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Liangsong Zhu, Guangyu Wu, Jianfeng Wang, Jiwei Huang, Wen Kong, Yonghui Chen, Wei Xue, Yiran Huang, Jin Zhang
To investigate the feasibility of the noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) to evaluate renal arteries before partial nephrectomy (PN).Retrospective analyzed 479 patients who underwent renal surgery between January 2013 and December 2015 with NCE-MRA or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) renal artery image reconstruction preoperative in our department. The renal artery reconstruction score (RARS) was based on the level of artery visualization in a 4-class criterion, and the R.E.N...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alberto García-Mariscal, Karine Peyrollier, Astrid Basse, Esben Pedersen, Ralph Rühl, Jolanda van Hengel, Cord Brakebusch
The ubiquitously expressed small GTPase RhoA is essential for embryonic development and mutated in different cancers. Functionally, it is well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, but its role in gene regulation is less understood. Using primary mouse keratinocytes with a deletion of the RhoA gene, we have now been exploring how the loss of RhoA affects gene expression. Performing transcription factor reporter assays, we found a significantly decreased activity of a RAR luciferase reporter in RhoA-null keratinocytes...
October 18, 2016: Small GTPases
Yoo-Sun Kim, Eunju Kim, Yoon Jung Park, Yuri Kim
Neuroblastoma (NB) is childhood malignancy that retains characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Targeting the CSCs is one of the therapeutic strategies proposed to achieve complete remission of NB. β-carotene (BC), an active precursor of retinoids, is a well-known antioxidant reported to possess anti-CSCs effects. Here, we investigated the involvement of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in the anti-CSCs effects of BC. Treatment with BC or retinoic acid (RA) upregulated RARβ mRNA expression in two NB cell lines...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sougat Misra, Arun Kumar Selvam, Marita Wallenberg, Aditya Ambati, András Matolcsy, Isabelle Magalhaes, Gilbert Lauter, Mikael Björnstedt
Selective targeting of the PML/RARα oncoprotein demonstrates a successful molecular targeted therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with a typical t(15:17) chromosomal translocation. The zinc-thiolate coordination is critical for structural stability of zinc finger proteins, including the PML moiety of PML/RARα. Based on the known interaction of redox-active selenium compounds with thiolate ligands of zinc, we herein have investigated the abrogatory effects of selenite alone or in combination with all-trans retinoic acid on PML/RARα and the possible effects on differentiation in these cells...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Jean-Francois Landrier, Elnaz Kasiri, Esma Karkeni, Johanna Mihály, Gabriella Béke, Kathrin Weiss, Renata Lucas, Gamze Aydemir, Jérome Salles, Stéphane Walrand, Angel R de Lera, Ralph Rühl
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived adipokine with potent antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic activity. Long-term, high-fat diet results in gain of body weight, adiposity, further inflammatory-based cardiovascular diseases, and reduced adiponectin secretion. Vitamin A derivatives/retinoids are involved in several of these processes, which mainly take place in white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, we examined adiponectin expression as a function of high dietary fat and high vitamin A conditions in mice...
October 11, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jun Fan, Cui Zhang, Qi Chen, Jin Zhou, Jean-Louis Franc, Qing Chen, Yunguang Tong
Isolated hormone deficiency might be caused by loss of a specific type of endocrine cells, and regenerating these missing cells may provide a new option for future treatment. It is known that POU1F1 lineage cells can differentiate into thyrotroph, somatotroph, and lactotroph. However, there is no effective way of controlling pituitary stem/progenitor cells to differentiate into a specific type of endocrine cell. We thereby analyzed multiple genomic publications related to POU1F1 and pituitary development in this study to identify genes and agents regulating POU1F1 lineage cell differentiation...
