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Lamiaa Mobarak, Dalia Omran, Mohammed M Nabeel, Zeinab Zakaria
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: It is well known that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops as a consequence of hepatic fibrosis progression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inflammatory and fibrosis markers as predictors for HCC development among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) related chronic liver disease to help in early diagnosis and management of HCC. METHODS: A total of 280 patients with chronic liver disease were included in this retrospective study, out of them 140 had liver cirrhosis with HCC and 140 had cirrhosis without HCC...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Itsuko Tsukimura, Hideki Murakami, Makoto Sasaki, Hirooki Endo, Daisuke Yamabe, Ryosuke Oikawa, Minoru Doita
The safety of metallic spinal implants in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed using ultrahigh fields has not been established. Hence, we examined whether the displacement forces caused by a static magnetic field and the heating induced by radiofrequency radiation are substantial for spinal implants in a 7 T field. We investigated spinal rods of various lengths and materials, a screw, and a cross-linking bridge in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines. The displacement forces of the metallic implants in static 7 T and 3 T static magnetic fields were measured and compared...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
John Stogner, Julia A Martinez, Bryan Lee Miller, Kenneth J Sher
BACKGROUND: Underage college students who obtain and use false identification (fake ID) are at risk for negative outcomes. However, it is currently unclear how uniquely the fake ID itself serves as a vehicle to subsequent harm (i.e., the "fake ID effect") over and above general and trait-related risk factors (e.g., deviant peers, low self-control). METHODS: To investigate whether the "fake ID effect" would hold after accounting for phenotypic risk, we utilized propensity score matching (PSM) in a cross-sectional sample of 1,454 students, and a longitudinal replication sample of 3,720 undergraduates...
October 21, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Seong Hee Kang, Keunhee Kang, Jong Eun Yeon, Young Sun Lee, Tae Suk Kim, Yang Jae Yoo, Sang Jun Suh, Eileen L Yoon, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Kwan Soo Byun
BACKGROUND & AIM: Although the ideal end point for antiviral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is loss of HBsAg, the typical clinical end points are HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive patients and long-term DNA suppression in HBeAg-negative patients. We evaluated the long-term antiviral response after cessation of lamivudine treatment in CHB patients. METHODS: A total of 157 patients who had discontinued lamivudine between 1997 and 2014 were enrolled (97 HBeAg-positive and 60 HBeAg-negative CHB patients)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Xiaodan Yu, Hiroko Kawakami, Naoyuki Tahara, Merissa Olmer, Shinichi Hayashi, Ryutaro Akiyama, Anindya Bagchi, Martin Lotz, Yasuhiko Kawakami
Increasing evidence supports the idea that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate cartilage maintenance in the adult skeleton. The aim of this study is to obtain insight into the regulation of BMP activities in the adult skeletal system. We analyzed expression of Noggin and Gremlin1, BMP antagonists that are known to regulate embryonic skeletal development, in the adult skeletal system by Noggin-LacZ and Gremlin1-LacZ knockin reporter mouse lines. Both reporters are expressed in the adult skeleton in a largely overlapping manner with some distinct patterns...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Hongfang Zhang, Conghua Xie, Jing Yue, Zhenzhen Jiang, Rongjing Zhou, Ruifei Xie, Yan Wang, Shixiu Wu
Previous studies on the mechanisms underlying ESCC (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma) chemoresistance only focused on tumor cells while tumor microenvironment has been completely ignored. Our study aimed to clarify the effect of CAFs (cancer-associated fibroblasts), one major component of tumor microenvironment, on the chemoresistance of ESCC. By primary culture, two pairs of CAFs and matched NFs (normal fibroblasts) were isolated from tumor tissues of ESCC patients and matched normal esophageal epithelial tissues, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Douglas B Sponsler, Reed M Johnson
The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. We submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: (1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees and (2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Rola Farah, Mark DiFrancesco, Jennifer Vannest
Story listening in children relies on brain regions supporting speech perception, auditory word recognition, syntax, semantics, and discourse abilities, along with the ability to attend and process information (part of executive functions). Speed-of-processing is an early-developed executive function. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the relationship between story listening and speed-of-processing in preschool-age children. Eighteen participants performed story-listening tasks during MRI scans...
