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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906645/more-than-cholesterol-catabolism-regulatory-vulnerabilities-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Amber C Bonds, Nicole S Sampson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the epitome of persistent. Mtb is the pathogen that causes tuberculosis, the leading cause of death by infection worldwide. The success of this pathogen is due in part to its clever ability to adapt to its host environment and its effective manipulation of the host immune system. A major contributing factor to the survival and virulence of Mtb is its acquisition and metabolism of host derived lipids including cholesterol. Accumulating evidence suggests that the catabolism of cholesterol during infection is highly regulated by cholesterol catabolites...
June 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906620/effects-of-food-availability-on-growth-performance-and-immune-related-gene-expression-of-juvenile-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#2
Seunghyung Lee, Young Mee Lee, Kyung-Hee Kim, Hyun Chul Kim, Choul-Ji Park, Jong-Won Park, Gyeong Eon Noh, Woo-Jin Kim, Hyung-Kyu Hwang
Unfavorable environmental conditions and inappropriate culture practices have increased the vulnerability of cultured fish to disease infection. Up to date many studies have aimed to determine a feeding regimen to maximize productivity; however, very little information on immune responses of cultured fish in response to underfeeding or overfeeding is available. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted to evaluate effects of graded feeding levels (i.e., food availability) on growth performance and immune-related gene expression of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906536/mahuang-decoction-mitigates-airway-inflammation-and-regulates-il-21-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-rat-asthma-model
#3
Yu He, Xiaohui Lou, Zhan Jin, Li Yu, Ling Deng, Haitong Wan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nowadays, bronchial asthma is still a severe disease threatening human health, and it is incumbent upon us to seek effective therapeutic drugs. Mahuang decoction (MHD), a classic famous Chinese prescription, has been used for thousands of years to prevent phlegm from forming, stop coughing and relieve asthma, but the relevant mechanism has not been thoroughly clarified. This study aims to investigate the anti-airway inflammation effect of MHD and the possible molecular mechanism underlying IL21/STAT3 signaling pathway, so as to provide guidance for the treatment of MHD on bronchial asthma...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906475/prediction-and-prevention-of-urban-arbovirus-epidemics-a-challenge-for-the-global-virology-community
#4
REVIEW
Scott C Weaver
The recent emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus in tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere took arbovirologists and public health officials by surprise, and the earlier transfers of West Nile and chikungunya viruses from the Old to the New World were also unexpected. These pandemics underscore the increasing threat of zoonotic arboviruses, especially those that are capable of entering into human-amplified, urban transmission cycles transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and sometimes other Aedes (Stegomyia) spp...
June 13, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906439/the-ongoing-shakeup-in-organelle-biology
#5
(no author information available yet)
With the complexities of organelle communication and their dynamics under intense investigation, what are the new principles that are emerging, and where is the field headed? Cell's Robert Kruger recently discussed these questions with Erika Holzbaur, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, and Ivan Dikic. Annotated excerpts from this conversation are presented below, and the full conversation is available with the article online.
June 14, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906407/crosstalk-between-the-immune-system-and-neural-pathways-in-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#6
Kevin Duh, Michael G Funaro, William DeGouveia, Sonia Bahlani, Dominic Pappas, Souhel Najjar, Inna Tabansky, Robert Moldwin, Joel N H Stern
Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition causing intense pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. While it is thought to affect millions of people and significantly impair quality of life, difficulty with diagnosis and a lack of reliably effective treatment options leave much progress to be made in managing this condition. We describe what is currently known about the immunological and neurological basis of this disease, focusing on the interactions between the immune and nervous system...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906298/synthesis-cox-1-2-inhibition-and-antioxidant-activities-of-new-oxicam-analogues-designed-as-potential-chemopreventive-agents
#7
Berenika Szczęśniak-Sięga, Katarzyna Gębczak, Tomasz Gębarowski, Jadwiga Maniewska
Oxicams (e.g. piroxicam, meloxicam) are widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A large body of evidence from epidemiological and preclinical studies has shown that NSAIDs have a chemopreventive effect on different types of cancer, especially in colorectal cancer. Moreover, mounting evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that persistent inflammation functions as a driving force in the journey to cancer. What is more, inflammation induces reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which cause damage to important cellular components (e...
