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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735420/role-of-albumin-and-its-modifications-in-glomerular-injury
#1
REVIEW
Shipra Agrawal, William E Smoyer
Albuminuria is both a characteristic hallmark and a known risk factor for progressive glomerular disease. Although the molecular basis for a potential causative role for albuminuria in progressive chronic kidney disease remains poorly understood, there have been several recent advances in our understanding of the role of albumin, and its molecular modifications, in the development and progression of glomerular disease. This review discusses recent findings related to the ability of albumin and its associated factors to directly induce podocyte and glomerular injury...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735390/the-role-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-plant-stress-tolerance
#2
Yuepeng Song, Deqiang Zhang
Plants must adapt to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses ; thus, sensing and responding to environmental signals is imperative for their survival. Moreover, understanding these responses is imperative for efforts to improve plant yield and consistency. Regulation of transcript levels is a key aspect of the plant response to environmental signals. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread attention in recent years with the advance of high-throughput sequencing technologies. As important biological regulators, lncRNAs have been implicated in a wide range of developmental processes and diseases in animals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735388/epigenetics-and-rna-processing-connections-to-drought-salt-and-aba
#3
Min May Wong, Geeng Loo Chong, Paul E Verslues
There have been great research advances in epigenetics, RNA splicing, and mRNA processing over recent years. In parallel, there have been many advances in abiotic stress and Abscisic Acid (ABA) signaling. Here we overview studies that have examined stress-induced changes in the epigenome and RNA processing as well as cases where disrupting these processes changes the plant response to abiotic stress. We also highlight some examples where specific connections of stress or ABA signaling to epigenetics or RNA processing have been found...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735096/lipid-droplet-functions-beyond-energy-storage
#4
REVIEW
Michael A Welte, Alex P Gould
Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids and are critically important for energy metabolism. Their function in energy storage is firmly established and increasingly well characterized. However, emerging evidence indicates that lipid droplets also play important and diverse roles in the cellular handling of lipids and proteins that may not be directly related to energy homeostasis. Lipid handling roles of droplets include the storage of hydrophobic vitamin and signaling precursors, and the management of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735095/regulation-of-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors
#5
REVIEW
Montserrat A de la Rosa Rodriguez, Sander Kersten
Excess fatty acids are stored in cells as triglycerides in specialized organelles called lipid droplets (LD). LD can be found in nearly all cell types and may expand during certain (patho)physiological conditions. The synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides and their deposition in LD is governed by a diverse set of enzymes and LD-associated proteins. These proteins serve structural roles in and around LD and regulate the activity of key lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes. The LD-associated proteins are subject to multiple regulatory mechanisms at the protein and gene expression level...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734972/non-tubal-ectopic-pregnancies-an-overview-and-treatment-via-local-injection
#6
REVIEW
A V Dolinko, R A Vrees, G N Frishman
Ectopic pregnancies account for 1.5-2% of all pregnancy in the United States. Of these, approximately 10 percent implant in non-tubal locations, including the abdominal cavity, cervix, ovary, interstitial portion of the fallopian tube, broad ligament, the uterine cornua, or within a cesarean section scar. Because these pregnancies tend to present later than typical tubal pregnancies, they have been associated with greater maternal morbidity and mortality. Advances in ultrasound technology have allowed for earlier diagnosis of non-tubal ectopic pregnancies, which in turn has led to the development of novel minimally invasive techniques to manage them...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734771/new-advances-in-autophagy-in-plants-regulation-selectivity-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Ping Wang, Yosia Mugume, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a major and conserved pathway for delivering unwanted proteins or damaged organelles to the vacuole for degradation and recycling. In plants, it functions as a housekeeping process to maintain cellular homeostasis under normal conditions and is induced by stress and senescence; it thus plays important roles in development, stress tolerance and metabolism. Autophagy can both execute bulk degradation and be highly selective in targeting cargos under specific environmental conditions or during certain developmental processes...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734192/trajectories-of-risk-behaviors-across-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-the-role-of-race-and-ethnicity
#8
Eunhee Park, Thomas P McCoy, Jennifer Toller Erausquin, Robin Bartlett
INTRODUCTION: Despite important advances of longitudinal research in substance use behaviors, most studies stratify analyses by gender or race, which limits the ability to directly compare the likelihood of a particular developmental pathway across demographic groups. Thus, there is critical need for well-designed research to examine the associations of race/ethnicity with developmental trajectories of substance use behaviors across adolescence through adulthood. METHODS: Using an accelerated longitudinal design, we examined behaviors across ages 12-31 from Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health...
