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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936497/pro-inflammatory-cytokine-ifn%C3%AE-and-microbiome-derived-metabolites-dictate-epigenetic-switch-between-foxp3-isoforms-in-celiac-disease-regulation-of-foxp3-isoforms-in-celiac-disease
#1
Gloria Serena, Shu Yan, Stephanie Camhi, Shilpi Patel, Rosiane S Lima, Anna Sapone, Maureen M Leonard, Rupa Mukherjee, Barbara J Nath, Karen M Lammers, Alessio Fasano
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by gluten and characterized by a strong Th1/Th17 immune response in the small intestine. Treg cells are CD4(+) CD25(++) FOXP3(+) cells that regulate the immune response. Conversely to its counterpart, FOXP3 full length (FL), the alternatively spliced isoform FOXP3 Δ2 cannot properly down-regulate Th17 driven immune response. Since the active state of CD has been associated with impairments in Treg cell function, we aimed at determining whether imbalances between FOXP3 isoforms may be associated with the disease...
December 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936414/-am-i-too-emotional-for-this-job-an-exploration-of-student-midwives-experiences-of-coping-with-traumatic-events-in-the-labour-ward
#2
Liz Coldridge, Sarah Davies
BACKGROUND: midwifery is emotionally challenging work, and learning to be a midwife brings its own particular challenges. For the student midwife, clinical placement in a hospital labour ward is especially demanding. In the context of organisational tensions and pressures the experience of supporting women through the unpredictable intensity of the labour process can be a significant source of stress for student midwives. Although increasing attention is now being paid to midwives' traumatic experiences and wellbeing few researchers have examined the traumatic experiences of student midwives...
November 28, 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936372/strategic-self-presentation-or-authentic-communication-predicting-adolescents-alcohol-references-on-social-media
#3
Femke Geusens, Kathleen Beullens
OBJECTIVE: The current study is one of the first to examine how self-reported alcohol consumption, friends' perceived alcohol consumption, and the perceived number of friends sharing alcohol references on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with adolescents' sharing of alcohol references on SNS. METHOD: A cross-sectional paper-and-pencil survey was administered among 3,172 adolescents (n = 3,133 used for analyses, mean age = 17.16 years, SD = 0.93; 50.7% male)...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936339/evaluation-of-a-short-home-blood-pressure-measurement-in-an-outpatient-population-of-hypertensives
#4
Silvia Di Monaco, Franco Rabbia, Michele Covella, Chiara Fulcheri, Elena Berra, Marco Pappaccogli, Elisa Perlo, Chiara Bertello, Franco Veglio
Current guidelines suggest the use of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) as a method complementary to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for the identification of arterial hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of a short HBPM schedule compared with ABPM, and to evaluate to what extent HBPM can replace ABPM. A total of 310 patients who performed ABPM in our hypertension clinic were enrolled between November 2011 and June 2015. They performed a 4-day HBPM schedule, with two readings in the morning and two readings at night...
December 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936334/overview-of-substance-use-and-mental-health-among-the-baby-boomers-generation
#5
Michelle Cleary, Jan Sayers, Marguerite Bramble, Debra Jackson, Violeta Lopez
As the population ages, risk factors commonly shared by chronic degenerative disease can be exacerbated by behaviours and lifestyle choices. There is increasing evidence that those affected by chronic disease (and associated symptoms such as pain), depression and adverse behavioural and lifestyle patterns are at risk of substance misuse. This paper overviews substance use in Baby Boomers, which are defined as people aged between 52-70 years old, and the implications this may have on their mental health and well-being...
December 9, 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936285/what-do-reactive-fragments-actually-do-in-cells
#6
Oliver Plettenburg
Covalently binding molecules are frequently regarded as being generally promiscuous. In a recent study, binding selectivities and cellular target proteins of a wide variety of reactive fragments are examined in a proteome-wide context.
