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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813500/telomere-biology-and-telomerase-mutations-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Flávia S Donaires, Natália F Scatena, Raquel M Alves-Paiva, Joshua D Podlevsky, Dhenugen Logeswaran, Barbara A Santana, Andreza C Teixeira, Julian J-L Chen, Rodrigo T Calado, Ana L C Martinelli
Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at linear chromosome termini, protecting chromosomes against end-to-end fusion and damage, providing chromosomal stability. Telomeres shorten with mitotic cellular division, but are maintained in cells with high proliferative capacity by telomerase. Loss-of-function mutations in telomere-maintenance genes are genetic risk factors for cirrhosis development in humans and murine models. Telomerase deficiency provokes accelerated telomere shortening and dysfunction, facilitating genomic instability and oncogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813460/mechanisms-for-pattern-specificity-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Osvaldo Matías Velarde, Germán Mato, Damián Dellavale
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely used technique for treating advanced stages of neurological and psychiatric illness. In the case of motor disorders related to basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction, several mechanisms of action for the DBS therapy have been identified which might be involved simultaneously or in sequence. However, the identification of a common key mechanism underlying the clinical relevant DBS configurations has remained elusive due to the inherent complexity related to the interaction between the electrical stimulation and the neural tissue, and the intricate circuital structure of the BG-thalamocortical network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813361/transformational-leadership-in-sport-current-status-and-future-directions
#3
REVIEW
Calum A Arthur, Nicolas Bastardoz, Robert Eklund
Borrowed from organizational psychology, the concept of transformational leadership has now been applied to a sport context for a decade. Our review covers and critically discusses empirical articles published on this growing topic. However, because the majority of studies used cross-sectional designs and single-source questionnaires to tap what has been a fuzzy construct, current theoretical and methodological issues impede understanding of whether transformational leadership matters for sport outcomes. To make a difference to applied practice and policy, the transformational leadership construct requires a refined definition and stronger empirical tests allowing for robust causal inference...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813353/motor-cognition-and-neuroscience-in-sport-psychology
#4
REVIEW
Paul S Holmes, David J Wright
Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813335/cultural-sport-psychology-a-critical-review-of-empirical-advances
#5
REVIEW
Tatiana V Ryba
Despite a long standing assertion that sociocultural domain is one of the factors constituting human psychological phenomena, sport psychological science has only recently begun to examine culture as the principal basis of physical activity and sport participants' behaviour, wellbeing, engagement, and performance outcomes. Emphasizing the centrality of culture in bringing meaning to athlete careers and life projects, I summarise empirical literature explicitly positioned within cultural sport psychology (CSP)...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813328/editorial-overview-advances-in-science-and-practice-in-traumatic-stress
#6
EDITORIAL
Anka A Vujanovic, Paula P Schnurr
This issue provides an expansive overview of the field of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The featured articles highlight novel, creative, and innovative topics and methodologies, consolidate recent scientific advances, and delineate future directions. The content spans various topics in the field of traumatic stress, including assessment, biopsychosocial correlates, clinical considerations, including comorbidity, anger, self-directed violence, and dissociative manifestations, evidence-based interventions, and innovative delivery formats that maximize dissemination and implementation...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813320/the-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-ptsd-overview-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#7
REVIEW
Christina M Sheerin, Mackenzie J Lind, Kaitlin E Bountress, Nicole R Nugent, Ananda B Amstadter
This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature and current developments related to the genetic underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We first briefly provide an overview of the behavioral genetic literature on PTSD, followed by a short synopsis of the substantial candidate gene literature with a focus on genes that have been meta-analyzed. We then discuss the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have been conducted, followed by an introduction to other molecular platforms used in PTSD genomic studies, such as epigenetic and expression approaches...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813249/neuroendocrine-mechanisms-for-parental-sensitivity-overview-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
