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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914981/complement-a-primer-for-the-coming-therapeutic-revolution
#1
REVIEW
Scott R Barnum
The complement system is an important part of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Originally characterized as a single serum component contributing to the killing of bacteria, we now know that there are close to sixty complement proteins, multiple activation pathways and a wide range of effector functions mediated by complement. The system plays a critical role in host defense against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogens. However, inappropriate complement activation contributes to the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases and many inflammatory syndromes...
November 30, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914646/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-assessing-the-water-quality-of-shoreline-parks-around-the-island-of-montreal-through-citizen-science
#2
D Lévesque, A Cattaneo, G Deschamps, C Hudon
As a part of the FreshWater Watch project aiming to promote volunteers' water monitoring in 25 cities around the world, St. Lawrence River water quality was characterized at 28 public shoreline parks around Montreal Island, Quebec, Canada. This involved training of 69 citizen scientists by researchers of the Université de Montréal in five one-day sessions. Shoreline sampling yielded 174 data points over three summers (May 2013 to November 2015). Water turbidity, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were measured in situ, together with the thickness and type of beach-cast vegetation, and the relative abundance of different types of beach litter...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913987/a-moral-normative-framework-for-the-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-ii
#3
Omar J Alkhatib
The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912776/improving-stroke-prevention-therapy-for-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-in-primary-care-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#4
Theresa M Lee, Noah M Ivers, Sacha Bhatia, Debra A Butt, Paul Dorian, Liisa Jaakkimainen, Kori Leblanc, Dan Legge, Dante Morra, Alissia Valentinis, Laura Wing, Jacqueline Young, Karen Tu
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is growing as the population ages, and at least 15% of ischemic strokes are attributed to AF. However, many high-risk AF patients are not offered guideline-recommended stroke prevention therapy due to a variety of system, provider, and patient-level barriers. METHODS: We will conduct a pragmatic, cluster-randomized controlled trial randomizing primary care clinics to test a "toolkit" of quality improvement interventions in primary care...
December 3, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#5
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909379/-it-is-an-eye-opener-that-there-is-a-relationship-between-rehabilitation-and-hiv-perspectives-of-physiotherapists-and-occupational-therapists-in-kenya-and-zambia-on-the-role-of-rehabilitation-with-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv
#6
Stephanie Nixon, Cathy Cameron, Margaret Mweshi, Esther Munalula Nkandu, Carlius Okidi, Stephen Tattle, Tammy Yates
Purpose: To present the perspectives of rehabilitation providers-physiotherapists and occupational therapists-in Kenya and Zambia on the role of rehabilitation in the care of adults and children living with HIV. Methods: This qualitative, interpretivist study was part of a broader project to adapt a Canadian e-module on HIV-related disability for rehabilitation providers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Focus groups, demographic questionnaires, and knowledge-attitude-belief surveys were conducted with rehabilitation providers in Kenya and Zambia...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909151/cerebrovascular-disease-associated-risk-factors-and-antithrombotic-therapy-in-a-population-screening-cohort-insights-from-the-belgian-heart-rhythm-week-programme
#7
Marco Proietti, Georges H Mairesse, Peter Goethals, Christophe Scavee, Johan Vijgen, Ivan Blankoff, Yves Vandekerckhove, Gregory Yh Lip
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease confers a major healthcare burden worldwide and is a major cause of death and disability. Several well-established risk factors, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), are associated with cerebrovascular disease and antithrombotic therapy reduces risk. DESIGN: This study was a subgroup analysis from the Belgian Heart Rhythm Week, a nationwide AF awareness programme. METHODS: We studied subjects screened between 2012 and 2014 with available data on clinical risk factors and antithrombotic treatment...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908461/the-vato-project-an-original-methodology-to-study-the-transfer-of-tritium-as-ht-and-hto-in-grassland-ecosystem
#8
D Maro, F Vermorel, M Rozet, C Aulagnier, D Hébert, S Le Dizès, C Voiseux, L Solier, C Cossonnet, C Godinot, B Fiévet, P Laguionie, O Connan, O Cazimajou, M Morillon, M Lamotte
Tritium ((3)H) is mainly released into the environment by nuclear power plants, military nuclear facilities and nuclear reprocessing plants. The construction of new nuclear facilities in the world as well as the evolution of nuclear fuel management might lead to an increase of (3)H discharges from the nuclear industry. The VATO project was set up by IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire) and EDF (Electricité de France) to reduce the uncertainties in the knowledge about transfers of (3)H from an atmospheric source (currently releasing HT and HTO) to a grassland ecosystem...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908178/a-probability-based-multi-cycle-sorting-method-for-4d-mri-a-simulation-study
#9
Xiao Liang, Fang-Fang Yin, Yilin Liu, Jing Cai
PURPOSE: To develop a novel probability-based sorting method capable of generating multiple breathing cycles of 4D-MRI images and to evaluate performance of this new method by comparing with conventional phase-based methods in terms of image quality and tumor motion measurement. METHODS: Based on previous findings that breathing motion probability density function (PDF) of a single breathing cycle is dramatically different from true stabilized PDF that resulted from many breathing cycles, it is expected that a probability-based sorting method capable of generating multiple breathing cycles of 4D images may capture breathing variation information missing from conventional single-cycle sorting methods...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907260/ten-year-responses-of-ground-dwelling-spiders-to-retention-harvest-in-the-boreal-forest
#10
Jaime Pinzon, John R Spence, David W Langor, David P Shorthouse
The Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbances (EMEND) project tests the hypothesis that varying levels of green tree retention maintain and retain forest biodiversity better than conventional clear-cutting. We studied epigaeic spiders to assess biodiversity changes 2, 5, and 10 yr following a range of partial retention harvests (clear-cut, 10-75% retention) and unharvested controls in four boreal mixedwood cover types. A total of 56 371 adult spiders representing 220 species was collected using pitfall traps...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906962/population-density-climate-variables-and-poverty-synergistically-structure-spatial-risk-in-urban-malaria-in-india