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936281/interindividual-and-interethnic-variability-in-drug-disposition-mt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-polymorphisms-in-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-1b1-oatp1b1-slco1b1
#7
REVIEW
Hannah H Lee, Richard H Ho
OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) is predominantly expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and is critically important for the hepatic uptake and clearance of numerous drug substrates and endogenous compounds. In general, the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP; SLCO) represent a superfamily of uptake transporters that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a diverse range of amphipathic organic compounds including bile salts, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic peptides, numerous drugs and other xenobiotic substances...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936275/what-is-learned-when-learning-to-point-at-invisible-targets
#8
Derek H Arnold, Vivien Yuen
Binocular masking is a particularly interesting means of suppressing human visual awareness, as images rendered subjectively "invisible" via binocular masking nonetheless excite robust activity in human visual cortex. Recently, binocular masking has been leveraged to show that people can be trained to better interact with inputs that, subjectively, remain invisible. Here we ask what is learned in such circumstances. Do people become more adept at using weak encoded signals to guide hand movements, or is signal encoding enhanced, resulting in heightened objective sensitivity? To assess these possibilities, we had people train on five consecutive days, to reach toward and point at a target presented in one of three masked locations...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936254/-the-iconographic-archive-what-does-the-visual-culture-of-the-origins-of-french-psychiatry-in-the-early-nineteenth-century-reveal-to-us
#9
Ginette Jubinville
This article constructs a new history of the birth of psychiatry that of its visual culture, through the study of heretofore unpublished and neglected archives.The analysis of artworks commissioned by the first French psychiatrists at the beginning of the nineteenth century highlights, in an exceptional way, the recognition of subjectivation and autonomy of the mentally sick person, which is the inherent hope of psychiatry's initial project.The artists who fulfilled the first psychiatrists' commissions expressed this ideal, which was conveyed both by the humanist philanthropy of early psychiatry and by the artistic vocabulary of the nineteenth century...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936175/effects-of-neonatal-dexamethasone-exposure-on-adult-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-rats
#10
Nathanael J Yates, Donald Robertson, Jennifer Rodger, Mathew T Martin-Iverson
The effects of early life stress in utero or in neonates has long-term consequences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis function and neurodevelopment. These effects extend into adulthood and may underpin a variety of mental illnesses and be related to various developmental and cognitive changes. We examined the potential role of neonatal HPA axis activation on adult psychopathology and dopamine sensitivity in the mature rat using neonatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist and stress hormone, dexamethasone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936111/sediment-properties-as-important-predictors-of-carbon-storage-in-zostera-marina-meadows-a-comparison-of-four-european-areas
#11
Martin Dahl, Diana Deyanova, Silvia Gütschow, Maria E Asplund, Liberatus D Lyimo, Ventzislav Karamfilov, Rui Santos, Mats Björk, Martin Gullström
Seagrass ecosystems are important natural carbon sinks but their efficiency varies greatly depending on species composition and environmental conditions. What causes this variation is not fully known and could have important implications for management and protection of the seagrass habitat to continue to act as a natural carbon sink. Here, we assessed sedimentary organic carbon in Zostera marina meadows (and adjacent unvegetated sediment) in four distinct areas of Europe (Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish Skagerrak coast, Askö in the Baltic Sea, Sozopol in the Black Sea and Ria Formosa in southern Portugal) down to ~35 cm depth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936110/women-s-perceived-reasons-for-their-excessive-postpartum-weight-retention-a-qualitative-interview-study
#12
Anne Christenson, Eva Johansson, Signy Reynisdottir, Jarl Torgerson, Erik Hemmingsson
INTRODUCTION: Obesity in Sweden has doubled to 14% over the last 20 years. New strategies for treatment and prevention are needed. Excessive gestational weight gain has been found to contribute substantially to obesity, and there is a consistent association between postpartum weight retention and obesity later in life. We aimed to explore what factors women perceive as reasons for having substantial postpartum weight retention, to identify areas for new and improved interventions. METHODS: Qualitative interview study (semi-structured) using an emergent design...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936071/foot-conditions-among-homeless-persons-a-systematic-review
#13
Matthew J To, Thomas D Brothers, Colin Van Zoost
INTRODUCTION: Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936070/attraction-oviposition-and-larval-survival-of-the-fungus-gnat-lycoriella-ingenua-on-fungal-species-isolated-from-adults-larvae-and-mushroom-compost