James E Swain, Shao-Hsuan Shaun Ho
Early parent-infant relationships play important roles in infants' development. New parents adapt to the developing relationship with their infants to coordinate parenting behaviors in the milieu of infant needs, hormones, moods, and stress. This review highlights research from the past two years, using non-invasive brain-imaging techniques and naturalistic tasks in mothers and fathers in relation to psychological, and endocrine measures. Recent work also connects parental brain physiology with parental sensitive behavior, parent/child outcomes and parent psychotherapy...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812866/directly-coating-multifunctional-interlayer-on-the-cathode-via-electrospinning-for-advanced-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#9
Yueying Peng, Yiyong Zhang, Yunhui Wang, Xiu Shen, Feng Wang, He Li, Bing-Joe Hwang, Jinbao Zhao
Lithium sulfur battery is considered as a prospective candidate for high-energy-storage system as its high theoretical specific capacity and energy. However, the dissolution and shutter of polysulfides lead to low active material utilization and fast capacity fading. Electrospinning technology is employed to directly coat an interlayer composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and nitrogen-doped carbon black (NC) fibers on the cathode. Benefited from electrospinning technology, the PAN-NC fibers possess good electrolyte infiltration for fast lithium-ion transport and great flexibility for adhering on the cathode...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812627/direct-observation-of-increasing-recovery-length-before-collapse-of-a-marine-benthic-ecosystem
#10
Luca Rindi, Martina Dal Bello, Lei Dai, Jeff Gore, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi
Ecosystems can experience catastrophic transitions to alternative states, yet recent results have suggested that slowing down in rates of recovery after a perturbation may provide advance warning that a critical transition is approaching. Perturbation experiments with microbial populations have supported this hypothesis under controlled laboratory conditions, but evidence from natural ecosystems remains rare. Here, we manipulated rocky intertidal canopy algae to test the hypothesis that the spatial scale at which the system recovers from a perturbation in space should increase as the system approaches the tipping point, marking the transition from a canopy-dominated to a turf-dominated state...
May 8, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#11
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812001/recent-advances-in-terahertz-technology-for-biomedical-applications
#12
REVIEW
Qiushuo Sun, Yuezhi He, Kai Liu, Shuting Fan, Edward P J Parrott, Emma Pickwell-MacPherson
Terahertz instrumentation has improved significantly in recent years such that THz imaging systems have become more affordable and easier to use. THz systems can now be operated by non-THz experts greatly facilitating research into many potential applications. Due to the non-ionising nature of THz light and its high sensitivity to soft tissues, there is an increasing interest in biomedical applications including both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Additionally, research continues into understanding the origin of contrast and how to interpret terahertz biomedical images...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811702/precision-medicine-in-need-of-guidance-and-surveillance
#13
EDITORIAL
Jian-Zhen Lin, Jun-Yu Long, An-Qiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Hai-Tao Zhao
Precision medicine, currently a hotspot in mainstream medicine, has been strongly promoted in recent years. With rapid technological development, such as next-generation sequencing, and fierce competition in molecular targeted drug exploitation, precision medicine represents an advance in science and technology; it also fulfills needs in public health care. The clinical translation and application of precision medicine - especially in the prevention and treatment of tumors - is far from satisfactory; however, the aims of precision medicine deserve approval...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811631/development-of-a-primary-human-co-culture-model-of-inflamed-airway-mucosa
#14
Lael M Yonker, Hongmei Mou, Kengyeh K Chu, Michael A Pazos, Huimin Leung, Dongyao Cui, Jinhyeob Ryu, Rhianna M Hibbler, Alexander D Eaton, Tim N Ford, J R Falck, T Bernard Kinane, Guillermo J Tearney, Jayaraj Rajagopal, Bryan P Hurley
Neutrophil breach of the mucosal surface is a common pathological consequence of infection. We present an advanced co-culture model to explore neutrophil transepithelial migration utilizing airway mucosal barriers differentiated from primary human airway basal cells and examined by advanced imaging. Human airway basal cells were differentiated and cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) on the underside of 3 µm pore-sized transwells, compatible with the study of transmigrating neutrophils. Inverted ALIs exhibit beating cilia and mucus production, consistent with conventional ALIs, as visualized by micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811567/engineered-endothelium-provides-angiogenic-and-paracrine-stimulus-to-grafted-human-ovarian-tissue
#15
