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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738384/sweet-taste-perception-and-dental-caries-in-13-to-15-year-olds-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study
#1
H Ashi, C Lara-Capi, G Campus, G Klingberg, P Lingström
Dietary habits and, in particular, the intake frequency of sucrose are of major importance for the development of dental caries. The perception of sweet taste is believed to have an influence on sucrose intake and therefore affects the predisposition to dental caries. The aim was to study the caries experience and sweet taste perception and to further analyze the possible relationship between the 2 tested variables in 13- to 15-year-old children from 3 different geographical areas. A cross-sectional survey comprising 669 children (220 Italian, 224 Mexican, and 225 Saudi Arabian) was conducted...
July 25, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736213/beyond-expectations-the-responses-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-visual-food-cues
#2
Luz Verastegui-Tena, Aurelia Schulte-Holierhoek, Hans van Trijp, Betina Piqueras Fiszman
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations...
July 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735775/heroin-uncertainties-exploring-users-perceptions-of-fentanyl-adulterated-and-substituted-heroin
#3
Daniel Ciccarone, Jeff Ondocsin, Sarah G Mars
BACKGROUND: The US is experiencing an unprecedented opioid overdose epidemic fostered in recent years by regional contamination of the heroin supply with the fentanyl family of synthetic opioids. Since 2011 opioid-related overdose deaths in the East Coast state of Massachusetts have more than tripled, with 75% of the 1374 deaths with an available toxicology positive for fentanyl. Fentanyl is 30-50X more potent than heroin and its presence makes heroin use more unpredictable. A rapid ethnographic assessment was undertaken to understand the perceptions and experiences of people who inject drugs sold as 'heroin' and to observe the drugs and their use...
July 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732220/short-term-evaluation-of-gustatory-changes-after-surgical-removal-of-mandibular-third-molar-a-prospective-randomized-control-trial
#4
D Prabhu Shankar, P Manodh, Pradeep Devadoss, Rahul Anand, Murugan Aparna
PURPOSE: The present study was carried out to prospectively determine the incidence and severity of suprathreshold taste changes after surgical removal of mandibular third molars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients who required removal of impacted third molars were included in the study. Based on the Winter criteria of angulation of impacted mandibular third molars, 15 patients each with mesioangular, distoangular, horizontal, and vertical impacted third molars were selected...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729703/the-basal-free-fatty-acid-concentration-in-human-saliva-is-related-to-salivary-lipolytic-activity
#5
Eric Neyraud, Stéphanie Cabaret, Hélène Brignot, Claire Chabanet, Hélène Labouré, Elisabeth Guichard, Olivier Berdeaux
Fat perception during eating is a complex sensation that involves various sensory modalities, such as texture, aroma and taste. Taste is supported by the discovery of fatty acid receptors in the tongue papillae. Dietary fat is mainly composed of esterified fatty acids, whereas only free fatty acids can bind to taste receptors. Some authors have mentioned the necessity and efficiency of salivary lipolytic activity to hydrolyse the esterified fatty acids present in foods and enable fat perception. Our hypothesis is that salivary lipolytic activity is also involved in regulating the basal level of salivary fatty acids in humans...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726956/concealing-the-taste-of-the-guinness-world-s-most-bitter-substance-by-using-a-synthetic-nanocontainer
#6
Xue Yang, Shengke Li, Qing-Wen Zhang, Ying Zheng, David Bardelang, Lian-Hui Wang, Ruibing Wang
Upon supramolecular encapsulation by using a synthetic nanocontainer (cucurbit[7]uril), the taste of the Guinness World's most bitter substance, denatonium benzoate, was dramatically concealed during a two-bottle preference drinking test in a mammalian model, demonstrating the significant potential of cucurbit[7]uril as a taste-masking nanocontainer for the first time.
