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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941008/non-canonical-bases-in-the-genome-the-regulatory-information-layer-in-dna
#1
Thomas Carell, Matthias Q Kurz, Markus Müller, Martin Rossa, Fabio Spada
The sequence of the four canonical bases dA, dC, dG and dT forming two defined Watson-Crick base pairs (dT:dA, dG:dC), held together by H-bonding, establish the sequence information in the DNA double strand. The faithful replication of the sequence information during cell division, the transcription of the DNA information into RNA and the final translation of the sequence information into proteins is the basis for life on earth. Multicellular organisms developed the concept of specialized cells that perform specific functions...
September 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939666/the-e2a-splice-variant-e47-regulates-the-differentiation-of-projection-neurons-via-p57-kip2-during-cortical-development
#2
Sabrina Pfurr, Yu-Hsuan Chu, Christian Bohrer, Franziska Greulich, Robert Beattie, Könül Mammadzada, Miriam Hils, Sebastian J Arnold, Verdon Taylor, Kristina Schachtrup, N Henriette Uhlenhaut, Christian Schachtrup
During corticogenesis, distinct classes of neurons are born from progenitor cells located in the ventricular and subventricular zones, from where they migrate towards the pial surface to assemble into highly organized layer-specific circuits. However, the precise and coordinated transcriptional network activity defining neuronal identity is still not understood. Here, we show that genetic depletion of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor E2A splice variant E47 increased the number of Tbr1-positive deep layer and Satb2-positive upper layer neurons at E14...
September 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936162/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-transcription-factor-fezf2-in-the-mature-motor-cortex
#3
Alison J Clare, Hollie E Wicky, Ruth M Empson, Stephanie M Hughes
Forebrain embryonic zinc finger (Fezf2) encodes a transcription factor essential for the specification of layer 5 projection neurons (PNs) in the developing cerebral cortex. As with many developmental transcription factors, Fezf2 continues to be expressed into adulthood, suggesting it remains crucial to the maintenance of neuronal phenotypes. Despite the continued expression, a function has yet to be explored for Fezf2 in the PNs of the developed cortex. Here, we investigated the role of Fezf2 in mature neurons, using lentiviral-mediated delivery of a shRNA to conditionally knockdown the expression of Fezf2 in the mouse primary motor cortex (M1)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935710/neural-specific-deletion-of-the-focal-adhesion-adaptor-protein-paxillin-slows-migration-speed-and-delays-cortical-layer-formation
#4
Mamunur Rashid, Judson Belmont, David Carpenter, Christopher E Turner, Eric C Olson
Paxillin and Hic-5 are homologous focal adhesion adaptor proteins that coordinate cytoskeletal rearrangements in response to integrin-signaling, but their role(s) in cortical development are unknown. Here, we find that Hic-5 deficient mice are postnatal viable with normal cortical layering. Mice with a neural-specific deletion of paxillin are also postnatal viable, but show evidence of a cortical neuron migration delay that is evident pre and perinatally, but is not detected at postnatal day 35 (P35). This phenotype is not modified by Hic-5 deficiency (double knockout)...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926578/tet-mediated-dna-hydroxymethylation-regulates-retinal-neurogenesis-by-modulating-cell-extrinsic-signaling-pathways
#5
Pawat Seritrakul, Jeffrey M Gross
DNA hydroxymethylation has recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating gene expression and terminal differentiation events in a variety of developmental contexts. However, little is known about its function during eye development. Methylcytosine dioxygenases of the Tet family convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an epigenetic mark thought to serve as a precursor for DNA demethylation and as a stable mark in neurons. Here, we report a requirement for Tet activity during zebrafish retinal neurogenesis...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920103/existence-of-brain-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-isoreceptor-complexes-with-antagonistic-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-regulating-5-ht1a-receptor-recognition
#6
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Xiang Li, Alexander O Tarakanov, David Savelli, Manuel Narváez, Kirill Shumilov, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Bartosz Pomierny, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Riccardo Cuppini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903039/polyploidy-and-the-cellular-and-areal-diversity-of-rat-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#7
Johanna Sigl-Glöckner, Michael Brecht