Limor Man, Laura Park, Richard Bodine, Michael Ginsberg, Nikica Zaninovic, Omar Alexander Man, Glenn Schattman, Zev Rosenwaks, Daylon James
Despite major advances in tissue cryopreservation and auto-transplantation, reperfusion ischemia and hypoxia have been reported as major obstacles to successful recovery of the follicular pool within grafted ovarian tissue. We demonstrate a benefit to follicular survival and function in human ovarian tissue that is co-transplanted with exogenous endothelial cells (ExEC). ExECs were capable of forming functionally perfused vessels at the host/graft interface and increased both viability and follicular volume in ExEC-assisted grafts with resumption of antral follicle development in long-term grafts...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811018/direct-coupling-of-electromembrane-extraction-to-mass-spectrometry-advancing-the-probe-functionality-toward-measurements-of-zwitterionic-drug-metabolites
#16
Torstein Kige Rye, David Fuchs, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Nickolaj Jacob Petersen
A triple-flow electromembrane extraction (EME) probe was developed and coupled directly to electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Metabolic reaction mixtures (pH 7.4) containing drug substances and related metabolites were continuously drawn (20 μL/min) into the EME probe in one flow channel, and mixed inside the probe with 7.5 μL min(-1) of 1 M formic acid as make-up flow from a second flow channel. Following this acidification, the drug substances and their related metabolites were continuously extracted by EME at 400 V, across a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprising 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (and for some experiments containing 30% triphenyl phosphate (TPP)), and into 20 μL min(-1) of formic acid as acceptor phase, which was introduced through a third flow channel...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810933/microrna-152-suppresses-human-osteosarcoma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-targeting-e2f-transcription-factor-3
#17
Chao Ma, Jinfeng Han, Dong Dong, Nanya Wang
MicroRNA-152(miR-152) expression has been reported to be downregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). However, the role of miR-152 in OS is not well documented. In the present study, we aim to explore the function and underlying mechanism of miR-152 in OS. We found that miR-152 was underexpressed in OS tissues and cell lines. Decreased miR-152 was inversely correlated with lymph-node metastasis and advanced clinical stage. Overexpression of miR-152 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of OS cells...
August 15, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810837/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-pazopanib-combined-with-bevacizumab-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-or-other-advanced-tumors
#18
Sylvie Négrier, David Pérol, Rastislav Bahleda, Antoine Hollebecque, Etienne Chatelut, Helen Boyle, Philippe Cassier, Séverine Metzger, Ellen Blanc, Jean-Charles Soria, Bernard Escudier
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) directed therapies are being used in a large number of advanced tumors. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is highly dependent on the VEGF pathway; VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and humanized VEGF monoclonal antibody have been registered for clinical use in advanced renal cell carcinoma. The VEGFR TKI, pazopanib, with a rather manageable toxicity profile, was preferred to sunitinib by mRCC patients. We investigate the combination of pazopanib and bevacizumab to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in mRCC and other advanced solid tumors...
August 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810582/microrna-92a-promotes-cell-viability-and-invasion-in-cervical-cancer-via-directly-targeting-dickkopf-related-protein-3
#19
Shengtian Luo, Na Li, Shaohua Yu, Lichun Chen, Chunying Liu, Jiawei Rong
MicroRNA-92a (miR-92a) was recently reported to have an oncogenic role in cervical cancer; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the expression, clinical significance and regulatory mechanism of miR-92a in cervical cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) data indicated that miR-92a was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared with matched adjacent non-tumor tissues (P<0.01). High expression of miR-92a was significantly associated with poor differentiation (P=0...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810077/synthesis-of-ladder-polymers-developments-challenges-and-opportunities
#20
Yew Chin Teo, Holden W H Lai, Yan Xia
Ladder polymers are unique in that their backbones consist of fused rings with adjacent rings having two or more atoms in common. The restriction of bond rotations in rigid ladder polymers greatly limits their conformational freedom, leading to many intriguing and unique properties. As a non-traditional type of polymers, rigid ladder polymers are of great fundamental interest and technical importance as advanced materials for applications such as membrane gas separation and organic electronics. Ladder polymers can be divided into non-conjugated (with kinked conformations) and conjugated (with planar conformations) structures...
August 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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