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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328505/substance-p-as-a-putative-efferent-transmitter-mediates-gabaergic-inhibition-in-mouse-taste-buds
#1
Anthony Y Huang, Sandy Y Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsaicin-mediated modulation on taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by actions of neuropeptides, e.g., calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), onto taste cells implying playing a role in taste sensitivity. During processing gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311514/the-utility-of-the-artificial-taste-sensor-in-evaluating-the-bitterness-of-drugs-correlation-with-responses-of-human-taste2-receptors-htas2rs
#2
Tamami Haraguchi, Takahiro Uchida, Miyako Yoshida, Honami Kojima, Masaaki Habara, Hidekazu Ikezaki
The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the artificial taste sensor to evaluate the bitterness of drugs by comparing the responses of the taste sensor with documented responses of human TASTE2 receptors (hTAS2Rs). For this purpose 22 bitter compounds, used as ingredients of pharmaceutical medicines in Japan and known ligands of hTAS2Rs, were selected for testing. Their solutions (0.01, 0.03, 0.1 mM) were evaluated by five different taste sensors (AC0, AN0, BT0, C00, AE1). Correlations between physicochemical parameters of the compounds and the responses of the taste sensors and hTAS2Rs were evaluated...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306960/decreased-electrogustometric-taste-sensitivity-in-patients-with-acquired-olfactory-dysfunction
#3
P Han, M Georgi, M Cuevas, A Haehner, V Gudziol, T Hummel
BACKGROUND: Cross-modal chemosensory dysfunction between olfaction and gustation is not well known. METHODOLOGY: 180 participants were classified into three groups (60 with olfactory dysfunction, 60 with gustatory dysfunction and 60 healthy controls without chemosensory dysfunction). Olfactory functions were obtained with Sniffin Sticks; gustatory function was measured by suprathreshold gustatory stimuli (taste sprays) and a quasi-threshold measure of taste function (taste strips) for five taste qualities (sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami)...
January 7, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306957/analysis-of-taste-function-in-patients-before-and-after-cochlear-implant-surgery
#4
U Walliczek-Dworschak, C M Knauer, D Murbe, A Mainka, T Hummel
BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation (CI), the standard therapy for rehabilitation of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss, exhibits taste dysfunction as a possible postoperative complication. This study aimed to investigate possible postoperative changes in taste and in addition baseline taste function in CI candidates. METHODOLOGY: We included 61 patients (32 male, 29 female) planned to undergo CI surgery and 23 healthy controls (8 male, 15 female). Gustatory function was measured using a chemosensory quasi-threshold test (taste strips) and electrogustometry (EGM)...
January 7, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304190/enhancement-of-saltiness-perception-by-monosodium-glutamate-taste-and-soy-sauce-odor-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#5
Takuya Onuma, Hiroaki Maruyama, Nobuyuki Sakai
Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce...
January 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304032/community-engaged-cumulative-risk-assessment-of-exposure-to-inorganic-well-water-contaminants-crow-reservation-montana
#6
Margaret J Eggers, John T Doyle, Myra J Lefthand, Sara L Young, Anita L Moore-Nall, Larry Kindness, Roberta Other Medicine, Timothy E Ford, Eric Dietrich, Albert E Parker, Joseph H Hoover, Anne K Camper
An estimated 11 million people in the US have home wells with unsafe levels of hazardous metals and nitrate. The national scope of the health risk from consuming this water has not been assessed as home wells are largely unregulated and data on well water treatment and consumption are lacking. Here, we assessed health risks from consumption of contaminated well water on the Crow Reservation by conducting a community-engaged, cumulative risk assessment. Well water testing, surveys and interviews were used to collect data on contaminant concentrations, water treatment methods, well water consumption, and well and septic system protection and maintenance practices...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302374/using-quality-of-life-scales-with-nutritional-relevance-after-gastrectomy-a-challenge-for-providing-personalized-treatment
#7
Seung Soo Lee, Wansik Yu, Ho Young Chung, Oh Kyoung Kwon, Won Kee Lee
Purpose: This study evaluated the changes in nutritional status based on quality of life (QoL) item-level analysis to determine whether individual QoL responses might facilitate personal clinical impact. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively evaluated QoL data obtained by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach (QLQ-STO22) as well as metabolic-nutritional data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis and blood tests...