In many species, polyploidy, in which an increase in nuclear DNA content is accompanied by an increase in cell size, contributes to cellular diversity. In the rat visual cortex, most neurons are small and homogeneous in size, while layer 5 cells are heterogeneous, containing some very large neurons. To measure DNA content, we quantified nuclear chromocenters and integrated DNA/DAPI fluorescence. The results suggest that most cortical neurons, non-neuronal cells, parvalbumin-positive interneurons, and large entorhinal layer 2 stellate projection neurons are diploid...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894995/ibuprofen-loaded-fibrous-patches-taming-inhibition-at-the-spinal-cord-injury-site
#8
Liliana R Pires, Cátia D F Lopes, Daniela Salvador, Daniela N Rocha, Ana Paula Pêgo
It is now widely accepted that a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI) demands a multi-target approach. Here we propose the use of an easily implantable bilayer polymeric patch based on poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-ε-caprolactone) (P(TMC-CL)) that combines physical guidance cues provided by electrospun aligned fibres and the delivery of ibuprofen, as a mean to reduce the inhibitory environment at the lesion site by taming RhoA activation. Bilayer patches comprised a solvent cast film onto which electrospun aligned fibres have been deposited...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893999/cortically-coordinated-nrem-thalamocortical-oscillations-play-an-essential-instructive-role-in-visual-system-plasticity
#9
Jaclyn Durkin, Aneesha K Suresh, Julie Colbath, Christopher Broussard, Jiaxing Wu, Michal Zochowski, Sara J Aton
Two long-standing questions in neuroscience are how sleep promotes brain plasticity and why some forms of plasticity occur preferentially during sleep vs. wake. Establishing causal relationships between specific features of sleep (e.g., network oscillations) and sleep-dependent plasticity has been difficult. Here we demonstrate that presentation of a novel visual stimulus (a single oriented grating) causes immediate, instructive changes in the firing of mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons, leading to increased firing-rate responses to the presented stimulus orientation (relative to other orientations)...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880978/quantitative-assessment-of-microstructural-changes-of-the-retina-in-infants-with-congenital-zika-syndrome
#10
Tomas S Aleman, Camila V Ventura, Milena M Cavalcanti, Leona W Serrano, Anastasia Traband, Akosua A Nti, Adriana L Gois, Vasco Bravo-Filho, Thayze T Martins, Charles W Nichols, Mauricio Maia, Rubens Belfort
Importance: A better pathophysiologic understanding of the neurodevelopmental abnormalities observed in neonates exposed in utero to Zika virus (ZIKV) is needed to develop treatments. The retina as an extension of the diencephalon accessible to in vivo microcopy with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) can provide an insight into the pathophysiology of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Objective: To quantify the microstructural changes of the retina in CZS and compare these changes with those of cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, a disease with potential retinal maldevelopment...
September 7, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867588/light-deprivation-produces-distinct-morphological-orchestrations-on-rgcs-and-cortical-cells-in-a-depressive-like-yfp-h-mouse-model
#11
Chanyi Lu, Qi-Qin Li, Yao-Yao Li, Hua-Zhen Lin, Jia Qu, Yun Wang, Yun-Feng Zhang
Neural physiological functions and synaptic changes underlying the pathogenesis of depression have obtained great achievements. However, neuronal morphological changes under a depressive state have not been well understood yet. Here a depressive-like YFP-H transgenic mouse model was produced by light deprivation (LD), and morphological changes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and primary visual and auditory cortical layer 5 pyramidal cells (L5PCs) were investigated. Three distinct RGC subtypes were identified based on soma- and dendritic field (DF) size...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867578/streptozotocin-induced-hippocampal-astrogliosis-and-insulin-signaling-malfunction-as-experimental-scales-for-subclinical-sporadic-alzheimer-model
#12
Farzaneh Rostami, Mohammad Javan, Ali Moghimi, Aliakbar Haddad-Mashadrizeh, Masoud Fereidoni
AIMS: Insulin signaling malfunction has recently been suggested as a preliminary event involved in the etiology of Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD). In order to develop insulin resistance-related SAD model, rats were treated with streptozotocin, intracerebroventricularly (icv-STZ). Nevertheless, given the lack of knowledge regarding sub-clinical stages of SAD, the current challenging issue is establishing a practical pre-clinical SAD model. Despite some proposed mechanisms, such as insulin malfunction, neuroinflammation, and gliosis, icv-STZ mechanism of action is not fully understood yet and Streptozotocin-induced rat model of Alzheimer has still major shortcomings...
