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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100747/selective-deletion-of-sodium-salt-taste-during-development-leads-to-expanded-terminal-fields-of-gustatory-nerves-in-the-adult-mouse-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#1
Chengsan Sun, Edith Hummler, David L Hill
: Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098769/sensory-acceptability-of-infant-cereals-with-whole-grain-in-infants-and-young-children
#2
Juan Francisco Haro-Vicente, Maria Jose Bernal-Cava, Amparo Lopez-Fernandez, Gaspar Ros-Berruezo, Stefan Bodenstab, Luis Manuel Sanchez-Siles
In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour...
January 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095308/lithium-induced-malaise-does-not-interfere-with-adaptation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-to-stress
#3
Maria Sanchís-Ollé, Juan Antonio Ortega-Sánchez, Xavier Belda, Humberto Gagliano, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
We have recently demonstrated that adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to repeated exposure to a stressor does not follow the rules of habituation and can be fully expressed after a single experience with severe stressors. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that adaptation could be impaired if animals experience malaise during initial exposure to the stressor. To this end, animals were allowed to drink saccharin for 30min before being exposed for 3h to immobilization on boards (IMO), a severe stressor; then they were given either saline or lithium ip after the first hour of IMO...
January 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089706/a-sipometer-for-measuring-motivation-to-consume-and-reward-value-of-foods-and-beverages-in-humans-description-and-proof-of-principle
#4
P S Hogenkamp, A Shechter, M-P St-Onge, A Sclafani, H R Kissileff
New methods, derived from animal work, for measuring food reward value, i.e. reinforcing value of food, and motivation (i.e. strength of desire) to consume, in humans are described and validated. A sipping device (sipometer) was developed that permits access to a liquid food or beverage on two reward schedules: continuous reinforcement (CR) and progressively increasing time spent exerting pressure on a straw (PR-schedule). In addition, a pictorial scale showing a cup, from which the 'amount wanted' could be marked was used to pre-test potential consumption...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088421/the-influence-of-ultra-pasteurization-by-indirect-heating-versus-direct-steam-injection-on-skim-and-2-fat-milks
#5
A P Lee, D M Barbano, M A Drake
Fluid milk is traditionally pasteurized by high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, which requires heating to at least 72°C for 15 s. Ultra-pasteurization (UP) extends milk shelf life and is defined as heating to at least 138°C for 2 s. The UP process can be done by indirect heating (IND) or by direct steam injection (DSI). The influence of these 2 UP methods on milk flavor has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of HTST, IND-UP, and DSI-UP on sensory perception of fluid milk...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088417/milk-fat-threshold-determination-and-the-effect-of-milk-fat-content-on-consumer-preference-for-fluid-milk
#6
K S McCarthy, K Lopetcharat, M A Drake
Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081319/chronic-cough-clinical-characteristics-and-etiologies-of-510-cases
#7
Guiyuan Jiang, Xinying Huang, Tianlin Li, Dongping Xu
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the clinical features and underlying etiologies of chronic cough (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred and ten CC patients were enrolled. The phases, characteristics and associated clinical manifestations of CC among the gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC), cough-variant asthma (CVA), and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) groups were compared, and the diagnostic values of each group were evaluated by multiple regression analysis...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077722/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#8
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart-rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the SD of normal-to-normal intervals) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076921/classroom-nutrition-education-combined-with-fruit-and-vegetable-taste-testing-improves-children-s-dietary-intake
#9
Abby Gold, Mary Larson, Jared Tucker, Michelle Strang
BACKGROUND: We tested the effectiveness of the Go Wild With Fruits and Veggies! (GWWFV) Extension curriculum on increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of third graders. METHODS: An intervention study was used testing self-reported FV intake pre/post GWWFV. Recruited schools were randomized to control (12 schools, N = 369, third grade children) or intervention (14 schools, N = 378, third grade children). Measures included items from a validated FV food frequency survey...
