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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765308/diverse-long-range-axonal-projections-of-excitatory-layer-2-3-neurons-in-mouse-barrel-cortex
#1
Takayuki Yamashita, Angeliki Vavladeli, Aurélie Pala, Katia Galan, Sylvain Crochet, Sara S A Petersen, Carl C H Petersen
Excitatory projection neurons of the neocortex are thought to play important roles in perceptual and cognitive functions of the brain by directly connecting diverse cortical and subcortical areas. However, many aspects of the anatomical organization of these inter-areal connections are unknown. Here, we studied long-range axonal projections of excitatory layer 2/3 neurons with cell bodies located in mouse primary somatosensory barrel cortex (wS1). As a population, these neurons densely projected to secondary whisker somatosensory cortex (wS2) and primary/secondary whisker motor cortex (wM1/2), with additional axon in the dysgranular zone surrounding the barrel field, perirhinal temporal association cortex and striatum...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764313/2-5-hexanedione-increases-the-percentage-of-proliferative-sox2-cells-in-rat-hippocampus
#2
Longjuan Wang, Shuang Liu, Dan Su, Feng Chen, Tengteng Lei, Haibo Chen, Wei Dong, Yue Jiang, Xiance Sun, Wenchang Sun
n-Hexane is an organic solvent widely used in industry. 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD), the major neurotoxic metabolite of n-hexane, decreases the levels of neurofilaments (NFs) in neurons. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life, and the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of two major brain areas showing neurogenesis in adulthood. In the current study, rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline solution or 2,5-HD five times per week for five continuous weeks. 2,5-HD was administered to the low-dose and high-dose groups at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760466/two-photon-imaging-of-neuronal-activity-in-motor-cortex-of-marmosets-during-upper-limb-movement-tasks
#3
Teppei Ebina, Yoshito Masamizu, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Akiya Watakabe, Reiko Hirakawa, Yuka Hirayama, Riichiro Hira, Shin-Ichiro Terada, Daisuke Koketsu, Kazuo Hikosaka, Hiroaki Mizukami, Atsushi Nambu, Erika Sasaki, Tetsuo Yamamori, Masanori Matsuzaki
Two-photon imaging in behaving animals has revealed neuronal activities related to behavioral and cognitive function at single-cell resolution. However, marmosets have posed a challenge due to limited success in training on motor tasks. Here we report the development of protocols to train head-fixed common marmosets to perform upper-limb movement tasks and simultaneously perform two-photon imaging. After 2-5 months of training sessions, head-fixed marmosets can control a manipulandum to move a cursor to a target on a screen...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760176/postnatal-ablation-of-synaptic-retinoic-acid-signaling-impairs-cortical-information-processing-and-sensory-discrimination-in-mice
#4
Esther Park, Michelle Tjia, Yi Zuo, Lu Chen
Retinoic acid (RA) and its receptors (RARs) are well-established essential transcriptional regulators during embryonic development. Recent findings in cultured neurons identified an independent and critical post-transcriptional role of RA and RARα in the homeostatic regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in mature neurons. However, the functional relevance of synaptic RA signaling in vivo has not been established. Here, using somatosensory cortex as a model system and the RARα conditional knockout mouse as a tool, we applied multiple genetic manipulations to delete RARα postnatally in specific populations of cortical neurons, and asked whether synaptic RA signaling observed in cultured neurons is involved in cortical information processing in vivo Indeed, conditional ablation of RARα in mice via a CaMKIIα-Cre or a layer 5-Cre driver line or via somatosensory cortex-specific viral expression of Cre-recombinase impaired whisker-dependent texture discrimination, suggesting a critical requirement of RARα expression in L5 pyramidal neurons of somatosensory cortex for normal tactile sensory processing...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750734/evolution-of-visual-outcomes-in-clinical-trials-for-multiple-sclerosis-disease-modifying-therapies
#5
Rachel C Nolan, Omar Akhand, John-Ross Rizzo, Steven L Galetta, Laura J Balcer
: BACKGROUND:: The visual pathways are increasingly recognized as an ideal model to study neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). Low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are validated measures of function and structure in MS. In fact, LCLA was the topic of a recent review by the Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) to qualify this visual measure as a primary or secondary clinical trial endpoint with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies...
June 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740871/the-neuropeptide-12-n-pep-12-improves-recognition-memory-and-neuronal-plasticity-of-the-limbic-system-in-old-rats
#6
Elizabeth Monserrat Hernández-Hernández, Karen Caporal Hernandez, Rubén Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Alfonso Díaz, Fidel de la Cruz, Benjamin Florán, Gonzalo Flores
Aging is a stage of life where cognitive and motor functions are impaired. This is because oxidative and inflammatory processes exacerbate neurodegeneration, which affects dendritic morphology and neuronal communication of limbic regions with memory loss. Recently, the use of trophic substances has been proposed to prevent neuronal deterioration. The neuropeptide-12 (N-PEP-12) has been evaluated in elderly patients with dementia, showing improvements in cognitive tasks due to acts as a neurotrophic factor. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of N-PEP-12 on motor activity and recognition memory, as well as its effects on dendritic morphology and the immunoreactivity of GFAP, Synaptophysin, and BDNF in neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal hippocampus (DH) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged rats...