October 5, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Myka R Ababon, Bo I Li, Paul G Matteson, James H Millonig
Retinoic acid (RA) is an important developmental morphogen that coordinates anteroposterior and dorsoventral axis patterning, somitic differentiation, neurogenesis, patterning of the hindbrain and spinal cord, and the development of multiple organ systems. Due to its chemical nature as a small amphipathic lipid, direct detection and visualization of RA histologically remains technically impossible. Currently, methods used to infer the presence and localization of RA make use of reporter systems that detect the biological activity of RA...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yanling Chen, David H Reese
Corexit-EC9500A and Corexit-EC9527A are two chemical dispersants that have been used to remediate the impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Both dispersants are composed primarily of organic solvents and surfactants and act by emulsifying the crude oil to facilitate biodegradation. The potential adverse effect of the Corexit chemicals on mammalian embryonic development remains largely unknown. Retinol (vitamin A) signaling, mediated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA), is essential for neural tube formation and the development of many organs in the embryo...
2016: PloS One
Nicholas Glanville, Tamlyn J Peel, Armin Schröder, Julia Aniscenko, Ross P Walton, Susetta Finotto, Sebastian L Johnston
Current understanding of adaptive immune, particularly T cell, responses to human rhinoviruses (RV) is limited. Memory T cells are thought to be of a primarily T helper 1 type, but both T helper 1 and T helper 2 memory cells have been described, and heightened T helper 2/ lessened T helper 1 responses have been associated with increased RV-induced asthma exacerbation severity. We examined the contribution of T helper 1 cells to RV-induced airways inflammation using mice deficient in the transcription factor T-Box Expressed In T Cells (Tbet), a critical controller of T helper 1 cell differentiation...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Chetasi Talati, Eric Padron
According to the recently published 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid malignancies, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) include atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and MDS/MPN ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T). MDS/MPN-RS-T was previously a provisional category known as refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (RARS-T) which has now attained a distinct designation in the 2016 WHO classification...
September 24, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Stephen F Smagula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rest-activity rhythm (RAR) measurements may aid in the detection of depression risk and serve as an important target for depression prevention. This review evaluates the strength of current evidence supporting these potential applications. RECENT FINDINGS: Depression is associated with lower activity levels, that is less regularly patterned, and potentially shifted earlier or later in the day. Specific RAR patterns (combinations of several RAR characteristics) in patients with clinical depression may be unique or partially shared across disorders...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Beata Nowak, Agnieszka Matuszewska, Jarosław Filipiak, Anna Nikodem, Anna Merwid-Ląd, Małgorzata Pieśniewska, Joanna Kwiatkowska, Bartosz Grotthus, Adam Szeląg
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced osteoporosis is a significant health problem, as many drugs have deleterious effects on bone metabolism. Data from several studies concerning the influence of retinol on bone homeostasis are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of tazarotene, a selective agonist of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR), on bone metabolism and bone mechanical properties in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats were assigned either to the group receiving tazarotene or to the control group...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Anaïs Boglino, Marian Ponce, Xavier Cousin, Enric Gisbert, Manuel Manchado
The aim of this study was the characterization of transcriptional regulatory pathways mediated by retinoic acid (RA) in Senegalese sole larvae. For this purpose, pre-metamorphic larvae were treated with a low concentration of DEAB, an inhibitor of RALDH enzyme, until the end of metamorphosis. No differences in growth, eye migration or survival were observed. Nevertheless, gene expression analysis revealed a total of 20 transcripts differentially expressed during larval development and only six related with DEAB treatments directly involved in RA metabolism and actions (rdh10a, aldh1a2, crbp1, igf2r, rarg and cyp26a1) to adapt to a low-RA environment...
September 10, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Mildred V Duprey-Díaz, Jonathan M Blagburn, Rosa E Blanco
After lesions to the mammalian optic nerve, the great majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die before their axons have even had a chance to regenerate. Frog RGCs, on the other hand, suffer only an approximately 50% cell loss, and we have previously investigated the mechanisms by which the application of growth factors can increase their survival rate. Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived lipophilic molecule that plays major roles during development of the nervous system. The RA signaling pathway is also present in parts of the adult nervous system, and components of it are upregulated after injury in peripheral nerves but not in the CNS...
