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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544530/denatonium-induced-sinonasal-bacterial-killing-may-play-a-role-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-outcomes
#1
Ryan M Carey, Alan D Workman, Kyle M Hatten, Adam P Siebert, Steven G Brooks, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) contribute to upper airway innate immunity and correlate with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) clinical outcomes. A subset of T2Rs expressed on sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are activated by denatonium, resulting in a calcium-mediated secretion of bactericidal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in neighboring ciliated epithelial cells. We hypothesized that there is patient variability in the amount of bacterial killing induced by different concentrations of denatonium and that the differences correlate with CRS clinical outcomes...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544245/ghrelin-receptor-inverse-agonists-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-against-obesity-related-metabolic-disease
#2
Kathrin Abegg, Lara Bernasconi, Melanie Hutter, Lynda Whiting, Claudio Pietra, Claudio Giuliano, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
AIMS: Ghrelin is implicated in the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The ghrelin receptor exhibits ligand independent constitutive activity, which can be pharmacologically exploited to induce inverse ghrelin actions. Since ghrelin receptor inverse agonists (GHSR-IA) might be effective for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disease, we tested two novel synthetic compounds GHSR-IA1 and GHSR-IA2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In functional cell assays, electrophysiogical and immunohistochemical experiments, we demonstrated inverse agonist activity for GHSR-IA1 and GHSR-IA2...
May 24, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535743/acceptability-of-complementary-foods-that-incorporate-moringa-oleifera-leaf-powder-among-infants-and-their-caregivers
#3
Laurene Boateng, Ruth Nyarko, Matilda Asante, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu
BACKGROUND: Moringa Oleifera leaf powder (MLP) is a nutrient-rich and readily available food resource that has the potential to improve the micronutrient quality of complementary foods in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acceptability of complementary foods fortified with MLP. METHODS: Moringa Oleifera leaf powder was fed to infants either as part of a cereal-legume complementary food blend (MCL-35 g) or by sprinkling as a food supplement (MS-5 g) on infant's usual foods...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533759/changes-in-the-relative-balance-of-approach-and-avoidance-inclinations-to-use-alcohol-following-cue-exposure-vary-in-low-and-high-risk-drinkers
#4
Ross C Hollett, Werner G K Stritzke, Phoebe Edgeworth, Michael Weinborn
According to the ambivalence model of craving, alcohol craving involves the dynamic interplay of separate approach and avoidance inclinations. Cue-elicited increases in approach inclinations are posited to be more likely to result in alcohol consumption and risky drinking behaviors only if unimpeded by restraint inclinations. Current study aims were (1) to test if changes in the net balance between approach and avoidance inclinations following alcohol cue exposure differentiate between low and high risk drinkers, and (2) if this balance is associated with alcohol consumption on a subsequent taste test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532266/soft-chewable-gelatin-based-pharmaceutical-oral-formulations-a-technical-approach
#5
Morten J Dille, Magnus N Hattrem, Kurt I Draget
OBJECTIVE: Hard tablets and capsules for oral drug delivery cause problems for people experiencing dysphagia. The present work describes the formulation and properties of a gelatin based, self-preserved and soft chewable tablet as an alternative and novel drug delivery format. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gelatin (8.8-10% in 24.7-29% water) constituted the matrix of the soft, semi-solid tablets. Three different pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen 10%, Acetaminophen 15%, Meloxicam 1...
May 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532197/differential-effects-of-approach-bias-and-eating-style-on-unhealthy-food-consumption-in-overweight-and-normal-weight-women
#6
Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the effects of approach bias for unhealthy food and trait eating style on consumption of unhealthy food in overweight and normal weight individuals. METHOD: Participants were 245 undergraduate women aged 17 - 26 years. They completed an Approach-Avoidance Task, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, emotional, and external eating), and a taste test to measure consumption of unhealthy food. RESULTS: An external eating style predicted increased consumption of unhealthy food...
