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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443003/complementary-modular-microcircuits-of-the-rat-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#1
Saikat Ray, Andrea Burgalossi, Michael Brecht, Robert K Naumann
The parahippocampal region is organized into different areas, with the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), presubiculum and parasubiculum prominent in spatial memory. Here, we also describe a region at the extremity of the MEC and bordering the subicular complex, the medial-most part of the entorhinal cortex. While the subdivisions of hippocampus proper form more or less continuous cell sheets, the superficial layers of the parahippocampal region have a distinct modular architecture. We investigate the spatial distribution, laminar position, and putative connectivity of zinc-positive modules in layer 2 of the MEC of rats and relate them to the calbindin-positive patches previously described in the entorhinal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439229/locomotion-related-population-cortical-ca-2-transients-in-freely-behaving-mice
#2
Quanchao Zhang, Jiwei Yao, Yu Guang, Shanshan Liang, Jiangheng Guan, Han Qin, Xiang Liao, Wenjun Jin, Jianxiong Zhang, Junxia Pan, Hongbo Jia, Junan Yan, Zhengzhi Feng, Weibing Li, Xiaowei Chen
Locomotion involves complex neural activity throughout different cortical and subcortical networks. The primary motor cortex (M1) receives a variety of projections from different brain regions and is responsible for executing movements. The primary visual cortex (V1) receives external visual stimuli and plays an important role in guiding locomotion. Understanding how exactly the M1 and the V1 are involved in locomotion requires recording the neural activities in these areas in freely moving animals. Here, we used an optical fiber-based method for the real-time monitoring of neuronal population activities in freely moving mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434006/unbiased-quantification-of-subplate-neuron-loss-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-a-rat-model
#3
Alexandra Mikhailova, Naveena Sunkara, Patrick S McQuillen
BACKGROUND: Cellular targets of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) include both oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages with differences in the patterns of vulnerable cells depending upon the developmental stage at which the injury occurs. Injury to the developing white matter is a characteristic feature of human preterm brain injury. Data are accumulating, however, for neuronal injury in the developing cerebral cortex. In the most widely used rodent model of preterm HI brain injury, conflicting data have been reported regarding the sensitivity of subplate neurons to early neonatal HI, with some reports of selective vulnerability and others that find no increased loss of subplate neurons in comparison with other cortical layers...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433420/dna-methylation-program-in-normal-and-alcohol-induced-thinning-cortex
#4
Nail Can Öztürk, Marisol Resendiz, Hakan Öztürk, Feng C Zhou
While cerebral underdevelopment is a hallmark of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the mechanism(s) guiding the broad cortical neurodevelopmental deficits are not clear. DNA methylation is known to regulate early development and tissue specification through gene regulation. Here, we examined DNA methylation in the onset of alcohol-induced cortical thinning in a mouse model of FASD. C57BL/6 (B6) mice were administered a 4% alcohol (v/v) liquid diet from embryonic (E) days 7-16, and their embryos were harvested at E17, along with isocaloric liquid diet and lab chow controls...
February 20, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432140/visually-evoked-3-5-hz-membrane-potential-oscillations-reduce-the-responsiveness-of-visual-cortex-neurons-in-awake-behaving-mice
#5
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424320/trpa1-expression-and-its-functional-activation-in-rodent-cortex
#6
Ehsan Kheradpezhouh, Julian M C Choy, Vincent R Daria, Ehsan Arabzadeh
TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel involved in pain sensation and neurogenic inflammation. Although TRPA1 is well established in a number of organs including the nervous system, its presence and function in the mammalian cortex remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the expression of TRPA1 in rodent somatosensory cortex through immunostaining and investigate its functional activation by whole-cell electrophysiology, Ca(2+) imaging and two-photon photoswitching. Application of TRPA1 agonist (AITC) and antagonist (HC-030031) produced significant modulation of activity in layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in both rats and mice; AITC increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and depolarized neurons, and both effects were blocked by HC-030031...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423316/diversity-in-excitation-inhibition-mismatch-underlies-local-functional-heterogeneity-in-the-rat-auditory-cortex
#7
Can Tao, Guangwei Zhang, Chang Zhou, Lijuan Wang, Sumei Yan, Huizhong Whit Tao, Li I Zhang, Yi Zhou, Ying Xiong
Cortical neurons are heterogeneous in their functional properties. This heterogeneity is fundamental for the processing of different features of sensory information. However, functional diversity within a local group of neurons is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that neighboring cortical neurons in layer 5 but not those of layer 4 of the rat anterior auditory field (AAF) exhibited a surprisingly high level of diversity in tonal receptive fields. In vivo whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that the diversity of frequency representation was due to a spectral mismatch between synaptic excitation and inhibition to varying degrees...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422818/inhibition-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-alters-the-excitability-of-the-commissural-pyramidal-neuron-in-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-after-chronic-constriction-injury-to-the-sciatic-nerve
#8
Shi-Hao Gao, Lin-Lin Shen, Hui-Zhong Wen, Yan-Dong Zhao, Huai-Zhen Ruan
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 in the anterior cingulate cortex has an analgesic effect during sustained nociceptive hypersensitivity. However, the specific changes in different subtypes of anterior cingulate cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons, as well as the distinct effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 inhibition on different neuronal subtypes, have not been well studied. METHODS: Retrograde labeling combined with immunofluorescence, whole cell clamp recording, and behavioral tests combined with RNA interference were performed in a rat model of chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve...