December 2017: Journal of Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295558/effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-vs-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-eating-behavior-and-sweet-taste-perception-in-subjects-with-obesity
#8
Katie Nance, J Christopher Eagon, Samuel Klein, Marta Yanina Pepino
The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23) or SG (n = 8): (1) sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2) the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3) sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4) eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire...
December 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287330/detection-of-counterfeit-brand-spirits-using-1h-nmr-fingerprints-in-comparison-to-sensory-analysis
#9
Thomas Kuballa, Thomas Hausler, Alex O Okaru, Maria Neufeld, Kennedy O Abuga, Isaac O Kibwage, Jürgen Rehm, Burkhard Luy, Stephan G Walch, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282878/is-food-refusal-in-autistic-children-related-to-tas2r38-genotype
#10
Maria Pia Riccio, Chiara Franco, Rossella Negri, Roberta Ida Ferrentino, Roberta Maresca, Elisa D'alterio, Luigi Greco, Carmela Bravaccio
Several studies suggest that atypical eating behaviors, in particular food selectivity, are more frequent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A link between bitter taste perception, namely PROP/PTC sensitivity and food preferences is known in healthy children. The aim of this study is to investigate whether genetic variants of the TAS2R38 taste receptor responsible for different bitter sensitivity could affect foods preferences and consequently food refusal in ASD children. We recruited 43 children with ASD and 41 with normotypic development (TD) with or without food selectivity, aged between 2 and 11 years...
December 28, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282740/use-of-tunisian-flavored-olive-oil-as-anisakicidal-agent-in-industrial-anchovy-marinating-process
#11
Najla Trabelsi, Stefania M Marotta, Filippo Giarratana, Amani Taamali, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Graziella Ziino, Alessandro Giuffrida
BACKGROUND: Natural compounds are more frequently used against Anisakis, responsible of an important fish borne disease, anisakidosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enriched Tunisian olive oil with different spices (Cumin, Turmeric, Clove, Thyme and Lemon) against Anisakis larvae Type 1. RESULTS: In vitro experiment: larvae were submerged separately in the above mentioned oils, and then, examined, to check viability. For each oil, LT50 and LT100 were calculated...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279957/production-of-5-ketofructose-from-fructose-or-sucrose-using-genetically-modified-gluconobacter-oxydans-strains
#12
Anna Siemen, Konrad Kosciow, Paul Schweiger, Uwe Deppenmeier
The growing consumer demand for low-calorie, sugar-free foodstuff motivated us to search for alternative non-nutritive sweeteners. A promising sweet-tasting compound is 5-keto-D-fructose (5-KF), which is formed by membrane-bound fructose dehydrogenases (Fdh) in some Gluconobacter strains. The plasmid-based expression of the fdh genes in Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans resulted in a much higher Fdh activity in comparison to the native host G. japonicus. Growth experiments with G. oxydans fdh in fructose-containing media indicated that 5-KF was rapidly formed with a conversion efficiency of 90%...
December 26, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260510/interventions-for-managing-taste-disturbances
#13
REVIEW
Sumanth Kumbargere Nagraj, Renjith P George, Naresh Shetty, David Levenson, Debra M Ferraiolo, Ashish Shrestha
BACKGROUND: The sense of taste is very much essential to the overall health of an individual. It is a necessary component to enjoy one's food, which in turn provides nutrition to an individual. Any disturbance in taste perception can hamper quality of life in such patients by influencing their appetite, body weight and psychological well-being. Taste disorders have been treated using different modalities of treatment and there is no consensus for the best intervention. Hence this Cochrane Review was undertaken...