May 22, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527952/community-gardening-in-poor-neighborhoods-in-france-a-way-to-re-think-food-practices
#7
Pauline Martin, Jean-Noël Consalès, Pascale Scheromm, Paul Marchand, Florence Ghestem, Nicole Darmon
Social inequalities in diet are attributed to sociocultural determinants, economic constraints, and unequal access to healthy food. Fruits and vegetables are lacking in the diets of disadvantaged populations. The objective was to test the hypothesis that, in poor neighborhoods, community gardeners will have larger supply of healthy food, especially fruit and vegetables, than non-gardeners. We examined community gardens from the perspective of production, economics and nutrition, and social and symbolic dimensions, through multidisciplinary investigations involving women with access to a community garden plot in a poor neighborhood of Marseille, France...
May 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525714/characterization-of-bitter-compounds-via-modulation-of-proton-secretion-in-human-gastric-parietal-cells-in-culture
#8
Kathrin I Liszt, Joachim Hans, Jakob P Ley, Elke Köck, Veronika Somoza
Humans perceive bitterness via around 25 different bitter receptors. Therefore, the identification of antagonists remains a complex challenge. We previously demonstrated several bitter tasting compounds such as caffeine to induce acid secretion in the stomach and in a human gastric tumor cell line (HGT-1). Here, the results of a fluorescent-based in vitro assay using HGT-1 cells and a human sensory panel testing nine selected potential bitter modulators with or without the bitter compounds caffeine or theobromine, were compared...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522094/continuous-positive-air-pressure-improves-orthonasal-olfactory-function-of-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#9
Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Werner Cassel, Luisa Mittendorf, Robert Pellegrino, Ulrich Koehler, Christian Güldner, Philipp Otto Georg Dworschak, Olaf Hildebrandt, Hanna Daniel, Thomas Günzel, Afshin Teymoortash, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) might be affected by olfactory impairment. However, more evidence is needed on the effect that OSA has on the chemical senses (olfaction and gustatory) of these patients, and whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment might help to reverse possible impairment. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 44 OSA patients (17 female and 27 male, mean age 54 ± 9...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521730/perceptions-of-problem-drinker-patients-family-members-about-their-own-hazardous-drinking-behaviours-in-chinese-general-hospitals-a-qualitative-study
#10
Chen-Chun Lin, Yun-Fang Tsai, Wen-Ling Yeh, Jung-Ta Kao, Ching-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use has been associated with health, social and legal problems. Alcohol-related problems have been studied primarily in problem-drinker patients, with few studies on their family members, particularly about their own hazardous or harmful alcohol-drinking behaviours. METHOD: In this qualitative descriptive study, participants were recruited from three hospitals randomly selected from northern and central Taiwan (2:1). Hazardous-drinker patients and their family members were screened using the Chinese version Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (scores ≥8 indicate harmful or hazardous drinkers)...
May 18, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513784/chlorhexidine-with-or-without-alcohol-against-biofilm-formation-efficacy-adverse-events-and-taste-preference
#11
Gabriela Otero Dos Santos, Fernanda Carpes Milanesi, Bruna Frizon Greggianin, Marilene Issa Fernandes, Rui Vicente Oppermann, Patricia Weidlich
In recent years, different chlorhexidine formulations have been tested, including an alcohol-free alternative, but the effect of this solution on early biofilm formation is not clear. A crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two chlorhexidine solutions against supra- and subgingival biofilm formation (NCT#02656251). Thirty-five participants were randomized and asked to rinse twice daily with 15 ml of an alcohol-containing 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, an alcohol-free 0...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511547/smell-and-taste-impairment-after-total-laryngectomy
#12
Giuseppe Riva, Matteo Sensini, Andrea Corvino, Giancarlo Pecorari, Massimiliano Garzaro
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this observational study is the evaluation of olfactory and gustatory impairments in laryngectomized long-term survivors compared to control subjects. Correlation between smell and taste alterations, age, and previous adjuvant treatments in laryngectomees was investigated. METHODS: Fifty control subjects and 50 patients who underwent total laryngectomy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma were evaluated. All subjects underwent symptoms evaluation, oropharyngeal exam, endoscopic fiberoptic nasal examination, and Taste Strips and Sniffin' Sticks tests...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508275/gross-olfaction-before-and-after-laparoscopic-gastric-bypass
#13
Carlos Zerrweck, Vannia Castañeda Gallardo, Carmen Calleja, Elisa Sepúlveda, Lizbeth Guilber
BACKGROUND: Obesity leads to olfaction alterations, and this can further impact food choices, appetite, and nutritional status. Bariatric procedures induce weight loss and change in taste and smell perception, but more information is needed, especially using objective olfaction tests. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted during 6 months, with candidates to laparoscopic gastric bypass at a single institution. A preoperative nasofibroscopy and gross smell identification test (The Pocket Smell Test ®) were performed in those meeting the inclusion criteria...
