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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#1
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325790/dopamine-terminals-from-the-ventral-tegmental-area-gate-intrinsic-inhibition-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#2
William C Buchta, Stephen V Mahler, Benjamin Harlan, Gary S Aston-Jones, Arthur C Riegel
Spike frequency adaptation (SFA or accommodation) and calcium-activated potassium channels that underlie after-hyperpolarization potentials (AHP) regulate repetitive firing of neurons. Precisely how neuromodulators such as dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate SFA and AHP (together referred to as intrinsic inhibition) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unclear. Using whole cell electrophysiology, we measured intrinsic inhibition in prelimbic (PL) layer 5 pyramidal cells of male adult rats...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293164/double-barrier-memristive-devices-for-unsupervised-learning-and-pattern-recognition
#3
Mirko Hansen, Finn Zahari, Martin Ziegler, Hermann Kohlstedt
The use of interface-based resistive switching devices for neuromorphic computing is investigated. In a combined experimental and numerical study, the important device parameters and their impact on a neuromorphic pattern recognition system are studied. The memristive cells consist of a layer sequence Al/Al2O3/Nb x O y /Au and are fabricated on a 4-inch wafer. The key functional ingredients of the devices are a 1.3 nm thick Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a 2.5 mm thick Nb x O y memristive layer. Voltage pulse measurements are used to study the electrical conditions for the emulation of synaptic functionality of single cells for later use in a recognition system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289377/loss-of-saltation-and-presynaptic-action-potential-failure-in-demyelinated-axons
#4
Mustafa S Hamada, Marko A Popovic, Maarten H P Kole
In cortical pyramidal neurons the presynaptic terminals controlling transmitter release are located along unmyelinated axon collaterals, far from the original action potential (AP) initiation site, the axon initial segment (AIS). Once initiated, APs will need to reliably propagate over long distances and regions of geometrical inhomogeneity like branch points (BPs) to rapidly depolarize the presynaptic terminals and confer temporally precise synaptic transmission. While axon pathologies such as demyelinating diseases are well established to impede the fidelity of AP propagation along internodes, to which extent myelin loss affects propagation along BPs and axon collaterals is not well understood...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280483/outer-plexiform-layer-structures-are-not-altered-following-aav-mediated-gene-transfer-in-healthy-rat-retina
#5
Bert C Giers, Daniela Klein, Alexandra Mendes-Madeira, Carolina Isiegas, Birgit Lorenz, Silke Haverkamp, Knut Stieger
Ocular gene therapy approaches have been developed for a variety of different diseases. In particular, clinical gene therapy trials for RPE65 mutations, X-linked retinoschisis, and choroideremia have been conducted at different centers in recent years, showing that adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is safe, but limitations exist as to the therapeutic benefit and long-term duration of the treatment. The technique of vector delivery to retinal cells relies on subretinal injection of the vector solution, causing a transient retinal detachment...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280327/biocompatibility-of-very-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-murine-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures-and-the-role-of-microglia
#6
Martin Pohland, Robert Glumm, Frank Wiekhorst, Jürgen Kiwit, Jana Glumm
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are applied as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and treatment of neurologic diseases despite the fact that important information concerning their local interactions is still lacking. Due to their small size, SPIO have great potential for magnetically labeling different cell populations, facilitating their MRI tracking in vivo. Before SPIO are applied, however, their effect on cell viability and tissue homoeostasis should be studied thoroughly...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269304/effects-of-electrode-displacement-in-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-computational-study
