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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169228/control-of-type-o-foot-and-mouth-disease-by-vaccination-in-south-korea-2014-2015
#1
Jong-Hyeon Park, Dongseob Tark, Kwang-Nyeong Lee, Ji-Eun Chun, Hyang-Sim Lee, Young-Joon Ko, Soo-Jeong Kye, Yong-Joo Kim, Jae-Ku Oem, Soyoon Ryoo, Sung-Bin Lim, Seo-Yong Lee, Joo-Hyung Choi, Mi-Kyeong Ko, Su-Hwa You, Myoung-Heon Lee, Byounghan Kim
On December 3, 2014, a type O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak occurred in South Korea. Although vaccinations were administered, cases of FMD increased steadily for five months and reached 185 cases by April 2015. Most of the affected animals were pigs, which are vulnerable to vaccinations. The FMD virus belonged to the South-East Asia (SEA) topotype that had been observed three times in Korea from April 2010 to July 2014. However, the virus in December 2014 had a unique difference in a partial deletion of the 5' noncoding region, which had not been seen in the previous SEA topotype isolates that were identified in Korea...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169046/a-novel-ccm1-krit1-heterozygous-deletion-mutation-c-1919delt-in-a-chinese-family-with-familial-cerebral-cavernous-malformation
#2
Chenlong Yang, Bingquan Wu, Haohao Zhong, Yan Li, Xingzheng Zheng, Yulun Xu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a relatively rare congenital vascular anomaly in the central venous system. Its inherited form, familial cerebral cavernous malformation (FCCM), is an autosomal-dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. The pathogenic genes of FCCM have been mapped into three loci: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607, and CCM3/PDCD10. Till now, the genetic basis of FCCM in the Chinese population has yet to be well understood. Herein, we investigated the genetic mutation in a Chinese family with FCCM...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168929/kinin-b1-receptors-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-inflammation
#3
Fatimunnisa Qadri, Michael Bader
Kinins are peptide mediators exerting their pro-inflammatory actions by the selective stimulation of two distinct G-protein coupled receptors, termed BKB1R and BKB2R. While BKB2R is constitutively expressed in a multitude of tissues, BKB1R is hardly expressed at baseline but highly inducible by inflammatory mediators. In particular, BKB1R was shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. Areas covered: This review intends to evaluate the therapeutic potential of substances interacting with the BKB1R...
November 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168879/1p36-deletion-results-in-a-decrease-in-glycosaminoglycans-which-is-associated-with-aggressiveness-in-neuroblastic-tumors
#4
Irene Tadeo, Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio, Ana P Berbegall, Samuel Navarro, Adela Cañete, Rosa Noguera
Despite our deep understanding of neuroblastic tumors, some patients still suffer treatment failure, so pre-treatment risk stratification still requires improvement and the search for new therapeutic targets must continue. Here we correlated prognostic clinical and biological features of neuroblastic tumors with the density of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans (the main components of the extracellular matrix 'ground substance'), in nearly 400 primary samples. We also studied the relationship between the density of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans and the expression of B3GALT6, an enzyme required for their synthesis...
November 23, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168801/the-histone-code-reader-spin1-controls-skeletal-muscle-development
#5
Holger Greschik, Delphine Duteil, Nadia Messaddeq, Dominica Willmann, Laura Arrigoni, Manuela Sum, Manfred Jung, Daniel Metzger, Thomas Manke, Thomas Günther, Roland Schüle
While several studies correlated increased expression of the histone code reader Spin1 with tumor formation or growth, little is known about physiological functions of the protein. We generated Spin1(M5) mice with ablation of Spin1 in myoblast precursors using the Myf5-Cre deleter strain. Most Spin1(M5) mice die shortly after birth displaying severe sarcomere disorganization and necrosis. Surviving Spin1(M5) mice are growth-retarded and exhibit the most prominent defects in soleus, tibialis anterior, and diaphragm muscle...
