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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431091/suppression-of-oral-sweet-taste-sensation-with-gymnema-sylvestre-affects-postprandial-gastrointestinal-blood-flow-and-gastric-emptying-in-humans
#1
Hideaki Kashima, Kohei Eguchi, Kanae Miyamoto, Masaki Fujimoto, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Nami Aso-Someya, Toshio Kobayashi, Naoyuki Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Fukuba
An oral sweet taste sensation (OSTS) exaggerates digestive activation transiently, but whether it has a role after swallowing a meal is not known. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) can inhibit the OSTS in humans. We explored the effect of the OSTS of glucose intake on gastrointestinal blood flow, gastric emptying, blood-glucose, and plasma-insulin responses during the postprandial phase. Eight participants ingested 200 g (50 g × 4 times) of 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 mL of 2...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426670/mice-expressing-a-hyper-sensitive-form-of-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-show-modestly-enhanced-alcohol-preference-and-consumption
#2
David J Marcus, Angela N Henderson-Redmond, Maciej Gonek, Michael L Zee, Jill C Farnsworth, Randa A Amin, Mary-Jeanette Andrews, Brian J Davis, Ken Mackie, Daniel J Morgan
We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426322/formative-research-to-design-a-promotional-campaign-to-increase-drinking-water-among-central-american-latino-youth-in-an-urban-area
#3
Nicole Barrett, Uriyoán Colón-Ramos, Allison Elkins, Ivonne Rivera, W Douglas Evans, Mark Edberg
Latinos consume more sugary drinks and less water than other demographic groups. Our objective was to understand beverage choice motivations and test promotional concepts that can encourage Central American Latino urban youth to drink more water. Two rounds of focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 focus groups, 61 participants, 6-18 years old). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive coding approaches. Youth motivations for drinking water were shaped by level of thirst, weather, energy, and perceptions of health benefits...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424010/olfactory-development-part-1-function-from-fetal-perception-to-adult-wine-tasting
#4
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei
Discrimination of odorous molecules in amniotic fluid occur after 30 weeks' gestation; fetuses exhibit differential responses to maternal diet. Olfactory reflexes enable reliable neonatal testing. Olfactory bulbs can be demonstrated reliably by MRI after 30 weeks' gestation, and their hypoplasia or aplasia also documented by late prenatal and postnatal MRI. Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Fetal olfactory maturation remains incomplete at term for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and persistence of the transitory fetal ventricular recess...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417103/effect-of-age-and-severity-of-facial-palsy-on-taste-thresholds-in-bell-s-palsy-patients
#5
Jung Min Park, Myung Gu Kim, Junyang Jung, Sung Su Kim, A Ra Jung, Sang Hoon Kim, Seung Geun Yeo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether taste thresholds, as determined by electrogustometry (EGM) and chemical taste tests, differ by age and the severity of facial palsy in patients with Bell's palsy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study included 29 patients diagnosed with Bell's palsy between January 2014 and May 2015 in our hospital. Patients were assorted into age groups and by severity of facial palsy, as determined by House-Brackmann Scale, and their taste thresholds were assessed by EGM and chemical taste tests...
