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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677689/neural-and-behavioral-changes-after-the-use-of-hearing-aids
#1
Hanin Karawani, Kimberly A Jenkins, Samira Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) can restore some loss of the auditory function with the use of hearing aids (HAs). However, what remains unknown are the physiological mechanisms that underlie how the brain changes with exposure to amplified sounds though the use of HAs. We aimed to examine behavioral and physiological changes induced by HAs. METHODS: Thirty-five older-adults with moderate ARHL with no history of hearing aid use were fit with HAs tested in aided and unaided conditions, and divided into experimental and control groups...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677593/lucky-or-clever-from-expectations-to-responsibility-judgments
#2
Tobias Gerstenberg, Tomer D Ullman, Jonas Nagel, Max Kleiman-Weiner, David A Lagnado, Joshua B Tenenbaum
How do people hold others responsible for the consequences of their actions? We propose a computational model that attributes responsibility as a function of what the observed action reveals about the person, and the causal role that the person's action played in bringing about the outcome. The model first infers what type of person someone is from having observed their action. It then compares a prior expectation of how a person would behave with a posterior expectation after having observed the person's action...
April 17, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677508/beyond-the-transport-function-of-import-receptors-what-s-all-the-fus-about
#3
REVIEW
Sofya Mikhaleva, Edward A Lemke
Nuclear import receptors are central players in transporting protein cargoes into the nucleus. Moving beyond this role, four newly published articles describe a function in regulating supramolecular assemblies by fine-tuning the phase separating properties of RNA-binding proteins, which has implications for a variety of devastating neurodegenerative disorders.
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677478/unfinished-business-evolution-of-the-mhc-and-the-adaptive-immune-system-of-jawed-vertebrates
#4
Jim Kaufman
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genetic region with many genes, including the highly polymorphic classical class I and II genes that play crucial roles in adaptive as well as innate immune responses. The organization of the MHC varies enormously among jawed vertebrates, but class I and II genes have not been found in other animals. How did the MHC arise, and are there underlying principles that can help us to understand the evolution of the MHC? This review considers what it means to be an MHC and the potential importance of genome-wide duplication, gene linkage, and gene coevolution for the emergence and evolution of an adaptive immune system...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677451/treatment-features-associated-with-youth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-follow-up-effects-for-internalizing-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#5
Michael Sun, Leslie R Rith-Najarian, Timothy J Williamson, Bruce F Chorpita
Our aim was to investigate whether four treatment features (i.e., the inclusion of parental involvement, goal-setting strategies, maintenance/relapse prevention sessions, the addition of booster sessions) were associated with posttreatment and follow-up effect size of youth cognitive behavioral therapies (yCBTs) for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder in age groups spanning young children to adolescents. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of 106 yCBTs tested in 76 randomized clinical trials from the PracticeWise Database to examine average effects of yCBTs posttreatment and at a later follow-up assessment...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677348/the-relationship-of-lid-wiper-epitheliopathy-to-ocular-surface-signs-and-symptoms
#6
Wing Li, Thao N Yeh, Tiana Leung, Tiffany Yuen, Mariel Lerma, Meng C Lin
Purpose: There has been interest in determining whether lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) plays a key role in causing ocular discomfort. Conflicting reports have made it difficult to discern whether LWE is more prevalent in certain populations, what characteristics are associated with its severity, and what its role is in symptomology. This cross-sectional study on a large and diverse population attempts to answer these questions. Methods: Subjects were asked to complete questionnaires related to dry eye and to ocular discomfort...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677327/visual-crowding-is-unaffected-by-adaptation-induced-spatial-compression
#7
Alison Chambers, Alan Johnston, Neil W Roach
It has recently been shown that adapting to a densely textured stimulus alters the perception of visual space, such that the distance between two points subsequently presented in the adapted region appears reduced (Hisakata, Nishida, & Johnston, 2016). We asked whether this form of adaptation-induced spatial compression alters visual crowding. To address this question, we first adapted observers to a dynamic dot texture presented within an annular region surrounding the test location. Following adaptation, observers perceived a test array comprised of multiple oriented dot dipoles as spatially compressed, resulting in an overall reduction in perceived size...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677216/plasma-metabolomic-biomarkers-accurately-classify-acute-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-from-controls