August 31, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863230/dorsal-and-ventral-parts-of-thalamic-nucleus-submedius-project-to-different-areas-of-rat-orbitofrontal-cortex-a-single-neuron-tracing-study-using-virus-vectors
#13
Eriko Kuramoto, Haruki Iwai, Atsushi Yamanaka, Sachi Ohno, Haruka Seki, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Takahiro Furuta, Hiroyuki Hioki, Tetsuya Goto
The rodent orbitofrontal cortex is involved in a variety of cognitive and behavioral functions that require thalamic input to be successfully expressed. Although the thalamic nucleus submedius (Sm) is a major source of afferents to the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamocortical projection from the Sm has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we first divided the rat Sm into dorsal and ventral parts according to the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive varicosities, which were somatosensory afferents from the brain stem...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862490/phytoextraction-potential-of-water-fern-azolla-pinnata-in-the-removal-of-a-hazardous-dye-methyl-violet-2b-artificial-neural-network-modelling
#14
Muhammad Raziq Rahimi Kooh, Linda B L Lim, Lee Hoon Lim, Owais Ahmed Malik
This study investigated the potential of Azolla pinnata (AP) in the removal of toxic methyl violet 2B (MV) dye wastewater using the phytoextraction approach with the inclusion of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling. Parameters examined included the effects of dye concentration, pH and plant dosage. The highest removal efficiency was 93% which was achieved at a plant dosage of 0.8 g (dye volume = 200 mL, initial pH = 6.0, initial dye concentration = 10 mg L(-1)). A significant decrease in relative frond number (RFN), a growth rate estimator, observed at a dye concentration of 20 mg L(-1) MV indicated some toxicity, which coincided with the plant pigments studies where the chlorophyll a content was lower than the control...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861029/repeatability-and-reproducibility-of-retinal-neuronal-and-axonal-measures-on-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-in-patients-with-cognitive-impairment
#15
Edwin Hong-Teck Loh, Yi-Ting Ong, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Saima Hilal, Naing Thet, Tien Yin Wong, Christopher P L Chen, Carol Yim-Lui Cheung
BACKGROUND: With increasing interest in determining if measurement of retinal neuronal structure with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is useful in accessing neurodegenerative process in cognitive decline and development of dementia, it is important to evaluate whether the SD-OCT measurements are repeatable and reproducible in these patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with no change in global clinical dementia rating (CDR) score at 1-year follow-up were eligible to be included...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860962/cell-proliferation-migration-and-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-of-the-pulse-type-weakly-electric-fish-gymnotus-omarorum
#16
Valentina Olivera-Pasilio, Moira Lasserre, María E Castelló
Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833113/dorsal-and-ventral-parts-of-thalamic-nucleus-submedius-project-to-different-areas-of-rat-orbitofrontal-cortex-a-single-neuron-tracing-study-using-virus-vectors
#17
Eriko Kuramoto, Haruki Iwai, Atsushi Yamanaka, Sachi Ohno, Haruka Seki, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Takahiro Furuta, Hiroyuki Hioki, Tetsuya Goto
The rodent orbitofrontal cortex is involved in a variety of cognitive and behavioral functions that require thalamic input to be successfully expressed. Although the thalamic nucleus submedius (Sm) is a major source of afferents to the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamocortical projection from the Sm has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we first divided the rat Sm into dorsal and ventral parts according to the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive varicosities, which were somatosensory afferents from the brain stem...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831740/expression-of-mir-155-associated-with-toll-like-receptors-3-7-and-9-transcription-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-cattle-naturally-infected-with-bhv5
#18
Bruna R S M Oliveira, Flavia V Vieira, Dielson de S Vieira, Sergio E L da Silva, Roberto Gameiro, Eduardo F Flores, Tereza C Cardoso
Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV5) infection of young cattle is frequently associated with fatal neurological disease and, as such, represents an attractive model for studying the pathogenesis of viral-induced meningoencephalitis. Following replication in the nasal mucosa, BHV5 invades the central nervous system (CNS) mainly through the olfactory pathway. The innate immune response triggered by the host face to virus replication through the olfactory route is poorly understood. Recently, an upregulation of conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern, as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), has been demonstrated in the CNS of BHV5 experimentally infected cows...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831734/interactions-of-hallucinogens-with-the-glutamatergic-system-permissive-network-effects-mediated-through-cortical-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons
#19
Gerard J Marek
Recordings made from layer V (L5) pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and neocortex in rodent slice preparations have shown that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and serotonergic hallucinogens induce an increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the apical dendritic field by activating 5-HT2A receptors. Serotonergic hallucinogens induce late EPSCs and increase recurrent network activity when subcortical or mid-cortical regions are stimulated at low frequencies (e...
August 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830730/identification-and-distribution-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-neurochemical-markers-in-the-neuroepithelial-cells-of-the-gill-and-the-skin-in-the-giant-mudskipper-periophthalmodon-schlosseri
#20
Giacomo Zaccone, Eugenia Rita Lauriano, Michał Kuciel, Gioele Capillo, Simona Pergolizzi, Alessio Alesci, Atsushi Ishimatsu, Yuen Kwong Ip, Jose M Icardo
Mudskippers are amphibious fishes living in mudflats and mangroves. These fishes hold air in their large buccopharyngeal-opercular cavities where respiratory gas exchange takes place via the gills and higher vascularized epithelium lining the cavities and also the skin epidermis. Although aerial ventilation response to changes in ambient gas concentration has been studied in mudskippers, the localization and distribution of respiratory chemoreceptors, their neurochemical coding and function as well as physiological evidence for the gill or skin as site for O2 and CO2 sensing are currently not known...
August 5, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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