April 19, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419939/the-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-prucalopride-does-not-facilitate-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-preparations-of-equine-mid-jejunum
#9
Romain Adelin Lefebvre, Chana Callens, Inge Van Colen, Catherine John Ghislaine Delesalle
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) remains an important cause of death in horses. The recently developed selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as prucalopride target 5-HT4 receptors on myenteric cholinergic neurons to enhance acetylcholine release and GI motility. No clearcut in vitro evaluation whether highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists enhance submaximal cholinergic neurotransmission towards the muscle layer has been performed in horses. OBJECTIVES: To identify functional 5-HT4 receptors in equine jejunum...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414797/big1-is-required-for-the-survival-of-deep-layer-neurons-neuronal-polarity-and-the-formation-of-axonal-tracts-between-the-thalamus-and-neocortex-in-developing-brain
#10
Jia-Jie Teoh, Tomohiko Iwano, Masataka Kunii, Nur Atik, Erda Avriyanti, Shin-Ichiro Yoshimura, Kenta Moriwaki, Akihiro Harada
BIG1, an activator protein of the small GTPase, Arf, and encoded by the Arfgef1 gene, is one of candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy. To know the involvement of BIG1 in epileptic encephalopathy, we analyzed BIG1-deficient mice and found that BIG1 regulates neurite outgrowth and brain development in vitro and in vivo. The loss of BIG1 decreased the size of the neocortex and hippocampus. In BIG1-deficient mice, the neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) and the interneurons were unaffected. However, Tbr1+ and Ctip2+ deep layer (DL) neurons showed spatial-temporal dependent apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400257/phase-amplitude-coupled-persistent-theta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Nicholas W Johnson, Mazhar Özkan, Adrian P Burgess, Emma J Prokic, Keith A Wafford, Michael J O'Neill, Stuart D Greenhill, Ian M Stanford, Gavin L Woodhall
In vivo, theta (4-7 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) neuronal network oscillations are known to coexist and display phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). However, in vitro, these oscillations have for many years been studied in isolation. Using an improved brain slice preparation technique we have, using co-application of carbachol (10 μM) and kainic acid (150 nM), elicited simultaneous theta (6.6 ± 0.1 Hz) and gamma (36.6 ± 0.4 Hz) oscillations in rodent primary motor cortex (M1). Each oscillation showed greatest power in layer V...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386779/protective-role-of-cadherin-13-in-interneuron-development
#12
Abigail C Killen, Melissa Barber, Joshua J W Paulin, Barbara Ranscht, John G Parnavelas, William D Andrews
Cortical interneurons are generated in the ganglionic eminences and migrate through the ventral and dorsal telencephalon before finding their final positions within the cortical plate. During early stages of migration, these cells are present in two well-defined streams within the developing cortex. In an attempt to identify candidate genes which may play a role in interneuron stream specification, we previously carried out a microarray analysis which identified a number of cadherin receptors that were differentially expressed in these streams, including Cadherin-13 (Cdh13)...
