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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#1
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143946/multi-scale-account-of-the-network-structure-of-macaque-visual-cortex
#2
Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Claus C Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha J van Albada
Cortical network structure has been extensively characterized at the level of local circuits and in terms of long-range connectivity, but seldom in a manner that integrates both of these scales. Furthermore, while the connectivity of cortex is known to be related to its architecture, this knowledge has not been used to derive a comprehensive cortical connectivity map. In this study, we integrate data on cortical architecture and axonal tracing data into a consistent multi-scale framework of the structure of one hemisphere of macaque vision-related cortex...
November 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142315/hiv-1-counteracts-an-innate-restriction-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-resulting-in-neurodegeneration
#3
Qingqing Chai, Vladimir Jovasevic, Viacheslav Malikov, Yosef Sabo, Scott Morham, Derek Walsh, Mojgan H Naghavi
While beta-amyloid (Aβ), a classic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, has long been known to be elevated in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected brain, why and how Aβ is produced, along with its contribution to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains ill-defined. Here, we reveal that the membrane-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia, and acts as an innate restriction against HIV-1. APP binds the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, retains it in lipid rafts and blocks HIV-1 virion production and spread...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142293/neural-pathways-for-colorectal-control-relevance-to-spinal-cord-injury-and-treatment-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Brid Callaghan, John B Furness, Ruslan V Pustovit
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to review the organisation of the nerve pathways that control defecation and to relate this knowledge to the deficits in colorectal function after SCI. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify salient features of defecation control pathways and the functional consequences of damage to these pathways in SCI. RESULTS: The control pathways for defecation have separate pontine centres under cortical control that influence defecation...
November 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142267/in-vivo-characterization-of-the-electrophysiological-and-astrocytic-responses-to-a-silicon-neuroprobe-implanted-in-the-mouse-neocortex
#5
Katrien Mols, Silke Musa, Bart Nuttin, Liesbet Lagae, Vincent Bonin
Silicon neuroprobes hold great potential for studies of large-scale neural activity and brain computer interfaces, but data on brain response in chronic implants is limited. Here we explored with in vivo cellular imaging the response to multisite silicon probes for neural recordings. We tested a chronic implant for mice consisting of a CMOS-compatible silicon probe rigidly implanted in the cortex under a cranial imaging window. Multiunit recordings of cortical neurons with the implant showed no degradation of electrophysiological signals weeks after implantation (mean spike and noise amplitudes of 186 ± 42 µVpp and 16 ± 3...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142232/tdp-43-misexpression-causes-defects-in-dendritic-growth
#6
Josiah J Herzog, Mugdha Deshpande, Leah Shapiro, Avital A Rodal, Suzanne Paradis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) share overlapping genetic causes and disease symptoms, and are linked neuropathologically by the RNA binding protein TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein-43 kDa). TDP-43 regulates RNA metabolism, trafficking, and localization of thousands of target genes. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to disease pathogenesis and progression remain unclear. Severe changes in the structure of neuronal dendritic arbors disrupt proper circuit connectivity, which in turn could contribute to neurodegenerative disease...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142056/familiarity-with-a-vocal-category-biases-the-compartmental-expression-of-arc-arg3-1-in-core-auditory-cortex
#7
Tamara N Ivanova, Christina Gross, Rudolph C Mappus, Yong Jun Kwon, Gary J Bassell, Robert C Liu
Learning to recognize a stimulus category requires experience with its many natural variations. However, the mechanisms that allow a category's sensorineural representation to be updated after experiencing new exemplars are not well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here we investigate how a natural vocal category induces expression in the auditory system of a key synaptic plasticity effector immediate early gene, Arc/Arg3.1, which is required for memory consolidation. We use the ultrasonic communication system between mouse pups and adult females to study whether prior familiarity with pup vocalizations alters how Arc is engaged in the core auditory cortex after playback of novel exemplars from the pup vocal category...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141232/foxp1-promotes-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-repressing-jagged1-expression
#8
Luca Braccioli, Stephin J Vervoort, Youri Adolfs, Cobi J Heijnen, Onur Basak, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cora H Nijboer, Paul J Coffer