#7
Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun
In order to understand better the ways in which cortical excitability is linked to target brain areas, this study describes the effects of focalized high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), and investigates the way in which these effects persisted after the stimulus electrodes were displaced from the target area. We constructed a 3D volume conduction model of an anatomically realistic head that is ideal for HD-tDCS, as well as compartmental models of layer 3 and layer 5 pyramidal neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265099/neonatal-cx26-removal-impairs-neocortical-development-and-leads-to-elevated-anxiety
#8
Xin Su, Jing-Jing Chen, Lin-Yun Liu, Qian Huang, Li-Zhao Zhang, Xiao-Yang Li, Xiang-Nan He, Wenlian Lu, Shan Sun, Huawei Li, Yong-Chun Yu
Electrical coupling between excitatory neurons in the neocortex is developmentally regulated. It is initially prominent but eliminated at later developmental stages when chemical synapses emerge. However, it remains largely unclear whether early electrical coupling networks broadly contribute to neocortical circuit formation and animal behavior. Here, we report that neonatal electrical coupling between neocortical excitatory neurons is critical for proper neuronal development, synapse formation, and animal behavior...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261911/alterations-in-the-small-intestinal-wall-and-motor-function-after-repeated-cisplatin-in-rat
#9
J A Uranga, J M García-Martínez, C García-Jiménez, G Vera, M I Martín-Fontelles, R Abalo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal adverse effects occurring during cancer chemotherapy are well known and feared; those persisting once treatment has finished are relatively unknown. We characterized the alterations occurring in the rat small intestine, after repeated treatment with cisplatin. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received saline or cisplatin (2 mg kg(-1)  week(-1) , for 5 weeks, ip). Gastric motor function was studied non-invasively throughout treatment (W1-W5) and 1 week after treatment finalization (W6)...
March 6, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250154/a-systems-based-analysis-of-dendritic-nonlinearities-reveals-temporal-feature-extraction-in-mouse-l5-cortical-neurons
#10
Brian E Kalmbach, Richard Gray, Daniel Johnston, Erik P Cook
What do dendritic nonlinearities tell a neuron about signals injected into the dendrite? Linear and nonlinear dendritic components affect how time-varying inputs are transformed into action potentials (APs), but the relative contribution of each component is unclear. We developed a novel systems-identification approach to isolate the nonlinear response of layer 5 pyramidal neuron dendrites in mouse prefrontal cortex in response to dendritic current injections. We then quantified the nonlinear component and its effect on the soma using functional models composed of linear filters and static nonlinearities...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247020/immunohistochemical-and-biochemical-evidence-for-the-presence-of-serotonin-containing-neurons-and-nerve-fibers-in-the-octopus-arm
#11
Jean-Pierre Bellier, Yu Xie, Sameh Mohamed Farouk, Yuko Sakaue, Ikuo Tooyama, Hiroshi Kimura
The octopus arm contains a tridimensional array of muscles with a massive sensory-motor system. We herein provide the first evidence for the existence of serotonin (5-HT) in the octopus arm nervous system and investigated its distribution using immunohistochemistry. 5-HT-like immunoreactive (5-HT-lir) nerve cell bodies were exclusively localized in the cellular layer of the axial nerve cord. Those cell bodies emitted 5-HT-lir nerve fibers in the direction of the sucker, the intramuscular nerves cords, the ganglion of the sucker, and the intrinsic musculature...