June 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906284/multi-parametric-quantitative-mri-reveals-three-different-white-matter-subtypes
#8
Jack R Foucher, Olivier Mainberger, Julien Lamy, Mathieu D Santin, Alexandre Vignaud, Mathilde M Roser, Paulo L de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows slight spatial variations in brain white matter (WM). We used quantitative multi-parametric MRI to evaluate in what respect these inhomogeneities could correspond to WM subtypes with specific characteristics and spatial distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six controls (12 women, 38 ±9 Y) took part in a 60-min session on a 3T scanner measuring 7 parameters: R1 and R2, diffusion tensor imaging which allowed to measure Axial and Radial Diffusivity (AD, RD), magnetization transfer imaging which enabled to compute the Macromolecular Proton Fraction (MPF), and a susceptibility-weighted sequence which permitted to quantify R2* and magnetic susceptibility (χm)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906238/an-appreciation-of-the-science-and-philanthropy-of-sir-oliver-scott-founder-of-the-gray-cancer-institute
#9
Barry Danby Michael
This Commentary focuses on the landmark paper about hypoxia in radiotherapy by Gray, Scott et al published in 1953. By then, it was known that hypoxic regions in tumours could make them resistant to radiation treatment and that this was a possible cause of failure. The paper proposed that oxygen breathing could substantially decrease this resistance without incurring significant additional damage to normal tissues, thus reducing the likelihood of recurrence. Although the paper's supporting data were in some respects incomplete, the case it made was convincing and it prompted pilot clinical trials that combined radiotherapy with oxygen breathing, including under elevated pressure...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905988/a-multisite-evaluation-of-readiness-to-transition-to-newly-qualified-nurse-in-a-cohort-of-children-s-nursing-students
#10
Elizabeth Crighton, David Anderson, Deborah Martin, Brian Richardson, Rachel M Taylor
BACKGROUND: The post-qualifying and preceptorship period in nursing has been well-researched, however, there is limited evidence about the immediate period before qualifying. AIM: To explore the experiences of role transition of London-based final placement (FP) children's nursing students and to identify what support is required for future cohorts of students. METHOD: Four London universities circulated an online questionnaire to FP students...
June 15, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905918/ocular-symptoms-and-signs-of-chikungunya-fever-in-puerto-rico
#11
Jan P Ulloa-Padilla, Pedro J Dávila, Natalio J Izquierdo, Omar García-Rodríguez, Ivonne Z Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: To determine what ocular symptoms and signs are most common and if there are any associations with comorbid conditions in patients with Chikungunya fever. METHODS: A retrospective data review and analysis of the ocular symptomatology of 139 patients with Chikungunya fever who visited a local emergency room from August through September 2014. Frequencies were calculated, and Pearson's chisquare test employed. All the patients were confirmed as having Chikungunya with IgM (ELISA) before admittance into the study...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905915/network-research-experiences-in-new-york-and-eastern-europe-lessons-for-the-southern-us-in-understanding-hiv-transmission-dynamics
#12
REVIEW
Samuel R Friedman, Leslie Williams, April M Young, Jennifer Teubl, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Evangelia Kostaki, Carl Latkin, Danielle German, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Honoria Guarino, Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Britt Skaathun, John Schneider, Ania Korobchuk, Pavlo Smyrnov, Georgios Nikolopoulos
PURPOSE: This paper presents an overview of different kinds of risk and social network methods and the kinds of research questions each can address. RECENT FINDINGS: It also reviews what network research has discovered about how network characteristics are associated with HIV and other infections, risk behaviors, preventive behaviors, and care, and discusses some ways in which network-based public health interventions have been conducted. Based on this, risk and social network research and interventions seem both feasible and valuable for addressing the many public health and social problems raised by the widespread use of opioids in the US South...