May 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506924/olfactory-and-gustatory-functions-in-bipolar-disorders-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Francois Kazour, Sami Richa, Thomas Desmidt, Mathieu Lemaire, Boriana Atanasova, Wissam Elhage
Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in Bipolar Disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT and Sniffin' Sticks were the most used tests to evaluate smell. Some studies on olfaction described dysfunction in smell identification as potential markers for Bipolar disorders...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502831/a-12-week-randomized-clinical-trial-investigating-the-potential-for-sucralose-to-affect-glucose-homeostasis
#15
V Lee Grotz, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Daniel Porte, Ashley Roberts, J Richard Trout
The discovery of gut sweet taste receptors has led to speculations that non-nutritive sweeteners, including sucralose, may affect glucose control. A double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial, reported here and previously submitted to regulatory agencies, helps to clarify the role of sucralose in this regard. This was primarily an out-patient study, with 4-week screening, 12-week test, and 4-week follow-up phases. Normoglycemic male volunteers (47) consumed ∼333.3 mg encapsulated sucralose or placebo 3x/day at mealtimes...
May 11, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502660/beauty-requires-thought
#16
Aenne A Brielmann, Denis G Pelli
The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500692/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-fat-sugar-and-umami-taste-preference-and-food-intake-and-body-weight-regulation
#17
Simonetta Camandola, Mark P Mattson
OBJECTIVE: Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. METHODS: Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium...
May 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499978/salt-taste-recognition-in-a-heart-failure-cohort
#18
Laura P Cohen, Scott L Hummel, Mathew S Maurer, Sara López-Pintado, Jeffrey D Wessler
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) disproportionately afflicts older adults. Dietary sodium indiscretion is frequently implicated in HF decompensation. The affinity for and ability to taste salt in this process is unexplored. We sought to evaluate differences in salt taste by age and HF diagnosis and to map changes following hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). METHODS: Seventy-two subjects underwent initial salt-taste testing during hospitalization for ADHF...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496992/flavored-little-cigar-smoke-induces-cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis-in-airway-epithelia
#19
Arunava Ghosh, Rachel C Nethery, Amy H Herring, Robert Tarran
Addition of flavors reduces the harsh taste of tobacco, facilitating the initiation and maintenance of addiction among youths. Flavored cigarettes (except menthol) are now banned. However, the legislation on little cigars remains unclear and flavored little cigars are currently available for purchase. Since inhaled tobacco smoke directly exerts toxic effects on the lungs, we tested whether non-flavored and flavored little cigar smoke exposure had the potential for harm in cultured pulmonary epithelia. We cultured Calu-3 lung epithelia on both 96-well plates and at the air-liquid interface and exposed them to smoke from non-flavored Swisher Sweets and flavored (sweet cherry, grape, menthol, peach and strawberry) Swisher Sweets little cigars...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495272/pannexins-in-vision-hearing-olfaction-and-taste
#20
REVIEW
Paige Whyte-Fagundes, Ryan Siu, Cherie Brown, Georg Zoidl
In mammals, the pannexin gene family consists of three members (Panx1, 2, 3), which represent a class of integral membrane channel proteins sharing some structural features with chordate gap junction proteins, the connexins. Since their discovery in the early 21st century, pannexin expression has been detected throughout the vertebrate body including eye, ear, nose and tongue, making the investigation of the roles of this new class of channel protein in health and disease very appealing. The localization in sensory organs, coupled with unique channel properties and associations with major signaling pathways make Panx1, and its relative's, significant contributors for fundamental functions in sensory perception...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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