July 15, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734184/an-empirical-review-of-potential-mediators-and-mechanisms-of-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Andrew A Cooper, Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically-supported treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the precise mechanism(s) by which PE promotes symptom change are not well established. Understanding how PE works is critical to improving clinical outcomes, advancing dissemination efforts, and enhancing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology. However, mechanisms research conducted in clinical treatment settings is complex, and findings may be difficult to interpret without appropriate context. This is the first review of potential mechanisms of PE to provide such context, by rigorously evaluating empirical findings in line with essential criteria for effective research on mechanisms (or mediators)...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734054/population-demography-and-heterozygosity-fitness-correlations-in-natural-guppy-populations-an-examination-using-sexually-selected-fitness-traits
#10
Catherine E Grueber, John L Fitzpatrick, Alessandro Devigili, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W Ramnarine, Jonathan P Evans
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been examined in a wide diversity of contexts, and the results are often used to infer the role of inbreeding in natural populations. Although population demography, reflected in population-level genetic parameters such as allelic diversity or identity disequilibrium, is expected to play a role in the emergence and detectability of HFCs, direct comparisons of variation in HFCs across many populations of the same species, with different genetic histories, are rare...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734049/development-of-aptamers-against-unpurified-proteins
#11
Shinichi Goto, Kaori Tsukakoshi, Kazunori Ikebukuro
SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) has been widely used for the generation of aptamers against target proteins. However, its requirement for pure target proteins remains a major problem in aptamer selection, as procedures for protein purification from crude bio-samples are not only complicated but also time and labour consuming. This is because native proteins can be found in a large number of diverse forms because of posttranslational modifications and their complicated molecular conformations...
July 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733958/the-study-of-postmortem-human-synaptosomes-for-understanding-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurological-disorders-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Jia-Fong Jhou, Hwan-Ching Tai
Synaptic dysfunction is thought to play important roles in the pathophysiology of many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Over the past few decades, there have been systematic efforts to collect postmortem brain tissues via autopsies, leading to the establishment of dozens of human brain banks around the world. From cryopreserved human brain tissues, it is possible to isolate detached-and-resealed synaptic terminals termed synaptosomes, which remain metabolically and enzymatically active...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733574/metabolomic-characteristics-of-cholesterol-induced-non-obese-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#13
Lan N Tu, Megan R Showalter, Tomas Cajka, Sili Fan, Viju V Pillai, Oliver Fiehn, Vimal Selvaraj
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in non-obese patients remains a clinical condition with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. Using a metabolomics approach in a mouse model that recapitulates almost all the characteristic features of non-obese NAFLD, we aimed to advance mechanistic understanding of this disorder. Mice fed high fat, high cholesterol, cholate (HFHCC) diet for three weeks consistently developed hepatic pathology similar to NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without changes to body weight or fat pad weights...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733557/down-regulation-of-lincrna-p21-contributes-to-gastric-cancer-development-through-hippo-independent-activation-of-yap
#14
Ying Chen, Guoqing Wei, Hongwei Xia, Huangfei Yu, Qiuling Tang, Feng Bi
Long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21), known as the direct transcriptional target of p53, was found down-regulated in several human solid tumors. However, little is known about the role of lincRNA-p21 in gastric cancer. The expression levels of lincRNA-p21 in tissue samples and cell lines were detected by qRT-PCR. MGC-803 and MKN-45 cells were transfected with siRNAs targeting lincRNA-p21 or control siRNAs to determine the effect of reduced lincRNA-p21 expression on tumorigenesis. We also overexpressed lincRNA-p21 in MGC-803 cells...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733376/detection-of-osteomyelitis-in-the-diabetic-foot-by-imaging-techniques-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-comparing-mri-white-blood-cell-scintigraphy-and-fdg-pet
#15
REVIEW
Chiara Lauri, Menno Tamminga, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Luis Eduardo Juárez Orozco, Paola A Erba, Paul C Jutte, Benjamin A Lipsky, Maarten J IJzerman, Alberto Signore, Riemer H J A Slart
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing bone infection in the diabetic foot is challenging and often requires several diagnostic procedures, including advanced imaging. We compared the diagnostic performances of MRI, radiolabeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy (either with (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime [HMPAO] or (111)In-oxine), and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET)/computed tomography. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase as of August 2016 for studies of diagnostic tests on patients known or suspected to have diabetes and a foot infection...