#8
Massimo S Fiandaca, Mark Mapstone, Amin Mahmoodi, Thomas Gross, Fabio Macciardi, Amrita K Cheema, Kian Merchant-Borna, Jeffrey Bazarian, Howard J Federoff
Past and recent attempts at devising objective biomarkers for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid have focused on abundance measures of time-dependent proteins. Similar independent determinants would be most welcome in diagnosing the most common form of TBI, mild TBI (mTBI), which remains difficult to define and confirm based solely on clinical criteria. There are currently no consensus diagnostic measures that objectively define individuals as having sustained an acute mTBI. Plasma metabolomic analyses have recently evolved to offer an alternative to proteomic analyses, offering an orthogonal diagnostic measure to what is currently available...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677190/a-haplotype-of-three-snps-in-fto-had-a-strong-association-with-body-composition-and-bmi-in-iranian-male-adolescents
#9
Naser Kalantari, Nastaran Keshavarz Mohammadi, Pantea Izadi, Saeid Doaei, Maryam Gholamalizadeh, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Tuire Salonurmi, Shahram Rafieifar, Reza Janipoor, Ghasem Azizi Tabesh
BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are located in the first intron of the FTO gene, are reported to be associated with body weight and the body mass index (BMI). However, their effects on anthropometric measurements in adolescents are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association of three adjacent polymorphisms (rs9930506, rs9930501, & rs9932754) in the FTO gene with anthropometric indices in Iranian adolescent males...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677173/what-does-this-mutation-mean-the-tools-and-pitfalls-of-variant-interpretation-in-lymphoid-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Guillermin Yann, Lopez Jonathan, Chabane Kaddour, Hayette Sandrine, Bardel Claire, Salles Gilles, Sujobert Pierre, Huet Sarah
High throughput sequencing (HTS) is increasingly important in determining cancer diagnoses, with subsequent prognostic and therapeutic implications. The biology of cancer is becoming increasingly deciphered and it is clear that therapy needs to be individually tailored. Whilst translational research plays an important role in lymphoid malignancies, few guidelines exist to guide biologists and routine laboratories through this constantly evolving field. In this article, we review the challenges of interpreting HTS in lymphoid malignancies and provide a toolkit to interpret single nucleotide variants obtained from HTS...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677164/the-mediating-role-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-the-prospective-association-between-overall-dietary-quality-and-healthy-aging
#11
Karen E Assmann, Indunil Ruhunuhewa, Moufidath Adjibade, Zhen Li, Raphaëlle Varraso, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to quantify to what extent the association between adherence to the French nutritional recommendations at midlife, measured by the Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), and healthy aging (HA) is mediated by body mass index (BMI) status. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2249 participants of the French 'Supplementation with Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants' (SU.VI.MAX-'SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants') cohort...
April 20, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677118/research-priorities-in-suicide-prevention-review-of-australian-research-from-2010%C3%A2-2017-highlights-continued-need-for-intervention-research
#12
Lennart Reifels, Maria Ftanou, Karolina Krysinska, Anna Machlin, Jo Robinson, Jane Pirkis
Suicide is a major public health concern in Australia and globally, requiring targeted research efforts to build the evidence base for its effective prevention. We examined current and future priorities in Australian suicide prevention research during the period 2010⁻2017, and compared these to 1999⁻2006 baseline data. We classified current research priorities in terms of the type of research published in 424 journal articles and 36 grants and fellowships funded during 2010⁻2017. A questionnaire administered to 390 stakeholders identified future research priorities...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677066/agreement-analysis-what-he-said-she-said-versus-you-said
#13
Thomas R Vetter, Patrick Schober
Correlation and agreement are 2 concepts that are widely applied in the medical literature and clinical practice to assess for the presence and strength of an association. However, because correlation and agreement are conceptually distinct, they require the use of different statistics. Agreement is a concept that is closely related to but fundamentally different from and often confused with correlation. The idea of agreement refers to the notion of reproducibility of clinical evaluations or biomedical measurements...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676891/the-pyroelectric-effect-enables-simple-and-rapid-evaluation-of-biofilm-formation
