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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340323/a-key-to-the-backdoor-into-the-castle-the-clinical-ramifications-of-immunoediting-driven-by-antigenic-competition
#1
M G Hanna, Jason David Howard
Over the last decade the field of cancer biology has gained considerable data on genomic heterogeneity. This situation creates challenges and possibly opportunities for cancer treatment. The evolution of the tumor at all stages also requires the growing malignancy to confront and avoid the immune system. What we describe here is the interaction of two immune phenomena that work together to change the characteristics of the tumor, i.e., antigenic competition and immune editing. These two systems are mutually functional and their interaction is capable of altering the characteristics of the tumor for protection and survival in an immune competent host as well as restricting the diversity of the tumor clones...
March 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340245/unacceptable-human-leucocyte-antigens-for-organ-offers-in-the-era-of-organ-shortage-influence-on-waiting-time-before-kidney-transplantation
#2
Malte Ziemann, Nicole Heßler, Inke R König, Nils Lachmann, Andrea Dick, Vanessa Ditt, Klemens Budde, Petra Reinke, Ute Eisenberger, Barbara Suwelack, Thomas Klein, Timm H Westhoff, Wolfgang Arns, Katrin Ivens, Antje Habicht, Lutz Renders, Dirk Stippel, Dominik Bös, Florian Sommer, Siegfried Görg, Martin Nitschke, Thorsten Feldkamp, Falko M Heinemann, Reinhard Kelsch
Background.: The assignment of human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) against which antibodies are detected as unacceptable antigens (UAGs) avoids allocation of HLA- incompatible allografts. There is uncertainty as to what extent UAGs decrease the probability of receiving a kidney offer. Methods.: Kidney transplantations in 3264 patients on the waiting lists of six German transplant centres were evaluated for a period of at least 2 years. The proportion of excluded offers due to UAGs was calculated as virtual panel-reactive antibodies (vPRAs)...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340177/the-significance-of-internode-length-for-saltatory-conduction-looking-back-at-the-age-of-90
#3
Reinhard L Friede
The development of peripheral nerve fibers involves interdependence between the timing of Schwann cell recruitment during myelination and elongation of the nerve. This adjusts the number and the length of internodes to the length of the fiber. Saltatory conduction in longer nerves involves longer saltations; this makes internode length the factor that determines conduction velocity, thereby adjusting impulse transmission in circuits of different lengths. Myelination increases conduction velocity by means of saltatory conduction but what determines the saltatory conduction is not so much the indispensable insulating adjunct of myelin as the length of the internodes that separate the excitable membrane segments...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340149/individual-and-regional-determinants-for-physical-therapy-utilization-in-germany-multilevel-analysis-of-national-survey-data
#4
Alexander Rommel, Lars Eric Kroll
Background: Physical therapy (PT) is included in many clinical guidelines and a commonly used health service. However, access to its benefits should not strongly depend on social or demographic factors. Objective: The present study used the Andersen model to explain to what extent PT utilization in Germany depends on factors beyond medical need. Methods: The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS, 2008-2011; target population, 18-79 years) is part of the German health-monitoring system...
March 9, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340135/modeling-longitudinal-data-and-its-impact-on-survival-in-observational-nephrology-studies-tools-and-considerations
#5
Elani Streja, Leanne Goldstein, Melissa Soohoo, Yoshitsugu Obi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Connie M Rhee
Nephrologists and kidney disease researchers are often interested in monitoring how patients' clinical and laboratory measures change over time, what factors may impact these changes, and how these changes may lead to differences in morbidity, mortality, and other outcomes. When longitudinal data with repeated measures over time in the same patients are available, there are a number of analytical approaches that could be employed to describe the trends and changes in these measures, and to explore the associations of these changes with outcomes...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340114/the-pain-related-cognitive-processes-questionnaire-development-and-validation
#6
Melissa A Day, L Charles Ward, Beverly E Thorn, Cathryne P Lang, Toby R O Newton-John, Dawn M Ehde, Mark P Jensen
Objective.:  Cognitive processes may be characterized as how individuals think, whereas cognitive content constitutes what individuals think. Both cognitive processes and cognitive content are theorized to play important roles in chronic pain adjustment, and treatments have been developed to target both. However, the evaluation of treatments that target cognitive processes is limited because extant measures do not satisfactorily separate cognitive process from cognitive content. The current study aimed to develop a self-report inventory of potentially adaptive and presumed maladaptive attentional processes that may occur when someone is experiencing pain...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340053/does-the-regulatory-environment-for-e-cigarettes-influence-the-effectiveness-of-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-longitudinal-findings-from-the-itc-four-country-survey
#7
Hua-Hie Yong, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Shannon M L Gravely, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey T Fong
Introduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of ECs as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with NRT and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (i.e., Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (i...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340009/designing-an-optimal-screening-program-for-unknown-atrial-fibrillation-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#8
Mattias Aronsson, Emma Svennberg, Mårten Rosenqvist, Johan Engdahl, Faris Al-Khalili, Leif Friberg, Viveka Frykman, Lars-Åke Levin
Aims: The primary objective of this study was to use computer simulations to suggest an optimal age for initiation of screening for unknown atrial fibrillation and to evaluate if repeated screening will add value. Methods and results: In the absence of relevant clinical studies, this analysis was based on a simulation model. More than two billion different designs of screening programs for unknown atrial fibrillation were simulated and analysed. Data from the published scientific literature and registries were used to construct the model and estimate lifelong effects and costs...