2016: PloS One
Wei Zhang, Amanda C Vreeland, Noa Noy
The RNA-binding protein HuR binds to AU-rich elements in target mRNAs and stabilizes them against degradation. The complete spectrum of genes whose expression is regulated by HuR and thus the basis for the broad range of cellular functions of the protein are incompletely understood. We show that HuR controls the expression of multiple components of the nuclear import machinery. Consequently, HuR is critical for the nuclear import of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2), which delivers RA to the nuclear receptor RAR and whose mobilization to the nucleus is mediated by a 'classical-like' nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Manuella Bouttier, David Laperriere, Babak Memari, Joseph Mangiapane, Amanda Fiore, Eric Mitchell, Mark Verway, Marcel A Behr, Robert Sladek, Luis B Barreiro, Sylvie Mader, John H White
To understand the epigenetic regulation of transcriptional response of macrophages during early-stage M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, we performed ChIPseq analysis of H3K4 monomethylation (H3K4me1), a marker of poised or active enhancers. De novo H3K4me1 peaks in infected cells were associated with genes implicated in host defenses and apoptosis. Our analysis revealed that 40% of de novo regions contained human/primate-specific Alu transposable elements, enriched in the AluJ and S subtypes. These contained several transcription factor binding sites, including those for members of the MEF2 and ATF families, and LXR and RAR nuclear receptors, all of which have been implicated in macrophage differentiation, survival, and responses to stress and infection...
September 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Aref Hosseini, Kamran Ghaedi, Somayeh Tanhaei, Mazdak Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Shohreh Teimuri, Masoud Etemadifar, Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of non-coding RNAs which play key roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Previous studies indicate that miRNAs are dysregulated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells are two subsets of CD4+T-cells which have critical functions in the onset and progression of MS. The current study seeks to distinguish fluctuations in expression of CD4+T-cell derived miR-223 during the relapsing-remitting (RR) phase of MS (RR-MS), as well as the expressions of Th17 and Treg cell markers...
2016: Cell Journal
Antonios Chronopoulos, Benjamin Robinson, Muge Sarper, Ernesto Cortes, Vera Auernheimer, Dariusz Lachowski, Simon Attwood, Rebeca García, Saba Ghassemi, Ben Fabry, Armando Del Río Hernández
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy with a dismal survival rate. Persistent activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) can perturb the biomechanical homoeostasis of the tumour microenvironment to favour cancer cell invasion. Here we report that ATRA, an active metabolite of vitamin A, restores mechanical quiescence in PSCs via a mechanism involving a retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-β)-dependent downregulation of actomyosin (MLC-2) contractility. We show that ATRA reduces the ability of PSCs to generate high traction forces and adapt to extracellular mechanical cues (mechanosensing), as well as suppresses force-mediated extracellular matrix remodelling to inhibit local cancer cell invasion in 3D organotypic models...
2016: Nature Communications
Joseph Dodge, Allison Stephans, Jinping Lai, William R Drobyski, Xiao Chen
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A combination of genetic and nongenetic factors dictates the incidence and severity of GVHD. Recent studies have identified the potential role of the retinoic acid (RA)/retinoic acid receptor (RAR) pathway in the pathogenesis of GVHD. RA is the active metabolite of vitamin A. Thus, a clinically relevant question is whether HSCT donor and/or recipient vitamin A status affects the development of GVHD...
September 3, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jerry Yu
Many airway sensory units respond to both lung inflation and deflation. Whether these responses to opposite stimuli come from one sensor (one-sensor theory) or more than one sensor (multiple-sensor theory) is debatable. One-sensor theory is commonly presumed in the literature. This article proposes a multiple-sensor theory, in which a sensory unit contains different sensors for sensing different forces. Two major types of mechanical sensors operate in the lung: inflation and deflation activated receptors (DARs)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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