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721989/oral-changes-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#7
Shruthi Acharya, Keerthilatha Murlidhar Pai, Sujatha Bhat, Ballal Mamatha, Vadhiraj M Bejadi, Shashidhar Acharya
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in India. Most of the patients with breast cancer are treated with chemotherapy which has multiple oral complications. AIMS: The objectives of this study were to describe the occurrence of taste disturbances, xerostomia, oral mucositis, oral pigmentation, and candidal and salivary changes among patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. METHODS: Fifty-two women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (without distant metastasis), eligible for adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin, 4 cycles × 3 weeks), were included in this study...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716589/the-role-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-taste-aversive-learning-and-memory-extinction-after-long-term-sugar-consumption
#8
María Isabel Miranda, José Alejandro Rangel-Hernández, Gabriela Vera-Rivera, Nadia Edith García-Medina, Gerardo Soto-Alonso, Gabriela Rodríguez-García, Luis Núñez-Jaramillo
The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a forebrain region that may significantly contribute to the integration of taste and visceral signals during food consumption. Changes in dopamine release in the NAcc have been observed during consumption of a sweet taste and during compulsive consumption of dietary sugars, suggesting that NAcc dopaminergic transmission is strongly correlated with taste familiarity and the hedonic value content. NAcc core and shell nuclei are differentially involved during and after sugar exposure and, particularly, previous evidence suggests that dopamine D2 receptors could be related with the strength of the latent inhibition (LI) of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which depends on the length of the taste stimulus pre-exposure...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713552/case-report-diagnosis-of-hypogeusia-after-oral-exposure-to-commercial-cleaning-agent-and-considerations-for-clinical-taste-testing
#9
Marie Jetté, Catherine Anderson, Vijay Ramakrishnan
Few reports in the literature document acute taste disturbance following exposure to toxic chemicals. We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with primary complaint of tongue numbness and persistent problems with taste 1.5 years following oral exposure to a commercial cleaning agent. A test of olfaction revealed normosmia for age and gender. Lingual tactile two-point discrimination testing showed reduced somatosensation. Taste threshold testing using a 3-drop method demonstrated severe hypogeusia, though the patient was able to discriminate tastants at lower concentrations with a whole mouth swish and spit test...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713117/alteration-in-taste-perception-among-young-children-during-the-use-of-removable-orthodontic-appliance-therapy
#10
Priyanka Razdan, V S Sakthivel, Zuber A Naqvi, Vinod Goyal, Swati Tripathi, Smita Singh
BACKGROUND: The sense of smell is very influential in the taste of foods. If the smell pleases us, we anticipate the taste of the food with a great deal of relish. If our sense of smell is impaired, so is our taste. The effect of appliance on taste perceptions has always had a controversial subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was designed to analyze the change in taste perception in children using removable orthodontic appliances. All the selected volunteers were given different taste stimuli and were asked to score as per their perception...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712977/food-marketing-with-movie-character-toys-effects-on-young-children-s-preferences-for-unhealthy-and-healthier-fast-food-meals
#11
Helen Dixon, Philippa Niven, Maree Scully, Melanie Wakefield
This study aimed to test whether movie tie-in premiums (MTIPs) accompanying unhealthy and healthier fast food meals influenced children's meal preferences and their perceptions of these meals. Nine hundred and four Grade 1 and 2 students (aged 5-9 years) from Melbourne, Australia participated in a between-subjects online experiment comprising the following conditions: (A) unhealthy and healthier meals with no MTIP (control); (B) unhealthy and healthier meals with MTIP (current situation in Australia); (C) unhealthy meals with MTIP and healthier meals without MTIP; (D) unhealthy meals without MTIP and healthier meals with MTIP...
July 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708901/sex-specific-enhancement-of-palatability-driven-feeding-in-adolescent-rats
#12
Andrew T Marshall, Angela T Liu, Niall P Murphy, Nigel T Maidment, Sean B Ostlund
It has been hypothesized that brain development during adolescence perturbs reward processing in a way that may ultimately contribute to the risky decision making associated with this stage of life, particularly in young males. To investigate potential reward dysfunction during adolescence, Experiment 1 examined palatable fluid intake in rats as a function of age and sex. During a series of twice-weekly test sessions, non-food-deprived rats were given the opportunity to voluntarily consume a highly palatable sweetened condensed milk (SCM) solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703961/effect-of-addition-of-wild-garlic-allium-ursinum-on-the-quality-of-kefirs-from-sheep-s-milk
#13
Agata Znamirowska, Katarzyna Szajnar, Przemysław Rożek, Dorota Kalicka, Piotr Kuźniar, Paweł Hanus, Krzysztof Kotula, Marcin Obirek, Maciej Kluz
BACKGROUND: Sheep’s milk has a high content of total solids, which qualifies it as a very good raw material for the production of fermented milk drinks. Currently, there are commercially produced kefirs and yogurts from sheep’s milk in the countries of the Mediterranean region. The growing interest in the consumption of these products is justified not only by their taste merits, but also because of their health-promoting proper- ties. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the addition of 1% of lyophilized wild garlic powder on the properties of kefirs from sheep’s milk...
