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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913593/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-vmpfc-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#1
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, SDNN) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911404/using-capillary-electrophoresis-to-quantify-organic-acids-from-plant-tissue-a-test-case-examining-coffea-arabica-seeds
#2
Michael Joe Vaughan, Ann Chanon, Joshua J Blakeslee
Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more terminal carboxyl (COOH) functional groups. Short chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs; carboxylic acids containing three to six carbons), such as malate and citrate, are critical to the proper functioning of many biological systems, where they function in cellular respiration and can serve as indicators of cell health. In foods, organic acid content can have significant impact on taste, with increased SCCA levels resulting in a sour or "acid" taste. Because of this, methods for the rapid analysis of organic acid levels are of particular interest to the food and beverage industries...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906463/measurement-of-behavioral-taste-responses-in-mice-two-bottle-preference-lickometer-and-conditioned-taste-aversion-tests
#3
Dany Gaillard, Jennifer M Stratford
The natural like and dislike of foods based on taste is one of the most easily observed behaviors in animals. Animals eat palatable foods and reject aversive foods, which makes measurement of taste perception possible using various behavioral techniques. Three different methods to accurately measure taste behavior are described here. First, two-bottle preference tests evaluate whether a taste compound (tastant) is preferred over water. Second, lickometer tests quantify the like and dislike for multiple concentrations of the same tastant or multiple tastants at the same time...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896041/flavored-e-cigarette-use-characterizing-youth-young-adult-and-adult-users
#4
M B Harrell, S R Weaver, A Loukas, M Creamer, C N Marti, C D Jackson, J W Heath, P Nayak, C L Perry, T F Pechacek, M P Eriksen
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907) and young adult college students (n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891828/reducing-calories-fat-saturated-fat-and-sodium-in-restaurant-menu-items-effects-on-consumer-acceptance
#5
Anjali A Patel, Nanette V Lopez, Harry T Lawless, Valentine Njike, Mariana Beleche, David L Katz
OBJECTIVE: To assess consumer acceptance of reductions of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium to current restaurant recipes. METHODS: Twenty-four menu items, from six restaurant chains, were slightly modified and moderately modified by reducing targeted ingredients. Restaurant customers (n = 1,838) were recruited for a taste test and were blinded to the recipe version as well as the purpose of the study. Overall consumer acceptance was measured using a 9-point hedonic (like/dislike) scale, likelihood to purchase scale, Just-About-Right (JAR) 5-point scale, penalty analysis, and alienation analysis...
December 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886807/a-method-for-the-assessment-of-facial-hedonic-reactions-in-newborns
#6
Caroline Ayres, Charles F Ferreira, Juliana R Bernardi, Thiago B Marcelino, Vânia N Hirakata, Clécio H da Silva, Marcelo Z Goldani
OBJECTIVE: This study describes a quantitative and qualitative methodology to assess hedonic responses to sweet stimulus in healthy newborns. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study, with healthy newborns (up to 24h of life), between 37 and 42 gestational weeks, vaginally born and breastfed previously to all tests. The evaluation of the newborns reactions was performed by hedonic facial expression analysis, characterized by facial expressions with rhythmic serial tongue protrusion after neutral or sweet solution intake...
November 22, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886380/acceptability-and-preference-drivers-of-freshly-roasted-peanuts
#7
Shangci Wang, Koushik Adhikari, Yen-Con Hung
The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the sensory perceptions and aroma volatiles of 6 freshly roasted peanut samples and to explore the drivers of consumer acceptability. Normal-oleic Georgia 06G kernels (06G), high-oleic Georgia 13M kernels (13M), Georgia runner (mixed) in-shell (InR) & kernels (R), and Virginia (mixed) in-shell (InVA) & kernels (VA) were roasted to medium doneness for consumers, descriptive, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) tests. For Virginia variety, InVA was preferred over VA...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882100/optimization-and-validation-of-the-protocol-used-to-analyze-the-taste-of-traditional-chinese-medicines-using-an-electronic-tongue
#8
Xuelin Li, Xiaojie Gao, Ruixin Liu, Junming Wang, Zidan Wu, Lu Zhang, Huiling Li, Xinjing Gui, Bingya Kang, Junhan Shi
Tools to define the active ingredients and flavors of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are limited by long analysis times, complex sample preparation and a lack of multiplexed analysis. The aim of the present study was to optimize and validate an electronic tongue (E-tongue) methodology to analyze the bitterness of TCMs. To test the protocol, 35 different TCM concoctions were measured using an E-tongue, and seven replicate measurements of each sample were taken to evaluate reproducibility and precision...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876580/management-of-dry-mouth-assessment-of-oral-symptoms-after-use-of-a-polysaccharide-based-oral-rinse
#9
Joel B Epstein, Dana C Villines, Mabi Singh, Athena Papas
OBJECTIVE: Salivary dysfunction is associated with a range of oral/dental issues, and management of oral symptoms may improve oral function and overall quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate oral symptoms and function in a xerostomic population after use of a proprietary topical for dry mouth, Moisyn (Synedgen Inc., Claremont, CA), which is a polysaccharide-based product. STUDY DESIGN: A pre- and post-test survey was completed by 57 patients with xerostomia...