April 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416871/effect-of-water-quality-on-the-main-components-in-fuding-white-tea-infusions
#6
Haihua Zhang, Yulan Jiang, Yangjun Lv, Junxian Pan, Yuwei Duan, Yunyun Huang, Yuejin Zhu, Shikang Zhang, Kunkun Geng
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water quality on the main components in Fuding white tea infusions, including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids. Pure, tap and spring water were tested, and water quality was found to have a distinct effect on the main compounds extracted. Pure water, which was weakly acidic and low in dissolved ions, achieved the highest catechin content, whereas caffeine and theanine, and amino acids, were higher in infusions made with spring and tap water, respectively...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413727/a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-the-initial-validation-of-a-single-cell-protein-as-an-alternative-protein-source-for-use-in-aquafeeds
#7
Michael Tlusty, Andrew Rhyne, Joseph T Szczebak, Bradford Bourque, Jennifer L Bowen, Gary Burr, Christopher J Marx, Lawrence Feinberg
The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offer a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for people. To demonstrate a given type of SCP has potential as a protein source for use in aquaculture feed, a number of steps need to be validated including demonstrating that the SCP is accepted by the species in question, leads to equivalent survival and growth, does not result in illness or other maladies, is palatable to the consumer, is cost effective to produce and can easily be incorporated into diets using existing technology...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397820/bitter-taste-receptor-agonists-mitigate-features-of-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#8
Pawan Sharma, Roslyn Yi, Ajay P Nayak, Nadan Wang, Francesca Tang, Morgan J Knight, Shi Pan, Brian Oliver, Deepak A Deshpande
Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397752/wholegrain-food-acceptance-in-young-singaporean-adults
#9
Jia En Neo, Iain A Brownlee
Previous epidemiological evidence suggests that habitual consumption of whole grains is associated with reduction of disease risk. While wholegrain food consumption appears to be increasing in Singapore, it is still low, with more infrequent consumption noted in younger Singaporeans. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to determine the knowledge of whole grains and barriers to consumption of wholegrain foods. Thirty participants (age range 21-26 year, 19 females) took part in two focus groups separated by a 2-week period in which participants trialled a range of wholegrain foods...
April 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397279/change-of-somatosensory-function-of-the-tongue-caused-by-chorda-tympani-nerve-disorder-after-stapes-surgery
#10
Emi Maeda, Hirokazu Katsura, Tomomi Nin, Akiko Sakaguchi-Fukunaga, Yasuo Mishiro, Masafumi Sakagami
OBJECTIVES: Patients after middle ear surgery often complain of taste disturbance and a lingual numbness. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess changes in the somatosensation of the tongue and taste function in patients undergoing stapes surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Symptoms of taste disturbance and tongue numbness after surgery were investigated before and after surgery in 41 patients (13 males, 28 females; mean age 41...
April 11, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396289/food-craving-food-choice-and-consumption-the-role-of-impulsivity-and-sham-controlled-tdcs-stimulation-of-the-right-dlpfc
#11
Claudio Georgii, Philipp Goldhofer, Adrian Meule, Anna Richard, Jens Blechert
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity has been found to be associated with overeating and obesity. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance inhibitory control while reducing food craving and intake. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether tDCS stimulation modifies food choice, craving and consumption as a function of trait impulsivity. METHODS: Forty-two predominantly healthy-weight women received active tDCS stimulation to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and sham stimulation in a within participant design...
April 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386657/study-on-the-morphology-histology-and-enzymatic-activity-of-the-digestive-tract-of-gymnocypris-eckloni-herzenstein
#12
Lizhu Yang, Jing Fang, Xi Peng, Hengmin Cui, Min He, Zhicai Zuo, Yi Zhou, Zhuangzhi Yang
The present research was conducted to study the morphology, histology and enzymatic activities of the digestive tract of Gymnocypris eckloni by light and transmission electron microscopes as well as by enzyme assays. The digestive tract of G. eckloni consisted of the oropharyngeal cavity, oesophagus and intestine. The wall of the digestive tract was composed of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa but lacked muscularis mucosa and glands. The stratified epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity and oesophagus contained numerous mucous cells...
April 7, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382665/reported-motivations-for-and-locations-of-healthy-eating-among-georgia-high-school-students
#13
Gayathri S Kumar, Michael Bryan, Rana Bayakly, Cherie Drenzek, Caitlin Merlo, Geraldine S Perry
BACKGROUND: Understanding how youth perceive eating healthy foods can inform programs and policies that aim to improve healthy eating. We assessed the reasons for and the most common locations of eating healthy foods among Georgia's (GA) high school (HS) students. METHODS: Using the 2013 GA HS Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we examined motivations for and locations of eating healthy foods by sociodemographic characteristics and daily fruit and vegetable intake. Weighted chi-square tests were used to examine differences in responses for each perception...