#14
Oriella Gennari, Valentina Marchesano, Romina Rega, Laura Mecozzi, Filomena Nazzaro, Florinda Fratianni, Raffaele Coppola, Luca Masucci, Emanuela Mazzon, Alessia Bramanti, Pietro Ferraro, Simonetta Grilli
Biofilms are detrimental to human life and industrial processes due to potential infections, contaminations and deterioration. Therefore, the evaluation of microbial capability to form biofilms is of fundamental importance for assessing how different environmental factors may affect their vitality. Nowadays, the approaches used for biofilm evaluation are still poor in reliability and rapidity and often provide contradictory results. Here we present what we call Biofilm Electrostatic Test (BET) as a simple, rapid and high reproducible tool for evaluating in vitro the ability of bacteria to form biofilms through the electrostatic interaction with a pyro-electrified carrier...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676823/wide-qrs-tachycardia-with-right-bundle-branch-block-qrs-morphology-that-is-almost-identical-to-that-during-sinus-rhythm-what-is-the-mechanism
#15
Yasushi Wakabayashi, Takekuni Hayashi, Yoshitaka Sugawara, Takeshi Mitsuhashi, Hideo Fujita, Shin-Ichi Momomura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676687/christopher-hitchens-public-dying-toward-a-secular-humanist-ars-moriendi
#16
Michael Brennan
This article explores the public dying of journalist, writer, provocateur, public intellectual, and renowned atheist, Christopher Hitchens. It does so primarily through an analysis of television interviews given by Hitchens following his diagnosis with esophageal cancer in June 2010. Four key themes are identified as emerging from analysis of the interviews: (a) Hitchens' explicit sense of mission in challenging myths and superstitions surrounding cancer, dying, and death; (b) the personal experience of terminal illness and dying and the particular way (or style of dying) by which it is approached; (c) issues of regret and a life well lived; and (d) questions surrounding religion, the afterlife, and possibility of deathbed conversion...
June 2018: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676644/air-pollution-exposure-with-fine-dust-responses-in-the-pulmonary-vasculature-and-the-right-heart
#17
Nedim Durmus, Gabriele Grunig
Detrimental effects of air pollution with fine dust (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, or PM2.5 ) on the systemic circulation and the left heart have been studied intensely during the past decade. In comparison, knowledge regarding the effects of exposure to air pollution with PM2.5 on the pulmonary vasculature and the right heart lags far behind. A report on severe lung disease and right heart failure in coal miners was published nearly 170 years ago. However, today, we still do not have a clear picture of how the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary circulation or the right heart should be viewed from a clinical, mechanistic biological, therapeutic, or economic angle...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676634/impact-of-seasonal-winter-air-pollution-on-health-across-the-lifespan-in-mongolia-and-some-putative-solutions
#18
David Warburton, Nicole Warburton, Clarence Wigfall, Ochir Chimedsuren, Delgerzul Lodoisamba, Sereeter Lodoysamba, Badarch Jargalsaikhan
Environmental pollution of the air, water, and soil comprise an increasingly urgent challenge to global health, well-being, and productivity. The impact of environmental pollution arguably has its greatest impact across the lifespan on children, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women and their unborn children, not only because of their vulnerability during development, but also because of their subsequent longevity. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is a highly instructive, perhaps extreme, example of what happens with recent, rapid urbanization...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676631/understanding-root-causes-of-asthma-perinatal-environmental-exposures-and-epigenetic-regulation
#19
Rachel L Miller, Jennifer Lawrence
A common explanation for the origins and rising prevalence of asthma is that they involve complex interactions between hereditary predispositions and environmental exposures that are incompletely understood. Yet, emerging evidence substantiates the paradigm that environmental exposures prenatally and during very early childhood induce epigenetic alterations that affect the expression of asthma genes and, thereby, asthma itself. Here, we review much of the key evidence supporting this paradigm. First, we describe evidence that the prenatal and early postnatal periods are key time windows of susceptibility to environmental exposures that may trigger asthma...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676630/international-approach-to-environmental-and-lung-health-a-perspective-from-the-fogarty-international-center
#20
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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