#11
Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J Bouma, Vijay Kohli, Mercedes Pascual
BACKGROUND: The world is rapidly becoming urban with the global population living in cities projected to double by 2050. This increase in urbanization poses new challenges for the spread and control of communicable diseases such as malaria. In particular, urban environments create highly heterogeneous socio-economic and environmental conditions that can affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases dependent on human water storage and waste water management. Interestingly India, as opposed to Africa, harbors a mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi, which thrives in the man-made environments of cities and acts as the vector for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, making the malaria problem a truly urban phenomenon...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906414/delphi-consensus-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-evaluation-by-a-panel-of-experts
#12
Amaia Hervás, Teresa de Santos, Javier Quintero, Pedro M Ruíz-Lázaro, José A Alda, Alberto Fernández-Jaén, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, which is frequently maintained in adolescent and adult age. It presents great clinical heterogeneity, significantly affecting the functioning of those who suffer it. Although drug treatments obtain results by themselves, the approach should be multidisciplinary and be adapted to the specific needs of each patient and his/ her family. Given the variety of drugs currently available to treat ADHD, there are diverse opinions on the most effective way to approach this disorder...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906192/thematic-analysis-of-barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementation-of-neonatal-resuscitation-guideline-changes
#13
H C Lee, V Arora, T Brown, A Lyndon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate experiences regarding implementation of Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) guideline changes in the context of a collaborative quality improvement (QI) project. STUDY DESIGN: Focus groups were conducted with local QI leaders and providers from nine sites that participated in a QI collaborative. Thematic analysis identified facilitators and barriers to implementation of NRP guideline changes and QI in general. RESULTS: Facilitators for QI included comparative process measurement and data tracking...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905966/rapid-assessment-of-disability-in-the-philippines-understanding-prevalence-well-being-and-access-to-the-community-for-people-with-disabilities-to-inform-the-w-dare-project
#14
Manjula Marella, Alexandra Devine, Graeme Ferdinand Armecin, Jerome Zayas, Ma Jesusa Marco, Cathy Vaughan
BACKGROUND: International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015-2030. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#15
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903871/decline-and-recovery-of-a-large-carnivore-environmental-change-and-long-term-trends-in-an-endangered-brown-bear-population
#16
Isabel Martínez Cano, Fernando González Taboada, Javier Naves, Alberto Fernández-Gil, Thorsten Wiegand
Understanding what factors drive fluctuations in the abundance of endangered species is a difficult ecological problem but a major requirement to attain effective management and conservation success. The ecological traits of large mammals make this task even more complicated, calling for integrative approaches. We develop a framework combining individual-based modelling and statistical inference to assess alternative hypotheses on brown bear dynamics in the Cantabrian range (Iberian Peninsula). Models including the effect of environmental factors on mortality rates were able to reproduce three decades of variation in the number of females with cubs of the year (Fcoy), including the decline that put the population close to extinction in the mid-nineties, and the following increase in brown bear numbers...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903054/future-malaria-spatial-pattern-based-on-the-potential-global-warming-impact-in-south-and-southeast-asia
#17
Hassan M Khormi, Lalit Kumar
We used the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate-H climate model with the A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios for the years 2050 and 2100 and CLIMEX software for projections to illustrate the potential impact of climate change on the spatial distributions of malaria in China, India, Indochina, Indonesia, and The Philippines based on climate variables such as temperature, moisture, heat, cold and dryness. The model was calibrated using data from several knowledge domains, including geographical distribution records...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903029/-lupus-erythematosus-update-2016
#18
Martin Aringer, Reinhard Edmund Voll
Meanwhile, five years have passed since the approval of the anti-BAFF antibody belimumab as a first biological for SLE, but no further SLE drug candidate is even close to approval. There are still no clinical trial data available for the use of new oral anticoagulants in antiphospholipid syndrome. In spite of convincing evidence for the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in lupus nephritis, the German "Gemeinsame Bundesausschuss" (GBA) has not yet decided on its reimbursement. However, several of the ongoing clinical trials have potential to lead to important advances in SLE treatment in the future...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902661/assessment-of-clinical-alarms-influencing-nurses-perceptions-of-alarm-fatigue
#19
Emalie M Petersen, Cindy L Costanzo
BACKGROUND: Excessive clinical alarms have inundated health care for years. Multiple governing bodies, organizations, and facilities have deemed alarm management a priority. Alarm management is a multifaceted problem that affects all health care organizations and clinical staff, especially those in critical care units. Ultimately, the lack of knowledge regarding nurses' perceptions to alarm management and alarm fatigue creates patient safety chiasms. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to understand nurses' perceptions of alarm fatigue (utilizing the Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee Survey) while implementing interventions that improve patient safety...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902588/short-term-hypertension-management-in-community-is-associated-with-long-term-risk-of-stroke-and-total-death-in-china-a-community-controlled-trial
#20
Zengwu Wang, Guang Hao, Xin Wang, Wen Wang, Weiwei Chen, Manlu Zhu
BACKGROUND: It is not fully clear whether the effect of short-term management in community can reduce the long-term risk of stroke OBJECTIVES:: To evaluate whether short-term hypertension management is associated with long-term incidence of stroke and total death in community health centers in China. DESIGN: Community controlled trail. PARTICIPANTS: Six community health centers (4 active, 2 control) in China, patients with hypertension. CONTROL ARM: Patients were treated with normally therapy method...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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