September 28, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866985/identification-of-functional-bitter-taste-receptors-and-their-antagonist-in-chickens
#10
Bapon Dey, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Yuta Yoshida, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Elucidation of the taste sense of chickens is important not only for the development of chicken feedstuffs for the chicken industry but also to help clarify the evolution of the taste sense among animals. There are three putative chicken bitter taste receptors, chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), cT2R2 and cT2R7, which were identified using genome information and cell-based assays. Previously, we have shown that cT2R1 is a functional bitter taste receptor through both cell-based assays and behavioral tests. In this study, therefore, we focused on the sensitivities of the other two bitter receptors, cT2R2 and cT2R7, by using their agonists in behavioral tests...
November 17, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862713/impact-of-alcohol-promoting-and-alcohol-warning-advertisements-on-alcohol-consumption-affect-and-implicit-cognition-in-heavy-drinking-young-adults-a-laboratory-based-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Kaidy Stautz, Daniel Frings, Ian P Albery, Antony C Moss, Theresa M Marteau
OBJECTIVES: There is sparse evidence regarding the effect of alcohol-advertising exposure on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers. This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of alcohol-promoting and alcohol-warning video advertising on objective alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking young adults, and to examine underlying processes. DESIGN: Between-participants randomized controlled trial with three conditions. METHODS: Two hundred and four young adults (aged 18-25) who self-reported as heavy drinkers were randomized to view one of three sets of 10 video advertisements that included either (1) alcohol-promoting, (2) alcohol-warning, or (3) non-alcohol advertisements...
November 11, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861581/do-people-eat-the-pain-away-the-effects-of-acute-physical-pain-on-subsequent-consumption-of-sweet-tasting-food
#12
Kathleen E Darbor, Heather C Lench, Adrienne R Carter-Sowell
Sweet tasting foods have been found to have an analgesic effect. Therefore people might consume more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to a pain or non-pain condition and their consumption of cheesecake was measured. Participants ate more cheesecake (a sweet-tasting food) following a painful experience than a non-painful one. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to a painful experience or a resource depleting experience (i.e., squeezing a handgrip) and then were asked to taste test two foods, one sweet and one not sweet...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853270/loss-of-nmda-receptors-in-dopamine-neurons-leads-to-the-development-of-affective-disorder-like-symptoms-in-mice
#13
Kamila Jastrzębska, Magdalena Walczak, Przemysław Eligiusz Cieślak, Łukasz Szumiec, Mateusz Turbasa, David Engblom, Tomasz Błasiak, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna
The role of changes in dopamine neuronal activity during the development of symptoms in affective disorders remains controversial. Here, we show that inactivation of NMDA receptors on dopaminergic neurons in adult mice led to the development of affective disorder-like symptoms. The loss of NMDA receptors altered activity and caused complete NMDA-insensitivity in dopamine-like neurons. Mutant mice exhibited increased immobility in the forced swim test and a decrease in social interactions. Mutation also led to reduced saccharin intake, however the preference of sweet taste was not significantly decreased...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849216/olfactory-function-and-quality-of-life-after-olfaction-rehabilitation-in-total-laryngectomees
#14
Christiane Gouvêa Dos Santos, Anke Bergmann, Kaliani Lima Coça, Angela Albuquerque Garcia, Tânia Cristina de Oliveira Valente
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of olfaction rehabilitation in the olfactory function and quality of life of total laryngectomized patients. Methods: Pre-post intervention clinical study conducted with total laryngectomees submitted to olfaction rehabilitation by means of the Nasal Airflow-Inducing Maneuver (NAIM) using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), Olfactory Acuity Questionnaires, a Monitoring Questionnaire, and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL)...