March 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339986/the-national-association-of-social-workers-code-of-ethics-and-cultural-competence-what-does-anne-fadiman-s-the-spirit-catches-you-and-you-fall-down-teach-us-today
#9
Haylee Hebenstreit
This article discusses limitations in the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Code of Ethics conceptualization of "cultural competence." It uses the case example presented in Anne Fadiman's classic (2012) work, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures, to explore the conventional markers of cultural competence, as taught in contemporary graduate-level social work education curricula, and their implications for socially just practice...
March 4, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339966/operational-challenges-and-opportunities-in-pastured-poultry-operations-in-the-united-states
#10
C Elkhoraibi, M Pitesky, N Dailey, D Niemeier
As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339896/what-to-eat-or-what-not-to-eat-that-is-still-the-question
#11
László G Boros, T Que Collins, Gábor Somlyai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339826/the-importance-of-considering-competing-treatment-affecting-prognosis-in-the-evaluation-of-therapy-in-trials-the-example-of-renal-transplantation-in-hemodialysis-trials
#12
C Marijn Hazelbag, Sanne A E Peters, Peter J Blankestijn, Michiel L Bots, Bernard Canaud, Andrew Davenport, Muriel P C Grooteman, Fatih Kircelli, Francesco Locatelli, Francisco Maduell, Marion Morena, Menso J Nubé, Ercan Ok, Ferran Torres, Arno W Hoes, Rolf H H Groenwold
Background.: During the follow-up in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), participants may receive additional (non-randomly allocated) treatment that affects the outcome. Typically such additional treatment is not taken into account in evaluation of the results. Two pivotal trials of the effects of hemodiafiltration (HDF) versus hemodialysis (HD) on mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease reported differing results. We set out to evaluate to what extent methods to take other treatments (i...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339810/-what-to-eat-or-what-not-to-eat-that-is-still-the-question-reply
#13
Henk M De Feyter, Kevin L Behar, Robin A de Graaf, Douglas L Rothman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339744/determining-the-analytical-specificity-of-pcr-based-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-ia-what-is-aspergillus
#14
C Oliver Morton, P Lewis White, Rosemary A Barnes, Lena Klingspor, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Katrien Lagrou, Stéphane Bretagne, Willem Melchers, Carlo Mengoli, Angela M Caliendo, Massimo Cogliati, Yvette Debets-Ossenkopp, Rebecca Gorton, Ferry Hagen, Catriona Halliday, Petr Hamal, Kathleen Harvey-Wood, Katia Jaton, Gemma Johnson, Sarah Kidd, Martina Lengerova, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Chris Linton, Laurence Millon, C Orla Morrissey, Melinda Paholcsek, Alida Fe Talento, Markus Ruhnke, Birgit Willinger, J Peter Donnelly, Juergen Loeffler
A wide array of PCR tests has been developed to aid the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), providing technical diversity but limiting standardisation and acceptance. Methodological recommendations for testing blood samples using PCR exist, based on achieving optimal assay sensitivity to help exclude IA. Conversely, when testing more invasive samples (BAL, biopsy, CSF) emphasis is placed on confirming disease, so analytical specificity is paramount. This multicenter study examined the analytical specificity of PCR methods for detecting IA by blind testing a panel of DNA extracted from a various fungal species to explore the range of Aspergillus species that could be detected, but also potential cross reactivity with other fungal species...
October 7, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339655/what-should-we-do-when-a-small-pulmonary-embolus-is-diagnosed-unexpectedly
#15
J Thachil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339419/the-im-possibilities-of-returning-to-work-after-a-stroke
#16
Maria Norstedt
BACKGROUND: What a stroke means for working-age persons has not been sufficiently studied from a sociological perspective. OBJECTIVE: This article uses the empirical material of a larger study to describe and analyze how institutional practices and discourses influence attempts to return to work after a stroke. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten persons who have had a stroke and ten civil servants and professionals from the Swedish Public Employment Service, the Social Insurance Agency, and different health care institutions...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339393/postscription-what-lies-beneath-potentially-harmful-excipients-to-avoid-when-compounding-for-small-animals-a-note-of-caution
#17
Erika Rost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339386/the-lists-what-do-they-mean
#18
John Voliva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339337/-i-know-what-i-want-but-i-m-not-sure-how-to-get-it-expectations-of-physiotherapy-treatment-of-persons-with-persistent-pain
#19
Tommy Calner, Gunilla Isaksson, Peter Michaelson
Expectations of physiotherapy treatment of patients with persistent pain have been shown to influence treatment outcome and patient satisfaction, yet this is mostly explored and described in retrospective. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the expectations people with persistent pain have prior to physiotherapy treatment. Ten participants with persistent musculoskeletal pain from the back, neck, or shoulders were included in the study. Data were collected by interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and were analyzed with qualitative content analysis...
March 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339302/driver-trust-in-five-driver-assistance-technologies-following-real-world-use-in-four-production-vehicles
#20
David G Kidd, Jessica B Cicchino, Ian J Reagan, Laura B Kerfoot
OBJECTIVES: Information about drivers' experiences with driver assistance technologies in real driving conditions is sparse. This study characterized driver interactions with forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, active lane keeping, side-view assist, and lane departure warning systems following real-world use. METHODS: Fifty-four Insurance Institute for Highway Safety employees participated and drove a 2016 Toyota Prius, 2016 Honda Civic, 2017 Audi Q7, or 2016 Infiniti QX60 for up to several weeks...
March 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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