limits sucrose consumption in Drosophila. Silencing of the neuron increases sucrose feeding; optogenetic activation decreases it. The feeding inhibition depends on the IR60b receptor, as shown by behavioral analysis and Ca2+ imaging of an IR60b mutant. The IR60b phenotype shows a high degree of chemical specificity when tested with a broad panel of tastants...
March 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323090/c-fos-activity-in-the-insular-cortex-nucleus-accumbens-and-basolateral-amygdala-following-the-intraperitoneal-injection-of-saccharin-and-lithium-chloride
#10
Alberto Soto, Patricia Gasalla, Azucena Begega, Matías López
This study examined c-Fos expression in selected brain areas consequent to intraperitoneal (IP) administration of saccharin and lithium chloride. Rats were tested for aversion to the saccharin as measured by flavor consumption and orofacial reactions in the taste reactivity (TR) test. It was found that intraperitoneal conditioning resulted in the reduction in voluntary consumption but not in the production of aversive orofacial responses to the saccharin. The immunohistochemistry quantification revealed increased c-Fos activity in the insular cortex, the shell and core regions of the nucleus accumbens, and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314293/assessment-of-nutritional-and-inflammatory-status-to-determine-the-prevalence-of-malnutrition-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-colorectal-carcinoma
#11
Antonella Daniele, Rosa Divella, Ines Abbate, Addolorata Casamassima, Vito Michele Garrisi, Eufemia Savino, Porzia Casamassima, Eustachio Ruggieri, Raffaele DE Luca
BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal Cancer is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide and its incidence increases from 50 years of age. It is often associated with protein-caloric malnutrition and 20% of cancer deaths occur due to this event. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and inflammatory status in 78 patients undergoing surgery for colorectal carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nutritional Status was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303373/viral-mediated-overexpression-of-the-myelin-transcription-factor-1-myt1-in-the-dentate-gyrus-attenuates-anxiety-and-ethanol-related-behaviors-in-rats
#12
Amine Bahi, Jean-Luc Dreyer
RATIONALE: Myelin Transcription Factor 1 (MyT1), a member of the Zinc Finger gene family, plays a fundamental role in the nervous system. Recent research has suggested that this transcription factor is associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including addiction, schizophrenia, and depression. However, the role of MyT1 in anxiety- and ethanol-related behaviors is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of lentiviral-mediated overexpression of MyT1 in the dentate gyrus (DG) on anxiety- and ethanol-related behaviors in rats...
March 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289462/the-perception-of-low-salt-bread-among-preschool-children-and-the-role-of-educational-personnel-in-creating-a-positive-attitude-towards-reformulated-food
#13
Boris Kovac, Maja Knific
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify the possibility of unnoticed reduction in salt content of bread as a basic food in the diet of preschool children. The response of children to less salty bread and the role of teachers and teacher assistants in the introduction of novelties into children's nutrition ware studied. METHODS: Using hedonic sensory evaluation in the case of bread, the perception of salty taste and responses of preschool children to salt reduction were observed...
March 1, 2017: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283032/sustainability-via-active-garden-education-sage-results-from-two-feasibility-pilot-studies
#14
Rebecca E Lee, Nathan H Parker, Erica G Soltero, Tracey A Ledoux, Scherezade K Mama, Lorna McNeill
BACKGROUND: Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. METHODS: SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities...
March 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280616/differences-in-symptom-occurrence-severity-and-distress-ratings-between-patients-with-gastrointestinal-cancers-who-received-chemotherapy-alone-or-chemotherapy-with-targeted-therapy
#15
Ilufredo Y Tantoy, Anand Dhruva, Janine Cataldo, Alan Venook, Bruce A Cooper, Steven M Paul, Jon D Levine, Yvette P Conley, Frances Cartwright, Kathryn Lee, Fay Wright, Christine Miaskowski
BACKGROUND: Approximately 28% of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers will receive targeted therapy (TT) because of the associated increases in survival. Only four studies have examined the symptom experience of these patients. To date, no studies have evaluated for differences in symptom occurrence, severity, and distress between patients who received chemotherapy (CTX) alone (n=304) or CTX with TT (n=93). METHODS: Patients completed self-report questionnaires, approximately one week after they received CTX...
