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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139167/the-zinc-finger-gene-nolz1-regulates-the-formation-of-retinal-progenitor-cells-and-suppresses-the-lim3-lhx3-phenotype-of-retinal-bipolar-cells-in-chicken-retina
#1
Maria K E Blixt, Dardan Konjusha, Henrik Ring, Finn Hallböök
BACKGROUND: The zinc-finger transcription factor Nolz1 regulates spinal cord neuron development by interacting with the transcription factors Isl1, Lim1 and Lim3, which are also important for photoreceptors, horizontal and bipolar cells during retinal development. We therefore studied Nolz1 during retinal development. RESULTS: Nolz1 expression was seen in two waves during development: one early (peak at embryonic day 3-4.5) in retinal progenitors and one late (embryonic day 8) in newly differentiated cells in the inner nuclear layer...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138110/neuronal-loss-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex-of-normal-and-bax-deficient-mice-effects-of-ethanol-exposure
#2
Sheena M Britton, Michael W Miller
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is associated with defects in neuronal generation, migration, and differentiation. The present study tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure during the period of naturally occurring neuronal death causes a time- and Bax-dependent neuronal loss. Wild-type and Bax knockout mice were given a pair of injections (two hours apart) of ethanol (2.5 g/kg) or saline on postnatal day (P) 4, P7, P10, or P13. Mean blood ethanol concentration was 435 mg/dl one hour after the second injection...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131436/gabab-receptors-in-neocortical-and-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-are-coupled-to-different-potassium-channels
#3
Jean-Didier Breton, Greg J Stuart
Classically, GABAB receptors are thought to regulate neuronal excitability via G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. Recent data, however, indicates that GABAB receptors can also activate two-pore domain potassium channels. Here, we investigate which potassium channels are coupled to GABAB receptors in rat neocortical layer 5 and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Bath application of the non-specific GIRK channel blocker barium (200 μM) abolished outward currents evoked by GABAB receptors in CA1 pyramidal, but only partially blocked GABAB responses in layer 5 neurons...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129405/neurogenesis-and-morphological-neural-alterations-closely-related-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-25-35-induced-memory-impairment-in-male-rats
#4
Eleazar Ramírez, Liliana Mendieta, Gonzalo Flores, I Daniel Limón
Memory impairment by the Amyloid-β 25-35 (Aβ25-35) peptide in animal models has provided an understanding of the causes behind the similar deterioration that occurs in Alzheimer's disease. However, it is uncertain if a decrease of dendritic spines and neurogenesis conduces to cognitive impairment by an impairment in the retrieval of stored memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of impairment on spatial memory caused by the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide in the hippocampus, which is associated whit morphological changes and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG)...
November 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121216/fast-inhibitory-decay-facilitates-adult-like-temporal-processing-in-layer-5-of-developing-primary-auditory-cortex
#5
Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Dongqin Cai, Miaomiao Liu, Yin Yue, Yiwei Wang, Kexin Yuan
The protracted maturational process of temporal processing in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1) has been extensively studied. Accumulating evidences show that layer 5 (L5) receives direct thalamic inputs as well. How the temporal responses in L5 may developmentally emerge remains unclear. Using in vivo loose-patch recordings in rat A1, we found that putative pyramidal (Pyr) neurons in developing L5 exhibited adult-like stimulus-following ability but less bursting shortly after hearing onset. L5 Pyr neurons in adult A1 exhibited phase-locking similar to L4 neurons, while L5 fast-spiking (FS) neurons showed greater phase-locking at 7 and 12...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114105/neuregulin-3-signaling-mediates-nicotine-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-and-cognition
#6
Luyi Zhou, Miranda L Fisher, Robert D Cole, Thomas J Gould, Vinay Parikh, Pavel I Ortinski, Jill R Turner
Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) and ErbB4 have been linked to nicotine addiction; however, the neuronal mechanisms and behavioral consequences of NRG3-ErbB4 sensitivity to nicotine remain elusive. Recent literature suggests that relapse to smoking is due to a lack of impulsive control, which is thought to be due to altered functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Therefore, we examined circuitry changes within this structure following nicotine application. We report that nicotine controls synaptic plasticity in the OFC through NRG3/ErbB4-dependent regulation of GABAergic inhibition...