#14
Kevin R Cloonan, Stefanos S Andreadis, Haibin Chen, Nina E Jenkins, Thomas C Baker
We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936004/effects-of-drought-stress-on-fusarium-crown-rot-development-in-barley
#15
Xinlun Liu, Chunji Liu
Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by various Fusarium species, is a chronic disease of cereals in many semi-arid regions worldwide. To clarify what effects drought-stress may have on FCR development, visual assessment, histological analysis and quantitative PCR were used to analyse the infection process of F. pseudograminearum in barley. This study observed for the first time that the severity of FCR symptom reflects the quantity of pathogens in infected tissues of barley under both drought-stressed and well-watered conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935950/utility-and-limitations-of-using-gene-expression-data-to-identify-functional-associations
#16
Sahra Uygun, Cheng Peng, Melissa D Lehti-Shiu, Robert L Last, Shin-Han Shiu
Gene co-expression has been widely used to hypothesize gene function through guilt-by association. However, it is not clear to what degree co-expression is informative, whether it can be applied to genes involved in different biological processes, and how the type of dataset impacts inferences about gene functions. Here our goal is to assess the utility and limitations of using co-expression as a criterion to recover functional associations between genes. By determining the percentage of gene pairs in a metabolic pathway with significant expression correlation, we found that many genes in the same pathway do not have similar transcript profiles and the choice of dataset, annotation quality, gene function, expression similarity measure, and clustering approach significantly impacts the ability to recover functional associations between genes using Arabidopsis thaliana as an example...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935936/understanding-peripheral-bat-populations-using-maximum-entropy-suitability-modeling
#17
Paul R Barnhart, Erin H Gillam
Individuals along the periphery of a species distribution regularly encounter more challenging environmental and climatic conditions than conspecifics near the center of the distribution. Due to these potential constraints, individuals in peripheral margins are expected to change their habitat and behavioral characteristics. Managers typically rely on species distribution maps when developing adequate management practices. However, these range maps are often too simplistic and do not provide adequate information as to what fine-scale biotic and abiotic factors are driving a species occurrence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935802/perceptions-on-diabetes-care-provision-among-health-providers-in-rural-tanzania-a-qualitative-study
#18
Mary Mwangome, Eveline Geubbels, Paul Klatser, Marjolein Dieleman
Diabetes prevalence in Tanzania was estimated at 9.1% in 2012 among adults aged 24-65 years - higher than the HIV prevalence in the general population at that time. Health systems in lower- and middle-income countries are not designed for chronic health care, yet the rising burden of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes demands chronic care services. To inform policies on diabetes care, we conducted a study on the health services in place to diagnose, treat and care for diabetes patients in rural Tanzania...
October 22, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935779/treatment-and-prevention-of-spinal-induced-hypotension-in-the-cesarean-section-patient-what-does-the-evidence-say
#19
Joseph E Pellegrini
Most anesthesia providers prefer to do a subarachnoid block (SAB) for cesarean section because of its rapid onset and reliability to provide adequate anesthesia. However an effect of the SAB is that it causes a spinal-induced hypotension (SIH) in up to 85% of the population. There have been multiple studies that assessed fluid administration, vasopressor administration, maternal positioning, or serotonin blockers given prophylactically to attenuate the SIH response. Despite these multiple studies, the method to prevent and treat SIH remains varied from one anesthesia practice to another...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935663/relative-importance-of-abiotic-biotic-and-disturbance-drivers-of-plant-community-structure-in-the-sagebrush-steppe
#20
Rachel M Mitchell, Jonathan D Bakker, John B Vincent, G Matt Davies
Abiotic conditions, biotic factors, and disturbances can act as filters that control community structure and composition. Understanding the relative importance of these drivers would allow us to understand and predict the causes and consequences of changes in community structure. We used long-term data (1989-2002) from the sagebrush steppe in Washington state, USA, to ask three questions: 1) What are the key drivers of community-level metrics of community structure? 2) Do community-level metrics and functional groups differ in magnitude or direction of response to drivers of community structure? 3) What is the relative importance of drivers of community structure? The vegetation in 2002 was expressed as seven response variables: three community-level metrics (species richness, total cover, compositional change from 1989 to 2002) and the relative abundances of four functional groups...
December 9, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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