June 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905774/j-curves-in-hypertension-what-do-they-tell-us-about-treatment-of-high-blood-pressure
#13
Johann Auer, James E Sharman, Thomas Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905726/exceptional-points-and-photonic-catastrophe
#14
S Longhi
Exceptional points (EPs) with a global collapse of pairs of eigenfunctions are shown to arise in two locally coupled and spatially extended optical structures with balanced gain and loss. The global collapse at the EP deeply changes light propagation, which becomes very sensitive to small changes of initial conditions or system parameters, similar to what happens in models of classical or quantum catastrophes. The implications of global collapse for light behavior are illustrated by considering discrete beam diffraction and Bloch oscillation catastrophe in coupled waveguide lattices...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905523/self-referrals-versus-physician-referrals-what-new-patient-visit-yields-an-actual-surgical-case
#15
Eric Z Herring, Matthew R Peck, Caroline E Vonck, Gabriel A Smith, Thomas E Mroz, Michael P Steinmetz
OBJECTIVE Spine surgeons in the United States continue to be overwhelmed by an aging population, and patients are waiting weeks to months for appointments. With a finite number of clinic visits per surgeon, analysis of referral sources needs to be explored. In this study, the authors evaluated patient referrals and their yield for surgical volume at a tertiary care center. METHODS This is a retrospective study of new patient visits by the spine surgery group at the Cleveland Clinic Center for Spine Health from 2011 to 2016...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905494/prescribed-physical-activity-maintenance-following-exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-factors-predicting-low-physical-activity
#16
Viveka Dagner, Eva K Clausson, Liselotte Jakobsson
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is important to reduce mortality, morbidity and risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. This report evaluates to what extent patients are still physically active following an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programme 12-14 months post-myocardial infarction and factors predicting why not. METHODS: Data from the National Quality Registry Swedeheart with post-myocardial infarction patients ( n=368) admitted from July 2012 to November 2014 were collected with outcomes of physical activity after 12-14 months...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905371/a-rare-cause-of-ventricular-fibrillation-after-atrioventricular-node-ablation-what-is-the-mechanism
#17
Predrag Stojadinović, Petr Peichl, Dan Wichterle, Josef Kautzner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905149/group-ii-intron-inhibits-conjugative-relaxase-expression-in-bacteria-by-mrna-targeting
#18
Guosheng Qu, Carol Lyn Piazza, Dorie Smith, Marlene Belfort
Group II introns are mobile ribozymes that are rare in bacterial genomes, often cohabiting with various mobile elements, and seldom interrupting housekeeping genes. What accounts for this distribution has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Ll.LtrB, the group II intron residing in a relaxase gene on a conjugative plasmid from Lactococcus lactis , inhibits its host gene expression and restrains the naturally cohabiting mobile element from conjugative horizontal transfer. We show that reduction in gene expression is mainly at the mRNA level, and results from the interaction between exon-binding sequences (EBSs) in the intron and intron-binding sequences (IBSs) in the mRNA...
June 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905144/mentoring-needs-of-distributed-medical-education-faculty-at-a-canadian-medical-school-a-mixed-methods-descriptive-study
#19
Rohin J Krishnan, Lavanya Uruthiramoorthy, Noor Jawaid, Margaret Steele, Douglas L Jones
INTRODUCTION: The Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry in London, Ontario, has a mentorship program for all full-time faculty. The school would like to expand its outreach to physician faculty located in distributed medical education sites. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, mentorship distributed physician faculty currently have, to gauge their interest in expanding the mentorship program to distributed physician faculty and to determine their vision of the most appropriate design of a mentorship program that would address their needs...
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905132/should-cosmetic-outcome-influence-discussions-about-goals-of-care-for-severely-burned-patients
#20
Yuk Ming Liu, Kathleen Skipton Romanowski
We focus on surrogate decision making and, specifically, the topic of cosmetic outcomes following burn injury in a case in which potential surrogates dispute what the patient would have wanted. In particular, we examine the choice and role of surrogate decision makers in light of ethical principles that guide surrogate decision making. We also examine whether and when cosmesis should enter into goals of care discussions and consider potential roles cosmetic outcomes could play in such discussions. Finally, we discuss how caregivers should respond when surrogate decision makers suggest cosmetic results as a reason for withdrawing care...
June 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
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