November 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114073/cellular-and-molecular-analysis-of-dendritic-morphogenesis-in-a-retinal-cell-type-that-senses-color-contrast-and-ventral-motion
#7
Jinyue Liu, Joshua R Sanes
As neuronal dendrites develop, they acquire cell type-specific features including characteristic size, shape, arborization, location and synaptic patterns. These features, in turn, are major determinants of type-specific neuronal function. Because neuronal diversity complicates the task of relating developmental programs to adult structure and function, we analyzed dendritic morphogenesis in a single retinal ganglion cell (RGC) type in mouse called J-RGC. We documented the emergence of five dendritic features that underlie J-RGC physiology: (1) dendritic field size, which approximate receptive field size; (2) dendritic complexity, which affects how J-RGCs sample space; (3) asymmetry, which contributes to direction-selectivity; (4) restricted lamination within the inner plexiform layer (IPL), which renders J-RGCs responsive to light decrements; and (5) distribution of synaptic inputs, which generate a color-opponent receptive field...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112191/identifying-specific-prefrontal-neurons-that-contribute-to-autism-associated-abnormalities-in-physiology-and-social-behavior
#8
A C Brumback, I T Ellwood, C Kjaerby, J Iafrati, S Robinson, A T Lee, T Patel, S Nagaraj, F Davatolhagh, V S Sohal
Functional imaging and gene expression studies both implicate the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), particularly deep-layer projection neurons, as a potential locus for autism pathology. Here, we explored how specific deep-layer prefrontal neurons contribute to abnormal physiology and behavior in mouse models of autism. First, we find that across three etiologically distinct models-in utero valproic acid (VPA) exposure, CNTNAP2 knockout and FMR1 knockout-layer 5 subcortically projecting (SC) neurons consistently exhibit reduced input resistance and action potential firing...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110956/activation-inhibitors-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-protect-neurons-against-the-nmda-induced-damage-in-the-rat-retina
#9
Kenji Sakamoto, Tatsuya Okuwaki, Hiroko Ushikubo, Asami Mori, Tsutomu Nakahara, Kunio Ishii
We reported that high-mobility group Box-1 (HMGB1) was involved in excitoneurotoxicity in the retina. HMGB1 is known to activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). However, the role of NF-κB in excitotoxicity is still controversial. Here, we demonstrated that NF-κB activation induced by NMDA led to the retinal neurotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and NMDA (200 nmol/eye) and bovine HMGB1 (15 μg/eye) were intravitreally injected. Triptolide (500 pmol/eye), BAY 11-7082 (500 pmol/eye), and IMD-0354 (7...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107945/neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-induced-by-paced-mating-in-the-female-rat-is-opioid-dependent
#10
Marianela Santoyo-Zedillo, Wendy Portillo, Raúl G Paredes
The possibility to control the rate of sexual stimulation that the female rat receives during a mating encounter (pacing) increases the number of newborn neurons that reach the granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). If females mate repeatedly, the increase in the number of neurons is observed in other regions of the AOB and in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). It has also been shown that paced mating induces a reward state mediated by opioids. There is also evidence that opioids modulate neurogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107520/deprivation-induced-homeostatic-spine-scaling-in%C3%A2-vivo-is-localized-to-dendritic-branches-that-have-undergone-recent-spine-loss
#11
Samuel J Barnes, Eleonora Franzoni, R Irene Jacobsen, Ferenc Erdelyi, Gabor Szabo, Claudia Clopath, Georg B Keller, Tara Keck
Synaptic scaling is a key homeostatic plasticity mechanism and is thought to be involved in the regulation of cortical activity levels. Here we investigated the spatial scale of homeostatic changes in spine size following sensory deprivation in a subset of inhibitory (layer 2/3 GAD65-positive) and excitatory (layer 5 Thy1-positive) neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using repeated in vivo two-photon imaging, we find that increases in spine size are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) dependent and thus are likely associated with synaptic scaling...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106900/peripapillary-distribution-of-muller-cells-within-the-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-in-human-eyes
#12
Shahar Frenkel, Gal Goshen, Lu Leach, Jacob Pe'er, Michael Mimouni, Eytan Z Blumenthal
The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution of Muller cell within the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in human eyes. Eleven unpaired normal postmortem eyes were recruited into this study. Each eye was sectioned using the "umbrella technique" to obtain a concentric peripapillary ring centered on the optic disc, with a diameter of 3.0 mm. Immunohistochemistry with anti- CRALBP stained Muller cell within each ring. The RNFL thickness measurements around the peripapillary ring were: 262...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103391/identifying-the-genetic-basis-for-resistance-to-avian-influenza-in-commercial-egg-layer-chickens
#13
W Drobik-Czwarno, A Wolc, J E Fulton, J Arango, T Jankowski, N P O'Sullivan, J C M Dekkers
Two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have affected commercial egg production flocks in the American continent in recent years; a H7N3 outbreak in Mexico in 2012 that caused 70% to 85% mortality and a H5N2 outbreak in the United States in 2015 with over 99% mortality. Blood samples were obtained from survivors of each outbreak and from age and genetics matched non-affected controls. A total of 485 individuals (survivors and controls) were genotyped with a 600 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to detect genomic regions that influenced the outcome of highly pathogenic influenza infection in the two outbreaks...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100630/stress-promotes-drug-seeking-through-glucocorticoid-dependent-endocannabinoid-mobilization-in-the-prelimbic-cortex
#14
Jayme R McReynolds, Elizabeth M Doncheck, Yan Li, Oliver Vranjkovic, Evan N Graf, Daisuke Ogasawara, Benjamin F Cravatt, David A Baker, Qing-Song Liu, Cecilia J Hillard, John R Mantsch
BACKGROUND: Clinical reports suggest that rather than directly driving cocaine use, stress may create a biological context within which other triggers for drug use become more potent. We hypothesize that stress-induced increases in corticosterone "set the stage" for relapse by promoting endocannabinoid-induced attenuation of inhibitory transmission in the prelimbic cortex (PL). METHODS: We have established a rat model for these stage-setting effects of stress. In this model, neither a stressor (electric footshock) nor stress-level corticosterone treatment alone reinstates cocaine seeking following self-administration and extinction, but each treatment potentiates reinstatement in response to an otherwise subthreshold cocaine priming dose (2...
