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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792305/sensory-analysis-of-characterising-flavours-evaluating-tobacco-product-odours-using-an-expert-panel
#1
Erna J Z Krüsemann, Marlou P Lasschuijt, C de Graaf, René A de Wijk, Pieter H Punter, Loes van Tiel, Johannes W J M Cremers, Suzanne van de Nobelen, Sanne Boesveldt, Reinskje Talhout
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco […]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling...
May 23, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791876/extraction-and-characterization-of-cashew-tree-anacardium-occidentale-gum-use-in-aceclofenac-dental-pastes
#2
M Saquib Hasnain, Poonam Rishishwar, Sanjay Rishishwar, Sadath Ali, Amit Kumar Nayak
In the current work, the usefulness of extracted cashew tree gum (CG) as pharmaceutical excipient in dental pastes containing AC (for the pain management in the periodontitis) was investigated. CG was extracted from crude exudate of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, family: Anacardiaceae) (yield 19.22%). Physicochemical characteristics like colour, odour, taste, solubility, pH and viscosity of extracted CG were estimated; the phytochemical identification tests indicated the presence of carbohydrates and mucilage within it...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789671/wild-and-domesticated-moringa-oleifera-differ-in-taste-glucosinolate-composition-and-antioxidant-potential-but-not-myrosinase-activity-or-protein-content
#3
Gwen M Chodur, Mark E Olson, Kristina L Wade, Katherine K Stephenson, Wasif Nouman, Garima, Jed W Fahey
Taste drives consumption of foods. The tropical tree Moringa oleifera is grown worldwide as a protein-rich leafy vegetable and for the medicinal value of its phytochemicals, in particular its glucosinolates, which can lead to a pronounced harsh taste. All studies to date have examined only cultivated, domestic variants, meaning that potentially useful variation in wild type plants has been overlooked. We examine whether domesticated and wild type M. oleifera differ in myrosinase or glucosinolate levels, and whether these different levels impact taste in ways that could affect consumption...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788977/exposure-to-a-multi-level-multi-component-childhood-obesity-prevention-community-randomized-controlled-trial-patterns-determinants-and-implications
#4
Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude, Anna Yevgenyevna Kharmats, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Joel Gittelsohn
BACKGROUND: For community interventions to be effective in real-world conditions, participants need to have sufficient exposure to the intervention. It is unclear how the dose and intensity of the intervention differ among study participants in low-income areas. We aimed to understand patterns of exposure to different components of a multi-level multi-component obesity prevention program to inform our future impact analyses. METHODS: B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a community-randomized controlled trial implemented in 28 low-income zones in Baltimore in two rounds (waves)...
May 22, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788185/cyclophosphamide-induced-disruptions-to-appetitive-qualities-and-detection-thresholds-of-nacl-comparison-of-single-dose-and-dose-fractionation-effects
#5
Benjamin C Jewkes, Michael G Gomella, Evan T Lowry, Joy A Benner, Eugene R Delay
Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer, however a side effect is often altered taste. This study examined how cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapy drug, affects salt taste in mice. Based on previous findings, it was predicted that cyclophosphamide-induced disruptions in salt taste would be observed near days 2-4, 8-12, and 22-24 days post treatment, and that multiple, smaller doses would cause more severe disruptions to taste. To test these predictions, two experiments were performed, one using brief access testing to measure appetitive qualities, and another using operant conditioning to measure detection thresholds...