Mutations in FOXP1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability and autism; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate with RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FOXP1 directly regulates genes controlling neurogenesis. We show that FOXP1 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), and modulation of FOXP1 expression affects both neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Using a murine model of cortical development, FOXP1-knockdown in utero was found to reduce NSC differentiation and migration during corticogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139050/modeling-mesoscopic-cortical-dynamics-using-a-mean-field-model-of-conductance-based-networks-of-adaptive-exponential-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#9
Yann Zerlaut, Sandrine Chemla, Frederic Chavane, Alain Destexhe
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) has revealed fundamental properties of neocortical processing at macroscopic scales. Since for each pixel VSDi signals report the average membrane potential over hundreds of neurons, it seems natural to use a mean-field formalism to model such signals. Here, we present a mean-field model of networks of Adaptive Exponential (AdEx) integrate-and-fire neurons, with conductance-based synaptic interactions. We study a network of regular-spiking (RS) excitatory neurons and fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory neurons...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139049/feedforward-architectures-driven-by-inhibitory-interactions
#10
Yazan N Billeh, Michael T Schaub
Directed information transmission is paramount for many social, physical, and biological systems. For neural systems, scientists have studied this problem under the paradigm of feedforward networks for decades. In most models of feedforward networks, activity is exclusively driven by excitatory neurons and the wiring patterns between them, while inhibitory neurons play only a stabilizing role for the network dynamics. Motivated by recent experimental discoveries of hippocampal circuitry, cortical circuitry, and the diversity of inhibitory neurons throughout the brain, here we illustrate that one can construct such networks even if the connectivity between the excitatory units in the system remains random...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138753/lesion-pattern-mechanisms-and-long-term-prognosis-in-patients-with-monoparetic-stroke-a-comparison-with-nonmonoparetic-stroke
#11
Seung-Jae Lee, Dong-Geun Lee, Hye-Jin Moon, Tae-Kyeong Lee
Background: Monoparetic stroke is rare but could be misdiagnosed as peripheral neuropathy. We investigated the prevalence, lesion pattern, stroke mechanism, and long-term prognosis in patients with monoparetic stroke. Methods: 586 acute ischemic stroke patients (including 31 with monoparesis) were studied. Monoparetic stroke was defined as a motor deficit in either an arm or a leg but without facial weakness or speech disturbance. Median follow-up period was 32...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138458/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-improves-behavioral-and-histological-outcomes-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Wei-Shen Su, Chun-Hu Wu, Szu-Fu Chen, Feng-Yi Yang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on behavioral and histological outcomes in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury were treated with LIPUS in the injured region daily for a period of 4 weeks. The effects of LIPUS on edema were observed by MR imaging in the mouse brain at 1 and 4 days following TBI. Brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability, histology analysis, and behavioral studies were performed to assess the effects of LIPUS...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138310/sparsity-enables-estimation-of-both-subcortical-and-cortical-activity-from-meg-and-eeg
#13
Pavitra Krishnaswamy, Gabriel Obregon-Henao, Jyrki Ahveninen, Sheraz Khan, Behtash Babadi, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Matti S Hämäläinen, Patrick L Purdon
Subcortical structures play a critical role in brain function. However, options for assessing electrophysiological activity in these structures are limited. Electromagnetic fields generated by neuronal activity in subcortical structures can be recorded noninvasively, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, these subcortical signals are much weaker than those generated by cortical activity. In addition, we show here that it is difficult to resolve subcortical sources because distributed cortical activity can explain the MEG and EEG patterns generated by deep sources...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138289/the-evolution-of-cortical-development-the-synapsid-diapsid-divergence
#14
REVIEW
Andre M Goffinet
The cerebral cortex covers the rostral part of the brain and, in higher mammals and particularly humans, plays a key role in cognition and consciousness. It is populated with neuronal cell bodies distributed in radially organized layers. Understanding the common and lineage-specific molecular mechanisms that orchestrate cortical development and evolution are key issues in neurobiology. During evolution, the cortex appeared in stem amniotes and evolved divergently in two main branches of the phylogenetic tree: the synapsids (which led to present day mammals) and the diapsids (reptiles and birds)...