February 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275203/anaphylactic-reactions-to-novel-foods-case-report-of-a-child-with-severe-crocodile-meat-allergy
#16
Natalia Ballardini, Anna Nopp, Carl Hamsten, Mirja Vetander, Erik Melén, Caroline Nilsson, Markus Ollert, Carsten Flohr, Annette Kuehn, Marianne van Hage
Availability of "exotic" foods is steadily increasing. In this report, we describe the first case of anaphylaxis to crocodile meat. The patient was a 13-year-old boy with severe immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to chicken meat. When tasting crocodile meat for the first time, he developed an anaphylactic reaction. Cross-reactivity between chicken and crocodile meat was suspected to have triggered this reaction. Basophil activation and immunoglobulin E testing confirmed the boy's allergic reaction to crocodile meat proteins...
March 8, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271493/palatability-of-a-novel-oral-formulation-of-prednisone-in-healthy-young-adults
#17
Shasha Bai, Nathan Dormer, Catherine Shoults, Amanda Meyer, Carol D Pierce, Kathleen A Neville, Gregory L Kearns
OBJECTIVES: Prednisone is a widely used anti-inflammatory for a variety of conditions. While oral liquid formulations of prednisone enable weight-based dosing, children frequently find them to be objectionable due to bitter taste. This limitation of prednisone can adversely impact patient acceptance and may result in non-compliance. Efforts to mask flavours often result in poorly controlled, heterogeneous particle distributions and can provide ineffective taste masking. The present work utilized a novel drug delivery technology developed by Orbis Biosciences, Inc...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265363/comparison-of-proximate-composition-and-sensory-attributes-of-clariid-catfish-species-of-clarias-gariepinus-heterobranchus-bidorsalis-and-their-hybrids
#18
Wasiu A Olaniyi, Olukayode A Makinde, Ofelia G Omitogun
Clariid catfish are favorite food fish especially in African and Asian continents. Recently there has been preference for particular species or hybrids of these species based on quality assurance and value addition. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the possible effect of different catfish species and their hybrids on proximate composition and sensory attributes. Catfish species, Clarias gariepinus (CC), Heterobranchus bidorsalis (HH), with their hybrid (CH), and reciprocal hybrid (HC) were evaluated for sensory variables - cognitive (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and recent characteristic taste 'umami') and qualitative (texture, aroma, flavor, and color) tests; and nutritional variables - proximate composition (moisture, protein, ether/fat, and ash)...
March 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258376/olfactory-and-gustatory-functions-in-patients-with-non-complicated-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Aytug Altundag, Seyid Ahmet Ay, Serdar Hira, Murat Salıhoglu, Kamil Baskoy, Ferhat Denız, Hakan Tekelı, Onuralp Kurt, Arif Yonem, Thomas Hummel
The aim of this study was to evaluate any possible relationship between diabetic state and olfactory and gustatory functions in patients with non-complicated diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D), and also to present evidence of the association between olfactory and gustatory scores and HbA1c values and disease durations. The study included 39 patients with non-complicated T1D and 31 healthy controls. Clinical characteristics such as age, gender, duration of disease, education levels and biochemical analyses (fasting blood glucose, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), triglyceride, HbA1c, C-peptide, postprandial blood glucose) were measured...
March 3, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251932/inhibition-of-sweet-chemosensory-receptors-alters-insulin-responses-during-glucose-ingestion-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-crossover-interventional-study
#20
Elnaz Karimian Azari, Kathleen R Smith, Fanchao Yi, Timothy F Osborne, Roberto Bizzotto, Andrea Mari, Richard E Pratley, George A Kyriazis
Background: Glucose is a natural ligand for sweet taste receptors (STRs) that are expressed on the tongue and in the gastrointestinal tract. Whether STRs directly contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis in response to glucose ingestion is unclear.Objective: We sought to determine the metabolic effects of the pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in response to an oral glucose load in healthy lean participants.Design: Ten healthy lean participants with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22.4 ± 0.8 were subjected to an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) on 4 separate days with the use of a randomized crossover design...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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