August 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733358/pattern-analyses-reveal-separate-experience-based-fear-memories-in-the-human-right-amygdala
#16
Senne Braem, Jan De Houwer, Jelle Demanet, Kenneth S L Yuen, Raffael Kalisch, Marcel Brass
Learning fear via the experience of contingencies between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is often assumed to be fundamentally different from learning fear via instructions. An open question is whether fear-related brain areas respond differently to experienced CS-US contingencies than to merely instructed CS-US contingencies. Here, we contrasted two experimental conditions where subjects were instructed to expect the same CS-US contingencies while only one condition was characterized by prior experience with the CS-US contingency...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733193/traditional-neurotherapeutics-approach-intended-for-direct-nose-to-brain-delivery
#17
REVIEW
Zohreh Abolhasanzadeh, Hajar Ashrafi, Parmis Badr, Amir Azadi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nasal delivery systems have a significant role in Persian traditional medicine. Most of them were utilized for central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. In modern medicine, nasal drug delivery systems for brain delivery are highly regarded. AIM OF THE STUDY: Despite recent advances in drug delivery to the (CNS), delivery of therapeutics to the brain remains a major challenge because of the blood brain barrier (BBB). There are several mechanisms which regulate the drug transfer across the BBB...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732972/state-of-the-art-and-recent-advances-in-the-ultrasound-assisted-synthesis-exfoliation-and-functionalization-of-graphene-derivatives
#18
REVIEW
Kasturi Muthoosamy, Sivakumar Manickam
Sonochemistry, an almost a century old technique was predominantly employed in the cleaning and extraction processes but this tool has now slowly gained tremendous attention in the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) where particles of sub-micron have been produced with great stability. Following this, ultrasonication techniques have been largely employed in graphene synthesis and its dispersion in various solvents which would conventionally take days and offers poor yield. Ultrasonic irradiation allows the production of thin-layered graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) of up to 1nm thickness and can be produced in single layers...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732943/encompassment-of-benzyl-isothiocyanate-in-cyclodextrin-using-ultrasonication-methodology-to-enhance-its-stability-for-biological-applications
#19
Shivani Uppal, Khushwinder Kaur, Rajendra Kumar, Nakshdeep Kaur Kahlon, Rachna Singh, S K Mehta
The use of methodical and innovative sonication method has been explored for the fabrication of inclusion complex of Benzyl Isothiocyanate, a potential anticancer and -antimicrobial agent. The advancement involved investigation of inclusion behaviour, characterisation and an in-depth study of thermal and UV stability of Benzyl Isothiocyanate with cyclodextrins; β-CD and hp-β-CD. The sonication driven encompassment in cyclodextrins helped to overcome the hindrance of low solubility and high volatility. Investigations of physical and thermodynamic parameters using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TGA etc confirmed stability of inclusion complexes...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732368/meta-analysis-of-micrornas-expression-in-head-and-neck-cancer-uncovering-association-with-outcome-and-mechanisms
#20
Joshua Lubov, Mariana Maschietto, Iman Ibrahim, Alex Mlynarek, Michael Hier, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali, Sabrina Daniela da Silva
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is often diagnosed at advanced stages, incurring significant high mortality and morbidity. This review explored the risk stratification of miRNAs, and investigated the impact of miRNA networking in HNSCC prognostication. We performed a meta-analysis and a systematic literature search on online databases for papers published prior to December 1, 2016. The list of miRNAs was uploaded to MetacoreTM to construct a protein-protein interaction network, which was used to identify targets of the miRNAs and potential drugs...
July 13, 2017: Oncotarget
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