April 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379979/rat-superior-colliculus-neurons-respond-to-large-visual-stimuli-flashed-outside-the-classical-receptive-field
#13
Juntaute Bytautiene, Gytis Baranauskas
Spatial integration of visual stimuli is a crucial step in visual information processing yet it is often unclear where this integration takes place in the visual system. In the superficial layers of the superior colliculus that form an early stage in visual information processing, neurons are known to have relatively small visual receptive fields, suggesting limited spatial integration. Here it is shown that at least for rats this conclusion may be wrong. Extracellular recordings in urethane-anaesthetized young adult rats (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379350/primary-auditory-cortex-is-required-for-anticipatory-motor-response
#14
Jingcheng Li, Xiang Liao, Jianxiong Zhang, Meng Wang, Nian Yang, Jun Zhang, Guanghui Lv, Haohong Li, Jian Lu, Ran Ding, Xingyi Li, Yu Guang, Zhiqi Yang, Han Qin, Wenjun Jin, Kuan Zhang, Chao He, Hongbo Jia, Shaoqun Zeng, Zhian Hu, Israel Nelken, Xiaowei Chen
The ability of the brain to predict future events based on the pattern of recent sensory experience is critical for guiding animal's behavior. Neocortical circuits for ongoing processing of sensory stimuli are extensively studied, but their contributions to the anticipation of upcoming sensory stimuli remain less understood. We, therefore, used in vivo cellular imaging and fiber photometry to record mouse primary auditory cortex to elucidate its role in processing anticipated stimulation. We found neuronal ensembles in layers 2/3, 4, and 5 which were activated in relationship to anticipated sound events following rhythmic stimulation...
April 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371514/bi-layer-silk-fibroin-grafts-support-functional-esophageal-repair-in-a-rodent-model-of-caustic-injury
#15
Khalid Algarrahi, Debra Franck, Alyssa Savarino, Vivian Cristofaro, Xuehui Yang, Saif Affas, Frank-Mattias Schäfer, Maryrose P Sullivan, Carlos R Estrada, Joshua R Mauney
Surgical repair of caustic esophageal injuries with autologous gastrointestinal segments is often associated with dysmotility, dysphagia, and donor site morbidity and therefore alternative graft options are needed. Bi-layer silk fibroin (BLSF) scaffolds were assessed for their ability to support functional restoration of damaged esophageal tissues in a rat model of onlay esophagoplasty. Transient exposure of isolated esophageal segments with 40% NaOH led to corrosive esophagitis and a 91% reduction in the luminal cross-sectional area of damaged sites...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370141/increased-transient-na-conductance-and-action-potential-output-in-layer-2-3-prefrontal-cortex-neurons-of-the-fmr1-y-mouse
#16
Brandy N Routh, Rahul K Rathour, Michael E Baumgardner, Brian E Kalmbach, Daniel Johnston, Darrin H Brager
Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental impairment and autism. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for higher order cognitive processing, and prefrontal dysfunction is believed to underlie many of the cognitive and behaviour phenotypes associated with Fragile X syndrome. We recently demonstrated that somatic and dendritic excitability of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex of the fmr1-/y mouse is significantly altered due to changes in several voltage-gated ion channels...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367124/protective-effects-of-cannabidiol-against-seizures-and-neuronal-death-in-a-rat-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Raquel A Do Val-da Silva, Jose E Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Jana B De Ross, Ingrid Esteves, Bruno S De Martinis, Marcela N R Alves, Renata C Scandiuzzi, Jaime E C Hallak, Antonio W Zuardi, Jose A Crippa, Joao P Leite
The present study reports the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuropathological effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, in the intrahippocampal pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rat model. CBD was administered before pilocarpine-induced SE (group SE+CBDp) or before and after SE (group SE+CBDt), and compared to rats submitted only to SE (SE group), CBD, or vehicle (VH group). Groups were evaluated during SE (behavioral and electrophysiological analysis), as well as at days one and three post-SE (exploratory activity, electrophysiological analysis, neuron density, and neuron degeneration)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#18
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325790/dopamine-terminals-from-the-ventral-tegmental-area-gate-intrinsic-inhibition-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#19
William C Buchta, Stephen V Mahler, Benjamin Harlan, Gary S Aston-Jones, Arthur C Riegel
Spike frequency adaptation (SFA or accommodation) and calcium-activated potassium channels that underlie after-hyperpolarization potentials (AHP) regulate repetitive firing of neurons. Precisely how neuromodulators such as dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate SFA and AHP (together referred to as intrinsic inhibition) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unclear. Using whole cell electrophysiology, we measured intrinsic inhibition in prelimbic (PL) layer 5 pyramidal cells of male adult rats...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293164/double-barrier-memristive-devices-for-unsupervised-learning-and-pattern-recognition
#20
Mirko Hansen, Finn Zahari, Martin Ziegler, Hermann Kohlstedt
The use of interface-based resistive switching devices for neuromorphic computing is investigated. In a combined experimental and numerical study, the important device parameters and their impact on a neuromorphic pattern recognition system are studied. The memristive cells consist of a layer sequence Al/Al2O3/Nb x O y /Au and are fabricated on a 4-inch wafer. The key functional ingredients of the devices are a 1.3 nm thick Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a 2.5 mm thick Nb x O y memristive layer. Voltage pulse measurements are used to study the electrical conditions for the emulation of synaptic functionality of single cells for later use in a recognition system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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