October 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098009/maternal-sevoflurane-exposure-causes-abnormal-development-of-fetal-prefrontal-cortex-and-induces-cognitive-dysfunction-in-offspring
#15
Ruixue Song, Xiaomin Ling, Mengyuan Peng, Zhanggang Xue, Jing Cang, Fang Fang
Maternal sevoflurane exposure during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for behavioral deficits in offspring. Several studies indicated that neurogenesis abnormality may be responsible for the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, but the concrete impact of sevoflurane on fetal brain development remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether maternal sevoflurane exposure caused learning and memory impairment in offspring through inducing abnormal development of the fetal prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097689/marked-bias-towards-spontaneous-synaptic-inhibition-distinguishes-non-adapting-from-adapting-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-barrel-cortex
#16
Ion R Popescu, Kathy Q Le, Rocío Palenzuela, Rebecca Voglewede, Ricardo Mostany
Pyramidal neuron subtypes differ in intrinsic electrophysiology properties and dendritic morphology. However, do different pyramidal neuron subtypes also receive synaptic inputs that are dissimilar in frequency and in excitation/inhibition balance? Unsupervised clustering of three intrinsic parameters that vary by cell subtype - the slow afterhyperpolarization, the sag, and the spike frequency adaptation - split layer 5 barrel cortex pyramidal neurons into two clusters: one of adapting cells and one of non-adapting cells, corresponding to previously described thin- and thick-tufted pyramidal neurons, respectively...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097542/lattice-system-of-functionally-distinct-cell-types-in-the-neocortex
#17
Hisato Maruoka, Nao Nakagawa, Shun Tsuruno, Seiichiro Sakai, Taisuke Yoneda, Toshihiko Hosoya
The mammalian neocortex contains many cell types, but whether they organize into repeated structures has been unclear. We discovered that major cell types in neocortical layer 5 form a lattice structure in many brain areas. Large-scale three-dimensional imaging revealed that distinct types of excitatory and inhibitory neurons form cell type-specific radial clusters termed microcolumns. Thousands of microcolumns, in turn, are patterned into a hexagonal mosaic tessellating diverse regions of the neocortex. Microcolumn neurons demonstrate synchronized in vivo activity and visual responses with similar orientation preference and ocular dominance...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096588/non-nmda-receptor-mediated-vibrotactile-responses-of-neurons-from-the-hindpaw-representation-in-the-rat-si-cortex
#18
Bige Vardar, Burak Güçlü
Non-NMDA receptor-mediated vibrotactile responses of neurons from the hindpaw representation were investigated in the rat SI cortex. We recorded single-unit spikes evoked by sinusoidal (duration: 500 ms; frequency: 5, 40, and 250 Hz; amplitude: 100 μm peak-to-peak) stimulation of the glabrous skin. The responses were obtained with microinjection of aCSF (sham), bicuculline, and AMPA near the isolated neurons in anaesthetized rats. Blocking most of the NMDA receptors by ketamine revealed local dynamics differentially modulated by each drug...
September 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089991/effect-of-hyperthermia-on-calbindin-d-28k-immunoreactivity-in-the-hippocampal-formation-following-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-gerbils
#19
Jae-Chul Lee, Jeong-Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, In Hye Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Geum-Sil Cho, Bich-Na Shin, In Koo Hwang, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Il Jun Kang, Young Joo Lee, Yang Hee Kim
Calbindin D-28K (CB), a Ca(2+)-binding protein, maintains Ca(2+) homeostasis and protects neurons against various insults. Hyperthermia can exacerbate brain damage produced by ischemic insults. However, little is reported about the role of CB in the brain under hyperthermic condition during ischemic insults. We investigated the effects of transient global cerebral ischemia on CB immunoreactivity as well as neuronal damage in the hippocampal formation under hyperthermic condition using immunohistochemistry for neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and CB, and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining in gerbils...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081006/callosal-responses-in-a-retrosplenial-column
#20
Alejandro Sempere-Ferràndez, Belén Andrés-Bayón, Emilio Geijo-Barrientos
The axons forming the corpus callosum sustain the interhemispheric communication across homotopic cortical areas. We have studied how neurons throughout the columnar extension of the retrosplenial cortex integrate the contralateral input from callosal projecting neurons in cortical slices. Our results show that pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and the large, thick-tufted pyramidal neurons in layer 5B showed larger excitatory callosal responses than layer 5A and layer 5B thin-tufted pyramidal neurons, while layer 6 remained silent to this input...
October 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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