April 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690433/recognition-without-words-using-taste-to-explore-survival-processing
#14
Henry L Hallock, Heather D Garman, Shaun P Cook, Shawn P Gallagher
Many educational demonstrations of memory and recall employ word lists and number strings; items that lend themselves to semantic organization and "chunking." By applying taste recall to the adaptive memory paradigm, which evaluates memory from a survival-based evolutionary perspective, we have developed a simple, inexpensive exercise that defies mnemonic strategies. Most adaptive memory studies have evaluated recall of words encountered while imagining survival and non-survival scenarios. Here, we've left the lexical domain and hypothesized that taste memory, as measured by recognition, would be best when acquisition occurs under imagined threat of personal harm, namely poisoning...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687346/solid-state-characterisation-and-taste-masking-efficiency-evaluation-of-polymer-based-extrudates-of-isoniazid-for-paediatric-administration
#15
Alison V Keating, Jessica Soto, Catherine Tuleu, Claire Forbes, Min Zhao, Duncan Q M Craig
Hot melt extrusion has gained considerable attention as a novel technique for taste masking of bitter APIs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hot melt extrusion could be used to develop taste masked formulations of isoniazid and also to evaluate and correlate different taste assessment methods Two polymers with different physico-chemical properties, Soluplus and Eudragit E-PO were chosen as carriers for the drug. Eudragit E-PO has already been widely used for taste masking due to its selective release properties, while Soluplus has not been studied in this regard but provides a useful comparator of a polymer that should release the drug reasonably efficiently...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686139/neural-mechanisms-underlying-risk-and-ambiguity-attitudes
#16
Neeltje E Blankenstein, Jiska S Peper, Eveline A Crone, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde
Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( N = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683529/debaryomyces-hansenii-strains-from-valle-de-los-pedroches-iberian-dry-meat-products-isolation-identification-characterization-and-selection-for-starter-cultures
#17
José Ramos, Yessica Melero, Laura Ramos-Moreno, Carmen Michán, Lourdes Cabezas
Yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria colonize the surface of fermented sausages during the ripening process. The source of this microbiota is their surrounding environment, and it is influenced by their maturing conditions and by starter cultures. Debaryomyces hansenii has been previously isolated from several dry-cured meat products, and it has been associated with the lipolytic and proteolytic changes that occur in these products, which influence their taste and flavour. In this work, the yeast microbiota present in casing from different meat products ("lomo", "chorizo" and "salchichón") from the Valle de los Pedroches region, South-Spain, were isolated for the first time...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676575/maintenance-of-mouse-gustatory-terminal-field-organization-is-disrupted-following-selective-removal-of-peripheral-sodium-salt-taste-activity-at-adulthood
#18
Rolf Skyberg, Chengsan Sun, David L Hill
Neural activity plays a critical role in the development of central circuits in sensory systems. However, the maintenance of these circuits at adulthood is usually not dependent on sensory-elicited neural activity. Recent work in the mouse gustatory system showed that selectively deleting the primary transduction channel for sodium taste, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), throughout development dramatically impacted the organization of the central terminal fields of three nerves that carry taste information to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675015/-association-between-non-syndromic-cleft-lip-with-or-without-cleft-palate-and-environmental-factors-in-ningxia
#19
Yu Lili, Ma Jian, Gao Junpeng, Zhai Kun, Zhu Jinfang, Huang Yongqing
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) and environmental factors in Ningxia population. METHODS: This case-control study involved 453 NSCL/P patients and 452 normal newborns from Ningxia. A questionnaire focusing on various factors, including family history, pregnancy reaction, drug use during pregnancy, and infections, was used and responses were analyzed through Chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis with SPSS 16...
June 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670293/rapid-estimation-of-gustatory-sensitivity-thresholds-with-siam-and-quest
#20
Richard Höchenberger, Kathrin Ohla
Adaptive methods provide quick and reliable estimates of sensory sensitivity. Yet, these procedures are typically developed for and applied to the non-chemical senses only, i.e., to vision, audition, and somatosensation. The relatively long inter-stimulus-intervals in gustatory studies, which are required to minimize adaptation and habituation, call for time-efficient threshold estimations. We therefore tested the suitability of two adaptive yes-no methods based on SIAM and QUEST for rapid estimation of taste sensitivity by comparing test-retest reliability for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride, and quinine hydrochloride thresholds...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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