February 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227541/effects-of-electrode-displacement-in-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-computational-study
#12
Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Hyeon Seo
In order to understand better the ways in which cortical excitability is linked to target brain areas, this study describes the effects of focalized high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), and investigates the way in which these effects persisted after the stimulus electrodes were displaced from the target area. We constructed a 3D volume conduction model of an anatomically realistic head that is ideal for HD-tDCS, as well as compartmental models of layer 3 and layer 5 pyramidal neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205585/neuronally-directed-effects-of-rxr-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
M M Mariani, T Malm, R Lamb, T R Jay, L Neilson, B Casali, L Medarametla, G E Landreth
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive neuron loss that accompanies profound impairments in memory and cognition. We examined the neuronally directed effects of the retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene in an aggressive model of AD. We report that a two week treatment of 3.5 month old 5XFAD mice with bexarotene resulted in the clearance of intraneuronal amyloid deposits. Importantly, neuronal loss was attenuated by 44% in the subiculum in mice 4 months of age and 18% in layer V of the cortex in mice 8 months of age...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#14
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203145/bidirectional-hebbian-plasticity-induced-by-low-frequency-stimulation-in-basal-dendrites-of-rat-barrel-cortex-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#15
Andrea Díez-García, Natali Barros-Zulaica, Ángel Núñez, Washington Buño, David Fernández de Sevilla
According to Hebb's original hypothesis (Hebb, 1949), synapses are reinforced when presynaptic activity triggers postsynaptic firing, resulting in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy. Long-term depression (LTD) is a use-dependent decrease in synaptic strength that is thought to be due to synaptic input causing a weak postsynaptic effect. Although the mechanisms that mediate long-term synaptic plasticity have been investigated for at least three decades not all question have as yet been answered...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178169/an-artificial-neural-network-prediction-model-of-congenital-heart-disease-based-on-risk-factors-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#16
Huixia Li, Miyang Luo, Jianfei Zheng, Jiayou Luo, Rong Zeng, Na Feng, Qiyun Du, Junqun Fang
An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the risks of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnant women.This hospital-based case-control study involved 119 CHD cases and 239 controls all recruited from birth defect surveillance hospitals in Hunan Province between July 2013 and June 2014. All subjects were interviewed face-to-face to fill in a questionnaire that covered 36 CHD-related variables. The 358 subjects were randomly divided into a training set and a testing set at the ratio of 85:15...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164735/ameliorating-effect-of-celastrus-paniculatus-standardized-extract-and-its-fractions-on-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-neuronal-damage-in-rats-possible-antioxidant-mechanism
#17
Jai Malik, Maninder Karan, Rachna Dogra
CONTEXT: Celastrus paniculatus Wild. (Celasteraceae) (CP) is a well-known Ayurvedic 'Medhya Rasayana' (nervine tonic), used extensively as a neuro-protective and memory enhancer, and in different central nervous system disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of CP against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced Huntington's disease (HD) like symptoms in Wistar male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol extract of CP seeds (CPEE), prepared by maceration, was standardized on the basis of linoleic acid content (6...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164368/bdnf-induced-endocannabinoid-release-modulates-neocortical-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#18
Mason L Yeh, Rajamani Selvam, Eric S Levine
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) and neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are potent neuromodulators found throughout the mammalian neocortex. Both eCBs and BDNF play critical roles in many behavioral and neurophysiological processes and are targets for the development of novel therapeutics. The effects of eCBs and BDNF are primarily mediated by the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor and the trkB tyrosine kinase receptor, respectively. Our laboratory and others have previously established that BDNF potentiates excitatory transmission by enhancing presynaptic glutamate release and modulating NMDA receptors...
February 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144785/afferent-neural-pathways-from-the-photoperiodic-receptor-in-the-bean-bug-riptortus-pedestris
#19
Jili Xi, Ikuyo Toyoda, Sakiko Shiga
Adult diapause in the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is controlled by the photoperiod, which is received by retinal cells in the central region of the compound eyes. To resolve the afferent neural pathways involved in the photoperiodic response, we examine fibre projections from the photoperiodic receptors to the brain and investigate the roles of the posterior optic tract (POT) in the photoperiodic response. Reduced-silver impregnation and synapsin immunolabelling revealed that the medulla was divided into nine strata: the outer layer comprises 4 strata, the inner layer comprises 4 strata and a serpentine layer separates the inner and outer layers...
February 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139019/from-single-cells-single-columns-to-cortical-networks-dendritic-excitability-coincidence-detection-and-synaptic-transmission-in-brain-slices-and-brains
#20
Bert Sakmann
While patch pipettes were initially designed to record extracellularly elementary current events from muscle and neuron membrane, the whole-cell (eg Sakmann, 1992) and loose cell-attached recording configurations proved to be useful tools for examining signaling within and between nerve cells. In this Paton Lecture I will summarize first work on electrical signaling within single neurons, describing communication between its dendritic compartments, soma and nerve terminals via forward and backward propagating action potentials...
January 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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