February 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071797/classification-and-characterization-of-japanese-consumers-beef-preferences-by-external-preference-mapping
#10
Keisuke Sasaki, Motoki Ooi, Naoto Nagura, Michiyo Motoyama, Takumi Narita, Mika Oe, Ikuyo Nakajima, Tatsuro Hagi, Koichi Ojima, Miho Kobayashi, Masaru Nomura, Susumu Muroya, Takeshi Hayashi, Kyoko Akama, Akira Fujikawa, Hironao Hokiyama, Kuniyuki Kobayashi, Takanori Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. Here we sought to identify the consumer segments in Japanese that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. RESULTS: Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef, and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis, and consumer (n = 307) preference test...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071006/sensory-qualities-of-pastry-products-enriched-with-dietary-fiber-and-polyphenolic-substances
#11
Patrycja Komolka, Danuta Górecka, Krystyna Szymandera-Buszka, Anna Jędrusek-Golińska, Krzysztof Dziedzic, Katarzyna Waszkowiak
BACKGROUND: Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. METHODS: The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070928/convergent-gustatory-and-viscerosensory-processing-in-the-human-dorsal-mid-insula
#12
Jason A Avery, Stephen J Gotts, Kara L Kerr, Kaiping Burrows, John E Ingeholm, Jerzy Bodurka, Alex Martin, W Kyle Simmons
The homeostatic regulation of feeding behavior requires an organism to be able to integrate information from its internal environment, including peripheral visceral signals about the body's current energy needs, with information from its external environment, such as the palatability of energy-rich food stimuli. The insula, which serves as the brain's primary sensory cortex for representing both visceral signals from the body and taste signals from the mouth and tongue, is a likely candidate region in which this integration might occur...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070650/revision-total-knee-arthroplasty-due-to-bone-cement-and-metal-hypersensitivity
#13
Ioannis P Stathopoulos, Nicolaos Andrianopoulos, Dimitrios Paschaloglou, Ioannis Tsarouchas
INTRODUCTION: Hypersensitivity to implants is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Metal and, less frequently, bone cement can produce allergic symptomatology that if unresponsive to conservative treatment could lead to revision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the case of a patient with generalized pruritus and metal taste starting during the first postoperative month after TKA. Dermal allergy exams revealed that the patient had hypersensitivity to nickel sulphate and cobalt chloride and bone cement...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067762/ecologically-valid-carbohydrate-intake-during-soccer-specific-exercise-does-not-affect-running-performance-in-a-fed-state
#14
Mark P Funnell, Nick R Dykes, Elliot J Owen, Stephen A Mears, Ian Rollo, Lewis J James
This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg(-1)∙min(-1); soccer experience 13 ± 4 years) completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min) of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time...
January 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065722/peripheral-endocannabinoid-signaling-controls-hyperphagia-in-western-diet-induced-obesity
#15
Donovan A Argueta, Nicholas V DiPatrizio
The endocannabinoid system in the brain and periphery plays a major role in controlling food intake and energy balance. We reported that tasting dietary fats was met with increased levels of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, in the rat upper small intestine, and pharmacological inhibition of this local signaling event dose-dependently blocked sham feeding of fats. We now investigated the contribution of peripheral endocannabinoid signaling in hyperphagia associated with chronic consumption of a western-style diet in mice ([WD] i...
January 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062899/bibi-ergo-sum-the-effects-of-a-placebo-and-contextual-alcohol-cues-on-motivation-to-drink-alcohol
#16
Paul Christiansen, Gareth Townsend, Graeme Knibb, Matt Field
RATIONALE: Acute 'priming' doses of alcohol reliably increase alcohol-seeking behaviour in social drinkers. However, the effects of the anticipated (rather than pharmacological) effects of alcohol, and their interaction with contextual alcohol cues, are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the extent to which an alcohol-placebo drink increases craving, subjective intoxication and beer consumption, while conjointly investigating the impact of contextual alcohol cues...
January 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062340/differences-in-symptom-burden-among-cancer-patients-with-different-stages-of-cachexia
#17
Ting Zhou, Kaixiang Yang, Sudip Thapa, Huiquan Liu, Bangyan Wang, Shiying Yu
CONTEXT: Cancer patients with cachexia may suffer from significant burden of symptoms and it can severely impair patients' quality of life. However, only few studies have targeted the symptom burden in cancer cachexia patients, and whether the symptom burden differed in different cachexia stages is still unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the symptom burden in cancer cachexia patients, and to compare the severity and occurrence rates of symptoms among cancer patients with non-cachexia, pre-cachexia, cachexia and refractory cachexia...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054034/sensory-evaluation-of-gluten-free-quinoa-whole-grain-snacks
#18
Talwinder S Kahlon, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, Mei-Chen M Chiu
Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049350/bacteriocins-from-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-their-potential-in-the-preservation-of-fruit-products
#19
Ana Andréa Teixeira Barbosa, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Sona Jain
Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-recognized for their potential as natural food preservatives. These antimicrobial peptides usually do not change the sensorial properties of food products and can be used in combination with traditional preservation methods to ensure microbial stability. In recent years, fruit products are increasingly being associated with food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, and bacteriocins are important candidates to preserve these products. Bacteriocins have been extensively studied to preserve foods of animal origin...
January 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046047/expectation-or-sensorial-reality-an-empirical-investigation-of-the-biodynamic-calendar-for-wine-drinkers
#20
Wendy V Parr, Dominique Valentin, Phil Reedman, Claire Grose, James A Green
The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day) and unfavourable (Root day) for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors...
2017: PloS One
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