May 8, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731710/neuropathic-pain-causes-pyramidal-neuronal-hyperactivity-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#7
Ruohe Zhao, Hang Zhou, Lianyan Huang, Zhongcong Xie, Jing Wang, Wen-Biao Gan, Guang Yang
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is thought to be important for acute pain perception as well as the development of chronic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Nevertheless, how ACC neurons respond to sensory stimulation under chronic pain states is not well understood. Here, we used an in vivo two-photon imaging technique to monitor the activity of individual neurons in the ACC of awake, head restrained mice. Calcium imaging in the dorsal ACC revealed robust somatic activity in layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in response to peripheral noxious stimuli, and the degree of evoked activity was correlated with the intensity of noxious stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730046/color-encoding-in-biologically-inspired-convolutional-neural-networks
#8
Ivet Rafegas, Maria Vanrell
Convolutional Neural Networks have been proposed as suitable frameworks to model biological vision. Some of these artificial networks showed representational properties that rival primate performances in object recognition. In this paper we explore how color is encoded in a trained artificial network. It is performed by estimating a color selectivity index for each neuron, which allows us to describe the neuron activity to a color input stimuli. The index allows us to classify whether they are color selective or not and if they are of a single or double color...
May 11, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722804/hippocampal-radial-glial-subtypes-and-their-neurogenic-potential-in-human-fetuses-and-healthy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-adults
#9
Sara Cipriani, Isidre Ferrer, Eleonora Aronica, Gabor G Kovacs, Catherine Verney, Jeannette Nardelli, Suonavy Khung, Anne-Lise Delezoide, Ivan Milenkovic, Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Philippe Manivet, Jean-Louis Benifla, Nicolas Deriot, Pierre Gressens, Homa Adle-Biassette
Neuropathological conditions might affect adult granulogenesis in the adult human dentate gyrus. However, radial glial cells (RGCs) have not been well characterized during human development and aging. We have previously described progenitor and neuronal layer establishment in the hippocampal pyramidal layer and dentate gyrus from embryonic life until mid-gestation. Here, we describe RGC subtypes in the hippocampus from 13 gestational weeks (GW) to mid-gestation and characterize their evolution and the dynamics of neurogenesis from mid-gestation to adulthood in normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects...
May 2, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719639/retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-changes-following-primary-retinal-detachment-repair-with-silicone-oil-tamponade-and-subsequent-oil-removal
#10
Brijesh Takkar, Rajvardhan Azad, Neha Kamble, Shorya Azad
Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), particularly the temporal RNFL (TRNFL), and visual outcomes following surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: This retrospective study was performed at a tertiary center; 32 patients underwent single and successful vitrectomy for total RRD using silicone oil as tamponade. Data were collected after oil removal. RNFL thickness and central foveal thickness (CFT) were measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography...
April 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715503/repeated-toluene-exposure-increases-the-excitability-of-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-rats
#11
Monserrat Armenta-Resendiz, Silvia L Cruz, Emilio J Galván
Despite serious health effects, volatile industrial products containing toluene are deliberately inhaled for their psychoactive actions, mainly among adolescents and young adults. Chronic toluene inhalation induces multiple alterations at the cellular and behavioral level; however, modifications of neuronal networks associated with the reward system after repeated toluene exposure are not thoroughly characterized. Here we used whole-cell recordings to determine the effects of repeated exposure to toluene (1000, 4000 or 8000 ppm for 30 min, twice a day, for ten days) on the neurophysiological properties of prelimbic layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in adolescent male Wistar rats...
April 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702122/temporally-dissociable-effects-of-ketamine-on-neuronal-discharge-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-thalamo-cortical-networks
#12
Maria Amat-Foraster, Anders A Jensen, Niels Plath, Kjartan F Herrik, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
BACKGROUND: Sub-anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist ketamine evoke transient psychotomimetic effects, followed by persistent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients and rodents through still poorly understood mechanisms. Since phencyclidine (PCP) disinhibits thalamo-cortical networks by blocking NMDA-Rs on GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RtN), we examined ketamine's actions in the same areas...