December 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250698/genetic-disorder-in-carbohydrates-metabolism-hereditary-fructose-intolerance-associated-with-celiac-disease
#14
Daniela Păcurar, Gabriela Leşanu, Irina Dijmărescu, Iulia Florentina Ţincu, Mihaela Gherghiceanu, Dumitru Orăşeanu
Celiac disease (CD) has been associated with several genetic and immune disorders, but association between CD and hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is extremely rare. HFI is an autosomal recessive disease caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase). We report the case of a 5-year-old boy suffering from CD, admitted with an initial diagnosis of Reye's-like syndrome. He presented with episodic unconsciousness, seizures, hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly and abnormal liver function...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241999/burn-how-implicit-and-explicit-attitudes-predict-early-adolescents-hot-sauce-aggression-toward-classroom-peers
#15
Tessa A M Lansu
The current study examined to what extent early adolescents' implicit and explicit evaluations of a classmate predict (a) their own aggressive behavior toward that classmate and (b) their classmate's aggressive behavior toward them. Implicit and explicit peer evaluations were assessed among 148 early adolescents (78 boys and 70 girls; Mage = 11.1 years) with an approach-avoidance task and a likeability rating. Adolescents' aggression was measured by the number of grams of hot sauce administered to the peer in a "taste test...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240979/brief-exposures-to-the-taste-of-ethanol-and-quinine-promote-subsequent-acceptance-of-ethanol-in-a-paradigm-that-minimizes-post-ingestive-consequences
#16
Gregory C Loney, Paul J Meyer
BACKGROUND: Aversion to the orosensory properties of concentrated ethanol solutions is often cited as a primary barrier to initiation of drinking and may contribute to abstention. These aversive properties include gustatory processes which encompass both bitter-like taste qualities and trigeminal-mediated irritation. Chronic-intermittent ethanol access (CIA) results in substantial and persistent increases in ethanol consumption, but the degree to which this facilitation involves sensory responding to ethanol and other bitter stimuli is currently undetermined...
December 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232497/evaluation-of-olfaction-and-taste-function-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-peripheral-neuropathy
#17
Semih Yazla, Süay Özmen, Sinem Kıyıcı, Demet Yıldız, Mehmet Haksever, Sündüz Gencay
AIMS: Olfaction and gustation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have great significance on quality of life and their impairment may result in possible hazards. A limited number of studies have been performed to determine the alteration of both gustatory and olfactory function in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The aim of this study was to determine whether type 2 diabetic patients, with and without DPN, exhibit major olfactory and gustatory dysfunction using validated and dependable techniques...
December 12, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230349/reinforcing-value-of-caffeinated-and-noncaffeinated-beverages-after-acute-exposure-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
Jennifer L Temple, Amanda M Ziegler, Adam M Graczyk, Amanda K Crandall
Background: When caffeine is added to beverages, it increases beverage liking and the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of these beverages after repeated exposure. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a single acute exposure to caffeine increases liking and motivation to consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) relative to placebo. Methods: Participants were children ages 8-9 years (n = 36) and adolescents ages 15-17 years (n = 41) with an approximately equal number of boys and girls...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Caffeine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229570/medicinal-plants-used-for-hypertension-treatment-by-folk-healers-in-songkhla-province-thailand
#19
Oratai Neamsuvan, Panadda Komonhiran, Kamonvadee Boonming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216297/skn-1a-pou2f3-functions-as-a-master-regulator-to-generate-trpm5-expressing-chemosensory-cells-in-mice
#20
Junpei Yamashita, Makoto Ohmoto, Tatsuya Yamaguchi, Ichiro Matsumoto, Junji Hirota
Transient receptor potential channel M5 (Trpm5)-expressing cells, such as sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells in the oropharyngeal epithelium, solitary chemosensory cells in the nasal respiratory epithelium, and tuft cells in the small intestine, that express taste-related genes function as chemosensory cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Skn-1a/Pou2f3, a POU homeodomain transcription factor is expressed in these Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells, and is necessary for their generation. Trpm5-expressing cells have recently been found in trachea, auditory tube, urethra, thymus, pancreatic duct, stomach, and large intestine...
2017: PloS One
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