May 19, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783625/a-simple-alternative-method-for-preservation-of-2-methylisoborneol-in-water-samples
#6
Chun-Cheng Fan, Yi-Ting Chiu, Tsair-Fuh Lin
2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) is one of the most commonly observed taste and odor (T&O) compounds present in drinking water sources. As it is biodegradable, a preservation agent, typically mercury chloride, is needed if the water is not analyzed right after sampling. Since mercury is a toxic metal, an alternative chemical that is cheaper and less toxic is desirable. In this study, two chemicals commonly used in water treatment processes, chlorine (as sodium hypochlorite) and KMnO₄ (potassium permanganate), are studied to determine their feasibility as preservation agents for 2-MIB in water...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781640/interactive-effects-of-baseline-executive-functioning-and-working-memory-depletion-on-alcohol-use-among-heavy-drinking-young-adults
#7
Alison Looby, Mara Norton-Baker, Tiffany D Russell
Binge drinking is frequently reported by young adults, despite being associated with a number of negative consequences. This type of heavy drinking is associated with deficits in many executive functions, including working memory. Poor working memory may contribute to increased alcohol use by limiting one's ability to modulate their behavior, including drinking. Furthermore, the limited resource model of executive functioning predicts that individuals with poorer premorbid executive functioning abilities, whose working memory is taxed or depleted, should experience the highest levels of dysregulated behavior...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771561/mood-selectively-moderates-the-implicit-alcohol-association-drinking-relation-in-college-student-heavy-episodic-drinkers
#8
Kristen P Lindgren, Jason J Ramirez, Reinout W Wiers, Bethany A Teachman, Jeanette Norris, Cecilia C Olin, Melissa L Gasser, Debra Kaysen, Clayton Neighbors
Multiple studies indicate that implicit alcohol-related associations (i.e., indices of relatively fast, spontaneous processes) predict drinking. An important next step is to investigate moderators of the implicit association-drinking relationship. Mood state has been proposed as a moderator of this relationship: implicit associations have been theorized to be stronger predictors of drinking under positive mood states. From the same theoretical perspective, explicit measures (indices of relatively slow, reflective processes) have been proposed to be stronger predictors of drinking under negative mood states...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771453/functionalization-of-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement-with-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-inclusions-of-oregano-essential-oil
#9
Shashank Gaur, Emely C Lopez, Ankur Ojha, Juan E Andrade
Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the main causes of acute undernutrition in children. Oral consumption of oregano essential oil (OEO) can reduce intestinal parasitic infections, however, its addition to therapeutic and supplementary foods is hampered by its undesirable flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a functional lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) containing OEO, which is stable, acceptable and provides targeted intestinal delivery of bioactive. β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD) inclusion complexes of OEO (β-CyD-OEO), and carvacrol (β-CyD-CV) (1:1 molar) were prepared using slurry complexation (-20 °C) method and characterized based on encapsulation efficiency, moisture content, morphology, and 2-phase in vitro digestion stability...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770352/context-driven-salt-seeking-test-rats
#10
Stephen E Chang, Kyle S Smith
Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation...
April 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768036/greater-reductions-in-fat-preferences-in-calhm1-than-cd36-knockout-mice
#11
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Several studies indicate an important role of gustation in intake and preference for dietary fat. The present study compared fat preference deficits produced by deletion of CD36, a putative fatty acid taste receptor, and CALHM1, an ion channel responsible for release of the ATP neurotransmitter used by taste cells. Naïve CD36 knockout (KO) mice displayed reduced preferences for soybean oil emulsions (Intralipid) at low concentrations (0.1-1%) compared to wildtype (WT) mice in 24 h/day two-bottle tests. CALHM1 KO mice displayed even greater Intralipid preference deficits compared to WT and CD36 KO mice...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764625/recognition-of-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-taste-test-is-related-to-blood-group-b-phenotype-females-and-risk-of-developing-food-allergy-a-cross-sectional-brazilian-based-study
#12
Isac César Roldão Leite, José Carlos Dos Santos Júnior, Cinthya Clara Silva de Sousa, Alexandre Vasconcelos Lima, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela
Anti-nutritional factors, including hemagglutinins, are natural substances that reduce nutritional bioavailability and/or generate adverse physiological effects. Most are bitter toxic compounds, but present chemo-protective properties at low concentrations. Responses to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) allow for an evaluation of humans' perception of bitter taste, a perception that has evolutionary advantages. Therefore, we hypothesized that relationships between food preference, dietary exposures and disease risk could reflect possible associations not only with the recognition threshold for the bitter taste of PTC, but also with ABO/Rh blood group phenotypes...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755721/effects-of-congruent-and-incongruent-stimulus-colour-on-flavour-discriminations
#13
Leonie Wieneke, Pauline Schmuck, Julia Zacher, Mark W Greenlee, Tina Plank
In addition to gustatory, olfactory and somatosensory input, visual information plays a role in our experience of food and drink. We asked whether colour in this context has an effect at the perceptual level via multisensory integration or if higher level cognitive factors are involved. Using an articulatory suppression task, comparable to Stevenson and Oaten, cognitive processes should be interrupted during a flavour discriminatory task, so that any residual colour effects would be traceable to low-level integration...
March 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754211/awareness-of-dysgeusia-and-gustatory-tests-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#14
Sayaka Kuba, Rie Fujiyama, Kosho Yamanouchi, Michi Morita, Chika Sakimura, Toshiko Hatachi, Megumi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yano, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Naomi Hayashida, Takeshi Nagayasu, Susumu Eguchi
PURPOSE: We analyzed the prevalence of gustatory test abnormalities in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: We enrolled 43 BC patients undergoing chemotherapy and 38 BC patients who had never undergone chemotherapy (control group). Two gustatory tests were conducted: an instillation method examining the threshold for four basic taste stimuli and an electrogustometry method measuring the threshold for perception with electric stimulation at the front two-thirds of the tongue (cranial nerve VII) and at the back third of the tongue (cranial nerve IX)...
