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Layer 5 neuron

Kathleen S Rockland
Recent commentaries on the role of the thalamus consider a wide sphere of influence beyond sensory-motor transformation, to include task-relevant cognitive processes. In this short review, I reconsider known anatomic features of corticothalamic connectivity, primarily for macaque monkey, and discuss these as part of an intricate network architecture consistent with multiple connectional re-combinations and a diversity of functional tasks. Drawing mainly on results from single axon analysis for the two broad classes of corticothalamic (CT) connections, I review the strikingly complementary spatial parameters of their extrinsic CT arbors in relation to intrinsic cortical collaterals...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Wenqin Hu, Bruce P Bean
Voltage-dependent conductances not only drive action potentials but also help regulate neuronal resting potential. We found differential regulation of resting potential in the proximal axon of layer 5 pyramidal neurons compared to the soma. Axonal resting potential was more negative than the soma, reflecting differential control by multiple voltage-dependent channels, including sodium channels, Cav3 channels, Kv7 channels, and HCN channels. Kv7 current is highly localized to the axon and HCN current to the soma and dendrite...
March 3, 2018: Neuron
Joon Ha Park, Bich Na Shin, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Il Jun Kang, Ki-Yeon Yoo, In Koo Hwang, Choong Hyun Lee, Yoo Hun Noh, Sung-Su Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Jong Dai Kim
Background: Glehnia littoralis has been used for traditional Asian medicine, which has diverse therapeutic activities. However, studies regarding neurogenic effects of G. littoralis have not yet been considered. Therefore, in this study, we examined effects of G. littoralis extract on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the maturation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice. Methods: A total of 39 male ICR mice (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to vehicle-treated and 100 and 200 mg/kg G...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
Marjan Tanzifi, Mohammad Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mojtaba Karami, Samira Karimi, Asieh Dehghani Kiadehi, Kianoush Karimipour, Shaobin Wang
In the present study, a polyaniline/carboxymethyl cellulose/TiO2 nanocomposite (PAn/CMC/TiO2 ) was synthesized by a polymerization method, and was used for adsorption of Congo Red from aqueous solution. The effects of operational parameters of the adsorption process including pH, initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage, and adsorption time on adsorption efficiency were investigated, and response surface methodology was used for their optimization. Optimal adsorption conditions were determined at pH of 2...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Shuichi Hayashi, Louise Upton, Zachary Nolan, Diana Casas-Torremocha, Eleanor Grant, Sarada Viswanathan, Patrick O Kanold, Francisco Clasca, Yongsoo Kim, Zoltán Molnár
The thalamus receives input from 3 distinct cortical layers, but input from only 2 of these has been well characterized. We therefore investigated whether the third input, derived from layer 6b, is more similar to the projections from layer 6a or layer 5. We studied the projections of a restricted population of deep layer 6 cells ("layer 6b cells") taking advantage of the transgenic mouse Tg(Drd1a-cre)FK164Gsat/Mmucd (Drd1a-Cre), that selectively expresses Cre-recombinase in a subpopulation of layer 6b neurons across the entire cortical mantle...
February 22, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Hiroki Toyoda
The insular cortex is known to play a pivotal role in addiction to nicotine. Long-term depression (LTD) in the central nervous system is a major form of synaptic plasticity which is involved in learning and memory and in various pathological conditions such as nicotine addiction. Until now, effects of nicotine on LTD were mainly examined in the hippocampus and striatum, and there is no report showing the effects of nicotine on LTD in the insular cortex. In the present study, I show for the first time that nicotine facilitates LTD which is induced by combination of presynaptic stimulation with postsynaptic depolarization (paired training) in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Gerard J Marek, Brian P Ramos
5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A ) receptors are enriched in layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex and their activation increases the frequency of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials/currents (EPSP/Cs) onto layer V pyramidal cells. A number of other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are also enriched in cortical layers I and Va and either induce (α1 -adrenergic and orexin2 ) or suppress (metabotropic glutamate2 [mGlu2 ], adenosine A1 , μ-opioid) both 5-HT-induced EPSCs and head twitches or head shakes induced by the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Florence P Varodayan, Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Marisa Roberto, Candice Contet
Excessive alcohol consumption in humans induces deficits in decision making and emotional processing, which indicates a dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study aimed to determine the impact of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation on mouse medial PFC pyramidal neurons. Data were collected 6-8 days into withdrawal from 7 weeks of CIE exposure, a time point when mice exhibit behavioral symptoms of withdrawal. We found that spine maturity in prelimbic (PL) layer 2/3 neurons was increased, while dendritic spines in PL layer 5 neurons or infralimbic (IL) neurons were not affected...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Steven D Briscoe, Caroline B Albertin, Joanna J Rowell, Clifton W Ragsdale
The avian dorsal telencephalon has two vast territories, the nidopallium and the mesopallium, both of which have been shown to contribute substantially to higher cognitive functions. From their connections, these territories have been proposed as equivalent to mammalian neocortical layers 2 and 3, various neocortical association areas, or the amygdala, but whether these are analogies or homologies by descent is unknown. We investigated the molecular profiles of the mesopallium and the nidopallium with RNA-seq...