April 24, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695413/altered-excitability-and-local-connectivity-of-mpfc-pag-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#13
John Cheriyan, Patrick L Sheets
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a major role in both sensory and affective aspects of pain. There is extensive evidence that chronic pain produces functional changes within the mPFC. However, our understanding of local circuit changes to defined subpopulations of mPFC neurons in chronic pain models remains unclear. A major subpopulation of mPFC neurons project to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) which is a key midbrain structure involved in endogenous pain suppression and facilitation. Here, we used laser scanning photostimulation of caged glutamate to map cortical circuits of retrogradely-labeled cortico-PAG (CP) neurons in layer 5 (L5) of mPFC in brain slices prepared from male mice having undergone chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694883/adrenergic-modulation-regulates-the-dendritic-excitability-of-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-vivo
#14
Christina Labarrera, Yair Deitcher, Amir Dudai, Benjamin Weiner, Adi Kaduri Amichai, Neta Zylbermann, Michael London
The excitability of the apical tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons is thought to play a crucial role in behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity. We show that the excitability of the apical tuft is sensitive to adrenergic neuromodulation. Using two-photon dendritic Ca2+ imaging and in vivo whole-cell and extracellular recordings in awake mice, we show that application of the α2A-adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine increases the probability of dendritic Ca2+ events in the tuft and lowers the threshold for dendritic Ca2+ spikes...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694280/model-based-deconstruction-of-cortical-evoked-potentials-generated-by-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation
#15
Karthik Kumaravelu, Chintan S Oza, Christina E Behrend, Warren M Grill
Parkinson's disease is associated with altered neural activity in the motor cortex. High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) suppresses parkinsonian motor symptoms and modulates cortical activity. However, the anatomical pathways responsible for STN DBS mediated cortical modulation remain unclear. Cortical evoked potentials (cEP) generated by STN DBS reflect the response of cortex to subcortical stimulation, and the goal was to determine the neural origin of cEP using a two-step approach...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688328/ethanol-exposure-in-utero-disrupts-radial-migration-and-pyramidal-cell-development-in-the-somatosensory-cortex
#16
Laurie C Delatour, Pamela W Yeh, Hermes H Yeh
Deficits in sensory processing in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) implicate dysfunction in the somatosensory cortex. However, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the development of this region await elucidation. Here, we used an established mouse model of FASD with binge-type ethanol exposure from embryonic day 13.5-16.5 to investigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, we focused on the radial migration of primordial pyramidal neurons during embryonic corticogenesis and their morphology and function during active synaptogenesis in early postnatal development...
April 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686260/excitatory-connections-between-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-medial-prefrontal-cortex-show-a-role-for-the-prelimbic-cortex-in-fear-extinction
#17
Roger Marek, Li Xu, Robert K P Sullivan, Pankaj Sah
We elucidated the intrinsic circuitry of the medial prefrontal cortex and its role in regulating fear extinction, using neuronal tracing and optogenetic stimulation in vitro and in vivo. We show that pyramidal neurons in layer 5/6 of the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex project to pyramidal cells in layer 5/6 of the infralimbic cortex. Activation of this connection enhances fear extinction, redefining the role of the prelimbic cortex in extinction learning.
May 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680273/effects-of-early-eye-removal-on-the-morphology-of-a-multisensory-neuron-in-the-chicken-optic-tectum
#18
Katharina Lischka, Jiamin Yan, Stefan Weigel, Harald Luksch
The midbrain is a subcortical area involved in central functions such as integrating sensory modalities, movement initiation and bottom-up and top-down attention. In chicken, the midbrain roof is termed optic tectum (TeO) and consists of 15 layers with distinct in- and output regions. Visual input targets the superficial layers, while auditory input terminates in deeper layers. It has been shown that ablation of sensory epithelia leads to changes in the cellular patterning and structural organization of the sensory pathways...
April 19, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677839/spiking-neural-networks-with-unsupervised-learning-based-on-stdp-using-resistive-synaptic-devices-and-analog-cmos-neuron-circuit
#19
Min-Woo Kwon, Myung-Hyun Baek, Sungmin Hwang, Sungjun Kim, Byung-Gook Park
We designed the CMOS analog integrate and fire (I&F) neuron circuit can drive resistive synaptic device. The neuron circuit consists of a current mirror for spatial integration, a capacitor for temporal integration, asymmetric negative and positive pulse generation part, a refractory part, and finally a back-propagation pulse generation part for learning of the synaptic devices. The resistive synaptic devices were fabricated using HfOx switching layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The resistive synaptic device had gradual set and reset characteristics and the conductance was adjusted by spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP) learning rule...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670095/single-synaptic-inputs-drive-high-precision-action-potentials-in-parvalbumin-expressing-gaba-ergic-cortical-neurons-in-vivo
#20
Jean-Sébastien Jouhanneau, Jens Kremkow, James F A Poulet
A defining feature of cortical layer 2/3 excitatory neurons is their sparse activity, often firing in singlets of action potentials. Local inhibitory neurons are thought to play a major role in regulating sparseness, but which cell types are recruited by single excitatory synaptic inputs is unknown. Using multiple, targeted, in vivo whole-cell recordings, we show that single u EPSPs have little effect on the firing rates of excitatory neurons and somatostatin-expressing GABA-ergic inhibitory neurons but evoke precisely timed action potentials in parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
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