November 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168417/a-dna-segment-encoding-the-anticodon-stem-loop-of-trna-determines-the-specific-recombination-of-integrative-conjugative-elements-in-acidithiobacillus-species
#6
Andrés Castillo, Mario Tello, Kenneth Ringwald, Lillian G Acuña, Raquel Quatrini, Omar Orellana
Horizontal gene transfer is crucial for the adaptation of microorganisms to environmental cues. The acidophilic, bioleaching bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans encodes an integrative-conjugative genetic element (ICEAfe1) inserted in the gene encoding a tRNA(Ala). This genetic element is actively excised from the chromosome upon induction of DNA damage. A similar genetic element (ICEAcaTY.2) is also found in an equivalent position in the genome of Acidithiobacillus caldus. The local genomic context of both mobile genetic elements is highly syntenous and the cognate integrases are well conserved...
November 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168059/sec61%C3%AE-facilitates-the-maintenance-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-homeostasis-by-associating-microtubules
#7
Yimeng Zhu, Gangming Zhang, Shaoyu Lin, Juanming Shi, Hong Zhang, Junjie Hu
Sec61β, a subunit of the Sec61 translocon complex, is not essential in yeast and commonly used as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In higher eukaryotes, such as Drosophila, deletion of Sec61β causes lethality, but its physiological role is unclear. Here, we show that Sec61β interacts directly with microtubules. Overexpression of Sec61β containing small epitope tags, but not a RFP tag, induces dramatic bundling of the ER and microtubule. A basic region in the cytosolic domain of Sec61β is critical for microtubule association...
November 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167765/role-of-molecular-biology-in-cancer-treatment-a-review-article
#8
REVIEW
Aman Imran, Hafiza Yasara Qamar, Qurban Ali, Hafsa Naeem, Mariam Riaz, Saima Amin, Naila Kanwal, Fawad Ali, Muhammad Farooq Sabar, Idrees Ahmad Nasir
Background: Cancer is a genetic disease and mainly arises due to a number of reasons include activation of onco-genes, malfunction of tumor suppressor genes or mutagenesis due to external factors. Methods: This article was written from the data collected from PubMed, Nature, Science Direct, Springer and Elsevier groups of journals. Results: Oncogenes are deregulated form of normal proto-oncogenes required for cell division, differentiation and regulation...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167702/production-of-the-versatile-cellulase-for-cellulose-bioconversion-and-cellulase-inducer-synthesis-by-genetic-improvement-of-trichoderma-reesei
#9
Jia Gao, Yuanchao Qian, Yifan Wang, Yinbo Qu, Yaohua Zhong
Background: The enzymes for efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass are a major factor in the development of an economically feasible cellulose bioconversion process. Up to now, low hydrolysis efficiency and high production cost of cellulases remain the significant hurdles in this process. The aim of the present study was to develop a versatile cellulase system with the enhanced hydrolytic efficiency and the ability to synthesize powerful inducers by genetically engineering Trichoderma reesei...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167680/gene-editing-and-crop-improvement-using-crispr-cas9-system
#10
REVIEW
Leena Arora, Alka Narula
Advancements in Genome editing technologies have revolutionized the fields of functional genomics and crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a multipurpose technology for genetic engineering that relies on the complementarity of the guideRNA (gRNA) to a specific sequence and the Cas9 endonuclease activity. It has broadened the agricultural research area, bringing in new opportunities to develop novel plant varieties with deletion of detrimental traits or addition of significant characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167558/recurring-amplification-at-11q22-1-q22-2-locus-plays-an-important-role-in-lymph-node-metastasis-and-radioresistance-in-oscc
#11
Priyanka G Bhosale, Manishkumar Pandey, Simona Cristea, Mickey Shah, Asawari Patil, Niko Beerenwinkel, Alejandro A Schäffer, Manoj B Mahimkar
A key feature in the pathogenesis of OSCC is genetic instability, which results in altered expression of genes located in amplified/deleted chromosomal regions. In a previous study we have shown that the amplification of the 11q22.1-q22.2 region, encoding cIAP1 and cIAP2, is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor clinical outcome in OSCC. Here, we validate the aCGH results by nuc ish and detect a weak amplification at the 11q22.1-q22.2 locus in 37% of the 182 samples tested. We find positive correlation of 11q22...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167533/muscle-mri-and-functional-outcome-measures-in-becker-muscular-dystrophy
#12
Andrea Barp, Luca Bello, Luca Caumo, Paola Campadello, Claudio Semplicini, Annalisa Lazzarotto, Gianni Sorarù, Chiara Calore, Alessandro Rampado, Raffaella Motta, Roberto Stramare, Elena Pegoraro
Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a neuromuscular disorder allelic to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by in-frame mutations in the dystrophin gene, and characterized by a clinical progression that is both milder and more heterogeneous than DMD. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as biomarker of disease progression in dystrophinopathies. Correlation with clinically meaningful outcome measures such as North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and 6 minute walk test (6MWT) is paramount for biomarker qualification...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167529/liver-specific-deletion-of-ror%C3%AE-aggravates-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-inducing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#13
Hyeon-Ji Kim, Yong-Hyun Han, Hyelin Na, Ju-Yeon Kim, Taewook Kim, Hye-Jin Kim, Chanseok Shin, Jung Weon Lee, Mi-Ock Lee
Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a key role in the progression of steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, the molecular mechanism that controls the structure and function of mitochondria in NASH is not clearly understood. Here, we demonstrated that RORα is a regulator of expression of Bnip3 and PGC-1α, and thereby enhances mitochondrial quality. First, we observed that liver-specific RORα knockout mice (RORα-LKO) were more susceptible to high-fat diet-induced NASH compared with control, probably due to mitochondrial dysfunction...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167458/assembly-of-crispr-ribonucleoproteins-with-biotinylated-oligonucleotides-via-an-rna-aptamer-for-precise-gene-editing
#14
Jared Carlson-Stevermer, Amr A Abdeen, Lucille Kohlenberg, Madelyn Goedland, Kaivalya Molugu, Meng Lou, Krishanu Saha
Writing specific DNA sequences into the human genome is challenging with non-viral gene-editing reagents, since most of the edited sequences contain various imprecise insertions or deletions. We developed a modular RNA aptamer-streptavidin strategy, termed S1mplex, to complex CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins with a nucleic acid donor template, as well as other biotinylated molecules such as quantum dots. In human cells, tailored S1mplexes increase the ratio of precisely edited to imprecisely edited alleles up to 18-fold higher than standard gene-editing methods, and enrich cell populations containing multiplexed precise edits up to 42-fold...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167442/combinatorial-metabolic-engineering-using-an-orthogonal-tri-functional-crispr-system
#15
Jiazhang Lian, Mohammad HamediRad, Sumeng Hu, Huimin Zhao
Designing an optimal microbial cell factory often requires overexpression, knock-down, and knock-out of multiple gene targets. Unfortunately, such rewiring of cellular metabolism is often carried out sequentially and with low throughput. Here, we report a combinatorial metabolic engineering strategy based on an orthogonal tri-functional CRISPR system that combines transcriptional activation, transcriptional interference, and gene deletion (CRISPR-AID) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This strategy enables perturbation of the metabolic and regulatory networks in a modular, parallel, and high-throughput manner...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167352/two-spatially-distinct-kinesin-14-pkl1-and-klp2-generate-collaborative-inward-forces-against-kinesin-5-cut7-in-s-pombe
#16
Masashi Yukawa, Yusuke Yamada, Tomoaki Yamauchi, Takashi Toda
Kinesin motors play central roles in bipolar spindle assembly. In many eukaryotes, spindle pole separation is driven by Kinesin-5 that generates outward force. This outward force is balanced by antagonistic inward force elicited by Kinesin-14 and/or Dynein. In fission yeast, two Kinesin-14s, Pkl1 and Klp2, play an opposing role against Kinesin-5/Cut7. However, how these two Kinesin-14s coordinate individual activities remains elusive. Here we show that while deletion of either pkl1 or klp2 rescues temperature sensitive cut7 mutants, only pkl1 deletion can bypass the lethality caused by cut7 deletion...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167281/polytene-chromosome-structure-and-somatic-genome-instability
#17
Allan C Spradling
Polytene chromosomes have for 80 years provided the highest resolution view of interphase genome structure in an animal cell nucleus. These chromosomes represent the normal genomic state of nearly all Drosophila larval and many adult cells, and a better understanding of their striking banded structure has been sought for decades. A more recently appreciated characteristic of Drosophila polytene cells is somatic genome instability caused by unfinished replication (UR). Repair of stalled forks generates enough deletions in polytene salivary gland cells to alter 10%-90% of the DNA strands within more than 100 UR regions comprising 20% of the euchromatic genome...