October 21, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Sahin Erdol, Mehmet Ture, Birol Baytan, Tahsin Yakut, Halil Saglam
There are published reports stating that some of the congenital metabolic diseases, such as lysinuric protein intolerance, multiple sulphatase deficiency, galactosemia, Gaucher disease, Pearson syndrome, and galactosialidosis, might lead to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, to date, to our knowledge, the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency has never been investigated among patients with HLH. Here, we report on a patient who was referred to our institution for a differential diagnosis of pancytopenia, liver failure, and rhabdomyolysis...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Vincent K Dik, Ignace T C Hooge, Martijn G H van Oijen, Peter D Siersema
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Considerable variation in adenoma detection has been shown between endoscopists, which may be explained by differences in colon inspection. Eye-tracking technology is an objective tool that detects differences in viewing patterns. We investigated the feasibility of eye-tracking technology during real-time, self-performed colonoscopies. METHODS: In this pilot study, 10 endoscopists performed two colonoscopies each. A mobile eye-tracking system to register the right eye position was used to determine the gaze across four areas of interest of the endoscopy monitor (upper, lower, left, and right quadrant)...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Roberta E Rossi, Tara Whyand, Charles D Murray, Mark I Hamilton, Dario Conte, Martyn E Caplin
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic immune disorders of unclear aetiology. Dietary deficiencies may be a potential pathogenic factor in their development. Patients often take food supplements without knowledge of any evidence base. We have therefore assessed the evidence for food supplementation in the management of IBD. A PubMed search was performed for the terms Inflammatory bowel disease; nutritional deficiencies; dietary supplements; curcumin; green tea; vitamin D/other vitamins; folic acid; iron; zinc; probiotics; andrographis paniculata; and boswellia serrate...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Devin Ganesh, Ben Service, Brian Zirgibel, Kenneth Koval
OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of the dorsal tangential view (DTV) in detecting intraoperative dorsal screw penetration in distal radius fractures treated with volar locked plating. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Skeletally mature patients where open reduction internal fixation with volar locked plating was the definitive treatment. A total of twenty-six patients were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Julia M Fraile, Diana Campos-Iglesias, Francisco Rodríguez, Yaiza Español, José M P Freije
Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases (USPs) are deubiquitinating enzymes frequently deregulated in human malignancies. Here, we show that USP54 is overexpressed in intestinal stem cells and demonstrate that its downregulation in colorectal carcinoma cells impedes tumorigenesis. We have generated mutant mice deficient for this deubiquitinase, which are viable and fertile, and protected against chemically-induced colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, we show that USP54 is upregulated in human colon cancer and associates with poor prognosis...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Kathrin Fielitz, Kristina Althoff, Katleen De Preter, Julie Nonnekens, Jasmin Ohli, Sandra Elges, Wolfgang Hartmann, Günter Klöppel, Thomas Knösel, Marc Schulte, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Daniela Beisser, Henning Reis, Annette Eyking, Elke Cario, Johannes H Schulte, Alexander Schramm, Ulrich Schüller
Amplification or overexpression of MYCN is involved in development and maintenance of multiple malignancies. A subset of these tumors originates from neural precursors, including the most aggressive forms of the childhood tumors, neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. In order to model the spectrum of MYCN-driven neoplasms in mice, we transgenically overexpressed MYCN under the control of the human GFAP-promoter that, among other targets, drives expression in neural progenitor cells. However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Yuxin Shu, Yan Lu, Xiaojuan Pang, Wei Zheng, Yahong Huang, Jiahong Li, Jianguo Ji, Can Zhang, Pingping Shen
Peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor γ (PPARγ), a transcription factor, is involved in many important biological processes, including cell terminal differentiation, survival and apoptosis. However, the role of PPARγ, which regulates tumour promoter and oncogene expression, is not well understood in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, based on evidence from clinical samples that phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser84 is up-regulated in human liver tumours, we confirmed that phosphorylation of PPARγ was also significantly increased in an HCC mouse model and was increased by Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/ Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) kinase...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Ziwei Tu, Qu Chen, Jie Ting Zhang, Xiaohua Jiang, Yunfei Xia, Hsiao Chang Chan
While there is an increasing interest in the correlation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and cancer incidence, the role of CFTR in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the prognostic value of CFTR in NPC patients. The expression of CFTR was determined in NPC cell lines and tissues. Statistical analysis was utilized to evaluate the correlation between CFTR expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in 225 cases of NPC patients...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Christina Gutierrez Bracamontes, Rebecca Lopez-Valdez, Ramadevi Subramani, Arunkumar Arumugam, Sushmita Nandy, Venkatesh Rajamanickam, Vignesh Ravichandran, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
Early parity reduces the risk of breast cancer in women while nulliparity and late parity increase the risk of breast cancer. In order to translate this protection to women where early pregnancy is not feasible, much work has focused on understanding how parity confers protection against breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs is still not well understood. Healthy parous and nulliparous women were recruited for this study. We assessed serum protein profiles of early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women using the Phospho Explorer antibody array...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Jingjing Yu, Yuling Huang, Lijuan Liu, Jing Wang, Jiye Yin, Lihua Huang, Shaojun Chen, Jingao Li, Hong Yuan, Guoping Yang, Wenyu Liu, Hai Wang, Qi Pei, Chengxian Guo
Radiotherapy (RT) is the normative therapeutic treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in Wnt/β-catenin pathway are correlated to the development, prognosis, and treatment benefit of various cancers. However, it has not been established whether SNPs of Wnt/β-catenin pathway are associated with nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis and the efficacy of RT in NPC patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the nine potentially functional SNPs of four genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and genotyped these in 188 NPC patients treated with RT...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Elizabeth E Hjort, Weiqi Huang, Liping Hu, Elizabeth A Eklund
Icsbp/Irf8 is an interferon regulatory transcription factor that functions as a suppressor of myeloid leukemias. Consistent with this activity, Icsbp represses a set of genes encoding proteins that promote cell proliferation/survival. One such gene encodes Gas2, a calpain inhibitor. We previously found that increased Gas2-expression in Bcr-abl+ cells stabilized βcatenin; a Calpain substrate. This was of interest, because βcatenin contributes to disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Calpain has additional substrates implicated in leukemogenesis, including Stat5...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
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