November 16, 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837417/circadian-temporal-context-and-latent-inhibition-of-conditioned-taste-aversion-effect-of-restriction-in-the-intake-of-the-conditioned-taste-stimulus
#15
Andrés Molero-Chamizo
Latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is sensitive to changes in the temporal context. A change in the time of day of conditioning with respect to the time of day of the preexposure can disrupt the latent inhibition. This contextual change in the time of day may reveal a temporal specificity of latent inhibition. The optimum procedure to induce this temporal specificity is not well established. For example, it has been shown that a long period of habituation to temporal contexts is one factor that can determine the effect...
November 11, 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833254/mixed-messages-ambiguous-penalty-information-in-modified-restaurant-menu-items
#16
Harry T Lawless, Anjali A Patel, Nanette V Lopez
Restaurant menu items from six national or regional brands were modified to reduce fat, saturated fat, sodium and total calories. Twenty-four items were tested with a current recipe, and two modifications (small and moderate reductions) for 72 total products. Approximately 100 consumers tested each product for acceptability as well as for desired levels of tastes/flavor, amounts of key ingredients and texture/consistency using just-about-right (JAR) scales. Penalty analysis was conducted to assess the effects of non-JAR ratings on acceptability scores...
September 2016: Food Quality and Preference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829474/untrained-consumer-assessment-of-the-eating-quality-of-beef-1-a-single-composite-score-can-predict-beef-quality-grades
#17
S P F Bonny, J-F Hocquette, D W Pethick, I Legrand, J Wierzbicki, P Allen, L J Farmer, R J Polkinghorne, G E Gardner
Quantifying consumer responses to beef across a broad range of demographics, nationalities and cooking methods is vitally important for any system evaluating beef eating quality. On the basis of previous work, it was expected that consumer scores would be highly accurate in determining quality grades for beef, thereby providing evidence that such a technique could be used to form the basis of and eating quality grading system for beef. Following the Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia tasted cooked beef samples, then allocated them to a quality grade; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium...
November 10, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825896/activation-of-mu-opioid-receptors-in-the-ventral-pallidum-decreases-the-negative-hedonic-evaluation-of-a-conditioned-aversive-taste-in-rats
#18
Tadashi Inui, Tsuyoshi Shimura
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes a shift in the hedonic evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) from positive to negative, and reduces the CS intake. Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral pallidum (VP) are known to be involved in the hedonic evaluation of positive rewarding stimuli; however, their involvement in evaluation of a negative aversive stimulus is still unclear. To explore the neural mechanisms of the negative hedonic evaluation of the CS in CTA, we examined the effects of the activation of VP MORs on the behavioral responses of rats to a CS...
November 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822501/inhibition-of-ikk%C3%AE-reduces-ethanol-consumption-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#19
Jay M Truitt, Yuri A Blednov, Jillian M Benavidez, Mendy Black, Olga Ponomareva, Jade Law, Morgan Merriman, Sami Horani, Kelly Jameson, Amy W Lasek, R Adron Harris, R Dayne Mayfield
Proinflammatory pathways in neuronal and non-neuronal cells are implicated in the acute and chronic effects of alcohol exposure in animal models and humans. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of DNA transcription factors plays important roles in inflammatory diseases. The kinase IKKβ mediates the phosphorylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation of cytosolic protein inhibitors of NF-κB, leading to activation of NF-κB. The role of IKKβ as a potential regulator of excessive alcohol drinking had not previously been investigated...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812756/a-prospective-evaluation-of-taste-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
M J Ricatti, S Ottaviani, F Boschi, A Fasano, M Tinazzi, M P Cecchini
It is well known that Parkinson's disease is characterized by a variety of non-motor symptoms. A gustatory deficit is hypothesized to be one of them although few and only cross-sectional studies are available. The aim of our pilot study was to prospectively investigate the taste function in Parkinson's disease patients after some years from the first evaluation (mean follow-up 4.35 ± 0.49 years; time range 3.5-5.6 years). A group of 26 patients was re-examined (16 males and 10 females; mean age 70.9 ± 8...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
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