November 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167276/pten-loss-promotes-intratumoral-androgen-synthesis-and-tumor-microenvironment-remodeling-via-aberrant-activation-of-runx2-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#18
Yinhui Yang, Yang Bai, Yundong He, Yu Zhao, Jiaxiang Chen, Linlin Ma, Yunqian Pan, Michael Hinten, Jun Zhang, R Jeffrey Karnes, Manish Kohli, Jennifer J Westendorf, Benyi Li, Runzhi Zhu, Haojie Huang, Wanhai Xu
PURPOSE: Intratumoral androgen synthesis (IAS) is a key mechanism promoting androgen receptor (AR) reactivation and anti-androgen resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, signaling pathways driving aberrant IAS remain poorly understood.  Experimental Design: The effect of components of the AKT-RUNX2-osteocalcin (OCN)-GPRC6A-CREB signaling axis on expression of steroidogenesis genes CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 and testosterone level were examined in PTEN-null human PCa cell lines...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167230/absence-of-cd59-in-guinea-pigs-analysis-of-the-cavia-porcellus-genome-suggests-the-evolution-of-a-cd59-pseudogene
#19
Hani Boshra, Wioleta M Zelek, Timothy R Hughes, Santiago Rodriguez de Cordoba, B Paul Morgan
CD59 is a membrane-bound regulatory protein that inhibits the assembly of the terminal membrane attack complex (C5b-9) of complement. From its original discovery in humans almost 30 years ago, CD59 has been characterized in a variety of species, from primates to early vertebrates, such as teleost fish. CD59 is ubiquitous in mammals; however, we have described circumstantial evidence suggesting that guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) lack CD59, at least on erythrocytes. In this study, we have used a combination of phylogenetic analyses with syntenic alignment of mammalian CD59 genes to identify the only span of genomic DNA in C...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167229/embryonic-lethality-and-host-immunity-of-rela-deficient-mice-are-mediated-by-both-apoptosis-and-necroptosis
#20
Chengxian Xu, Xiaoxia Wu, Xixi Zhang, Qun Xie, Cunxian Fan, Haibing Zhang
In mammalian cells, signaling pathways triggered by TNF can be switched from NF-κB activation to apoptosis and/or necroptosis. The in vivo mechanisms underlying the mutual regulation of these three signaling pathways are poorly understood. In this article, we report that the embryonic lethality of RelA-deficient mice is partially prevented by the deletion of Rip3 or Mlkl, but it is fully rescued by the combined ablation of Fadd and Rip3 or Mlkl or by blocking RIP1 kinase activity (RIP1(K45A)). RelA(-/-)Fadd(-/-)Rip3(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) and RelA(-/-)Rip1(K45A/K45A) mice displayed bacterial pneumonia leading to death ∼2 wk after birth...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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