November 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138280/foxp1-regulation-of-neonatal-vocalizations-via-cortical-development
#15
Noriyoshi Usui, Daniel J Araujo, Ashwinikumar Kulkarni, Marissa Co, Jacob Ellegood, Matthew Harper, Kazuya Toriumi, Jason P Lerch, Genevieve Konopka
The molecular mechanisms driving brain development at risk in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) remain mostly unknown. Previous studies have implicated the transcription factor FOXP1 in both brain development and ASD pathophysiology. However, the specific molecular pathways both upstream of and downstream from FOXP1 are not fully understood. To elucidate the contribution of FOXP1-mediated signaling to brain development and, in particular, neocortical development, we generated forebrain-specific Foxp1 conditional knockout mice...
November 14, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138110/neuronal-loss-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex-of-normal-and-bax-deficient-mice-effects-of-ethanol-exposure
#16
Sheena M Britton, Michael W Miller
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is associated with defects in neuronal generation, migration, and differentiation. The present study tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure during the period of naturally occurring neuronal death causes a time- and Bax-dependent neuronal loss. Wild-type and Bax knockout mice were given a pair of injections (two hours apart) of ethanol (2.5 g/kg) or saline on postnatal day (P) 4, P7, P10, or P13. Mean blood ethanol concentration was 435 mg/dl one hour after the second injection...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136290/the-role-of-ca-2-dependent-k-channels-at-the-rat-corticostriatal-synapses-revealed-by-paired-pulse-stimulation
#17
Angel A Robles G, Ana V Vega, Carolina Gonzalez-Sandoval, Jaime Barral
Potassium channels play an important role in modulating synaptic activity both at presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. We have shown before that presynaptically located KV and KIR channels modulate the strength of corticostriatal synapses in rat brain, but the role of other types of potassium channels at these synapses remains largely unknown. Here we show that calcium-dependent potassium channels BK-type but not SK-type channels are located presynaptically in corticostriatal synapses. We stimulated cortical neurons in rat brain slices and recorded postsynaptic excitatory potentials (EPSP) in medium spiny neurons (MSN) in dorsal neostriatum...
November 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136122/local-and-global-spatial-organization-of-interaural-level-difference-and-frequency-preferences-in-auditory-cortex
#18
Mariangela Panniello, Andrew J King, Johannes C Dahmen, Kerry M M Walker
Despite decades of microelectrode recordings, fundamental questions remain about how auditory cortex represents sound-source location. Here, we used in vivo 2-photon calcium imaging to measure the sensitivity of layer II/III neurons in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) to interaural level differences (ILDs), the principal spatial cue in this species. Although most ILD-sensitive neurons preferred ILDs favoring the contralateral ear, neurons with either midline or ipsilateral preferences were also present. An opponent-channel decoder accurately classified ILDs using the difference in responses between populations of neurons that preferred contralateral-ear-greater and ipsilateral-ear-greater stimuli...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136104/focal-suppression-of-distractor-sounds-by-selective-attention-in-auditory-cortex
#19
Zachary P Schwartz, Stephen V David
Auditory selective attention is required for parsing crowded acoustic environments, but cortical systems mediating the influence of behavioral state on auditory perception are not well characterized. Previous neurophysiological studies suggest that attention produces a general enhancement of neural responses to important target sounds versus irrelevant distractors. However, behavioral studies suggest that in the presence of masking noise, attention provides a focal suppression of distractors that compete with targets...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134984/evaluation-of-neuroprotective-effect-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-linn-aqueous-extract-against-ischaemic-reperfusion-insult-by-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-in-adult-male-rats
#20
Olatunde Owoeye, Micheal Oluwatosin Gabriel
Ischaemic brain injury continues to be devastating, causing social, medical and relationship disruption. Oxidativedamage has been reported to be one of the mechanisms for brain damage following ischaemic stroke. The antioxidant activityof Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was investigated for a possible protective effect against ischaemia-induced brain damage in rats.Adult male Wistar rats (n=35) were divided into five groups of 7 rats per group. Group 1 served as control was given tapwater; Group 2: 500 mg/kg daily of Hibiscus sabdariffa L...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
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