February 14, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Mary C Elliott, Peter M Tanaka, Ryan W Schwark, Rodrigo Andrade
The prefrontal cortex receives a dense serotonergic innervation that plays an important role in its regulation. However, how serotonin regulates different pyramidal and interneuron cell classes in this area is incompletely understood. Previous work in rats has shown that serotonin differentially regulates two classes of pyramidal cells in layer 5. It excites one class by activating 5-HT 2A receptors, whereas it more subtly modulates the integrative properties of the other by co-activating 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 2A receptors...
January 2018: ENeuro
Georgina A Lean, Yong-Jun Liu, David C Lyon
The basal forebrain provides cholinergic inputs to primary visual cortex (V1) that play a key modulatory role on visual function. While basal forebrain afferents terminate in the infragranular layers of V1, acetylcholine is delivered to more superficial layers through volume transmission. Nevertheless, direct synaptic contact in deep layers 5 and 6 may provide a more immediate effect on V1 modulation. Using helper viruses with cell type specific promoters to target retrograde infection of pseudotyped and genetically modified rabies virus evidence was found for direct synaptic input onto V1 inhibitory neurons...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Maria Giese, Julia Gestrich, Azar Massah, Jonas Peterle, HongYing Wei, Monika Stengl
In the Madeira cockroach pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive (PDF-ir) neurons innervating the circadian clock, the accessory medulla (AME) in the brain's optic lobes, control circadian behavior. Circadian activity rhythms are entrained to daily light-dark cycles only by compound eye photoreceptors terminating in the lamina and medulla. Still, it is unknown which neurons connect the photoreceptors to the clock to allow for light-entrainment. Here, we characterized by multiple-label immunocytochemistry the serotonin (5-HT)-ir anterior fiber fan and GABA-ir pathways connecting the AME- and optic lobe neuropils...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
R Alvarado-Martínez, R G Paredes
One of the regions that constantly produces neurogenesis in the adult brain is the subventricular zone (SVZ), whose new cells migrate to the olfactory bulbs (OB). When the females regulate the copulatory events (paced mating) the number of new cells in the SVZ increases, as well as those observed in the OB 15 days later. However, no changes were observed in the number of cells 45 days after the females paced the sexual interaction. Constant sensory stimulation is an important promoter of cell survival in the OB circuit...
February 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Raya Eilam, Menahem Segal, Rafael Malach, Michael Sela, Ruth Arnon, Rina Aharoni
To elucidate mechanisms contributing to cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated neurovascular aberrations, in particular the association of astrocytes with cortical neurons and blood vessels, in mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction was evident by leakage of the tracer sodium fluorescein, along with reduced expression of claudin-5 by endothelial cells and desmin by pericytes. Immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses revealed detachment of the astroglial cell bodies from the blood vessels and loss of their connections with both the blood vessels and the neuronal synapses...
February 9, 2018: Glia
Emily K Stephens, Arielle L Baker, Allan T Gulledge
Serotonin (5-HT) selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current), or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs). However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s) involved...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Richárd Fiáth, Bogdan Cristian Raducanu, Silke Musa, Alexandru Andrei, Carolina Mora Lopez, Chris van Hoof, Patrick Ruther, Arno Aarts, Domonkos Horváth, István Ulbert
In this study, we developed and validated a single-shank silicon-based neural probe with 128 closely-packed microelectrodes suitable for high-resolution extracellular recordings. The 8-mm-long, 100-µm-wide and 50-µm-thick implantable shank of the probe fabricated using a 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) metallization technology contains square-shaped (20 × 20 µm2 ), low-impedance (~ 50 kΩ at 1 kHz) recording sites made of rough and porous titanium nitride which are arranged in a 32 × 4 dense array with an inter-electrode pitch of 22...
May 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Hiroki Toyoda
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the insular cortex play an important role in nicotine addiction, but its cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction still remain unresolved. In layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex, activation of nAChRs suppresses synaptic potentiation through enhancing GABAergic synaptic transmission via activation of β2-containing nAChRs in non-fast-spiking (non-FS) interneurons. However, it has not been addressed whether and how activation of nAChRs modulates synaptic plasticity in layer 3 and 6 pyramidal neurons of the insular cortex...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Agnieszka Oponowicz, Anna Kozłowska, Sławomir Gonkowski, Janusz Godlewski, Mariusz Majewski
The present study analysed changes in the distribution pattern of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the human colon challenged by adenocarcinoma invasion, using the double-labelling immunofluorescence technique. In control specimens, CART immunoreactivity was found in neurons of all studied plexuses, representing 30.1 ± 4.1%, 12.9 ± 5.2%, and 4.1 ± 1.3% of all neurons forming the myenteric plexus (MP), outer submucous plexus (OSP), and inner submucous plexus (ISP), respectively...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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