May 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753861/different-neural-processing-of-umami-and-salty-taste-determined-by-umami-identification-ability-independent-of-repeated-umami-exposure
#15
Pengfei Han, Mohebbat Mohebbi, Manja Unrath, Cornelia Hummel, Thomas Hummel
There is a large inter-individual variation for umami taste perception. However the neural mechanism for this variability is not well understood. This study investigated brain responses to umami and salty taste among individuals with different umami identification abilities and the effect of repeated oral umami exposure on umami identification and neural processing of taste perceptions. Fifteen participants with high umami identification ability ("High Tasters, HT) and fifteen with low umami identification ability ("Low Tasters", LT) underwent three weeks of controlled exposure to umami taste (umami training)...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751045/detection-and-modulation-of-capsaicin-perception-in-the-human-oral-cavity
#16
Gregory Smutzer, Jeswin C Jacob, Joseph T Tran, Darshan I Shah, Shilpa Gambhir, Roni K Devassy, Eric B Tran, Brian T Hoang, Joseph F McCune
Capsaicin causes a burning or spicy sensation when this vanilloid compound comes in contact with trigeminal neurons of the tongue. This compound has low solubility in water, which presents difficulties in examining the psychophysical properties of capsaicin by standard aqueous chemosensory tests. This report describes a new approach that utilizes edible strips for delivering precise amounts of capsaicin to the human oral cavity for examining threshold and suprathreshold amounts of this irritant. When incorporated into pullulan-based edible strips, recognition thresholds for capsaicin occurred over a narrow range, with a mean value near 1 nmol...
May 8, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750367/efficacy-of-maternal-choline-supplementation-during-pregnancy-in-mitigating-adverse-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-growth-and-cognitive-function-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Mark E Stanton, Jane Herbert, Nadine M Lindinger, Catherine E Lewis, Neil C Dodge, H Eugene Hoyme, Steven H Zeisel, Ernesta M Meintjes, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated the acceptability and feasibility of a randomized, double-blind choline supplementation intervention for heavy drinking women during pregnancy. In this paper, we report our results relating to the efficacy of this intervention in mitigating adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on infant growth and cognitive function. METHODS: 69 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) heavy drinkers in Cape Town, South Africa, recruited in mid-pregnancy, were randomly assigned to receive a daily oral dose of either 2 g of choline or placebo from time of enrollment until delivery...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749005/formative-research-to-create-a-farm-to-school-program-for-high-school-students-in-a-lower-income-diverse-urban-community
#18
Anna E Greer, Stacey Davis, Cristina Sandolo, Nicole Gaudet, Brianna Castrogivanni
BACKGROUND: Using Social Cognitive Theory as a framework, we examined opportunities for promoting local produce consumption among high school students in a lower-income, ethnically diverse, urban community. METHODS: Six focus groups (N = 53) were conducted with students. Using Atlas.ti qualitative software, data were coded and reviewed to identify code categories which could be taken to represent themes. RESULTS: Students (56.8% girls, 86...
June 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748385/activation-of-airway-epithelial-bitter-taste-receptors-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quinolones-modulates-calcium-cyclic-amp-and-nitric-oxide-signaling
#19
Jenna R Freund, Corrine J Mansfield, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Danielle R Reed, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), discovered in many tissues outside the tongue, have recently become potential therapeutic targets. We showed previously that airway epithelial cells express several T2Rs that activate innate immune responses that may be important for treatment of airway diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis. It is imperative to more clearly understand what compounds activate airway T2Rs as well as their full range of functions. T2R isoforms in airway motile cilia (T2Rs 4, 14, 16, and 38) produce bactericidal levels of nitric oxide (NO) that also increase ciliary beating, promoting clearance of mucus and trapped pathogens...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742385/the-neurocognitive-mechanisms-underlying-food-cravings-and-snack-food-consumption-a-combined-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-ctbs-and-eeg-study
#20
Cassandra J Lowe, William R Staines, Felicia Mannochio, Peter A Hall
Regulation of food cravings is thought to be critical for modulating eating behavior, yet we do not fully understand the mechanisms by which cognitive control operates in the eating context. The current study combined rTMS and EEG paradigms to examine the causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in modulating visceral and behavioral responses to high calorie foods, and the mediational mechanisms underlying this relation. 28 right-handed female participants received both active and sham continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS; a rTMS variant used to decrease cortical activity) targeting the left dlPFC in a counterbalanced order...
May 6, 2018: NeuroImage
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