May 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381800/citric-acid-suppresses-the-bitter-taste-of-olopatadine-hydrochloride-orally-disintegrating-tablets
#14
Mai Sotoyama, Shinya Uchida, Shimako Tanaka, Akio Hakamata, Keiichi Odagiri, Naoki Inui, Hiroshi Watanabe, Noriyuki Namiki
Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are formulated to disintegrate upon contact with saliva, allowing administration without water. Olopatadine hydrochloride, a second-generation antihistamine, is widely used for treating allergic rhinitis. However, it has a bitter taste; therefore, the development of taste-masked olopatadine ODTs is essential. Some studies have suggested that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of drugs. However, these experiments were performed using solutions, and the taste-masking effect of citric acid on ODTs has not been evaluated using human gustatory sensation tests...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379983/flavour-enhanced-cortisol-release-during-gum-chewing
#15
Yoko Hasegawa, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Takahiro Ono, Hiromitsu Kishimoto
There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379369/electrogustometry-thresholds-tongue-tip-vascularization-density-and-form-of-the-fungiform-papillae-following-smoking-cessation
#16
Pavlos Pavlidis, Haralampos Gouveris, Georgios Kekes
The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in gustatory function and in shape, density, and vascularization of the fungiform papillae (fPap) of smokers' tongue before and after smoking cessation. In 24 smokers (19 males, 5 females; median age: 54.6 ± 2.9 years) electrogustometry (EGM) thresholds at the chorda tympani area, at the soft palate area and at the area of the vallate papillae were recorded bilaterally. Morphology and density of the fungiform papillae (fPap) and blood vessels' density and morphology at the tip of the tongue were examined using contact endoscopy (CE)...
March 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375912/disorders-of-taste-and-smell
#17
Ronald DeVere
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to educate clinical neurologists on the importance of taste and smell disorders in clinical neurology. These disorders commonly occur in head trauma, multiple sclerosis, seizure disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases such as idiopathic Parkinson disease and dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease, just to name a few. This article covers the basic anatomy of smell and taste, notes the important points of taking a proper history, and discusses smell and taste testing, which are inexpensive, minimally time-consuming procedures...
April 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373020/consumer-motivations-toward-buying-local-rice-the-case-of-northern-iranian-consumers
#18
Hassan Rahnama
This research had two purposes. The first aim was to identify Iranian and Non-Iranian rice consumers based on demographic characteristics and examine difference of these features with buying behaviors. The second purpose of study was to investigate consumer's motivation to buy local rice in Iran. The sample were 1500 people (men and women). The data was collected by using questionnaire based on a face-to-face survey. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression were applied to assess collected data by a questionnaire survey...
April 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372450/a-bronchobiliary-fistula-treated-with-cyanoacrylate-glue-in-a-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis
#19
Raúl Honrubia López, Ana Barbado Cano, Gloria Ruiz Fernández, Katherine Yelenia Bustamante Robles
A 60-year-old male was operated upon in 2002 for liver hydatidosis, which included partial right hepatectomy with cholecystectomy and bilioduodenal anastomosis. He then developed liver cirrhosis secondary to left hepatic duct stricture. He presents at the emergency room with dry cough, which he had for a month and then became associated with yellowish, bitter-tasting "fluid" expectoration. A chest-abdominal CT scan revealed a 6 x 5-cm collection roughly located somewhere between the middle pulmonary lobe and subphrenic area ...
April 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371523/latent-constructs-underlying-sensory-subtypes-in-children-with-autism-a-preliminary-study
#20
Brittany N Hand, Simon Dennis, Alison E Lane
Recent reports identify sensory subtypes in ASD based on shared patterns of responses to daily sensory stimuli [Ausderau et al., 2014; Lane, Molloy, & Bishop, 2014]. Lane et al. propose that two broad sensory dimensions, sensory reactivity and multisensory integration, best explain the differences between subtypes, however this has yet to be tested. The present study tests this hypothesis by examining the latent constructs underlying Lane's sensory subtypes. Participants for this study were caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 2-12 years...
April 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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