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Cortical neuron

Yin Yuan, Xiu-Yue Xu, Jie Lao, Xin Zhao
Nerve transfer is the most common treatment for total brachial plexus avulsion injury. After nerve transfer, the movement of the injured limb may be activated by certain movements of the healthy limb at the early stage of recovery, i.e., trans-hemispheric reorganization. Previous studies have focused on functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and growth associated protein 43, but there have been no proteomics studies. In this study, we designed a rat model of total brachial plexus avulsion injury involving contralateral C7 nerve transfer...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Jingyu Jin, Sharada Tilve, Zhonghai Huang, Libing Zhou, Herbert M Geller, Panpan Yu
As one major component of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the central nervous system, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) have long been known as inhibitors enriched in the glial scar that prevent axon regeneration after injury. Although many studies have shown that CSPGs inhibited neurite outgrowth in vitro using different types of neurons, the mechanism by which CSPGs inhibit axonal growth remains poorly understood. Using cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) culture, in this study, we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of both immobilized and soluble CSPGs on neuronal growth, including cell adhesion, spreading and neurite growth...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Robert A Hill, Alice M Li, Jaime Grutzendler
Axonal myelin increases neural processing speed and efficiency. It is unknown whether patterns of myelin distribution are fixed or whether myelinating oligodendrocytes are continually generated in adulthood and maintain the capacity for structural remodeling. Using high-resolution, intravital label-free and fluorescence optical imaging in mouse cortex, we demonstrate lifelong oligodendrocyte generation occurring in parallel with structural plasticity of individual myelin internodes. Continuous internode formation occurred on both partially myelinated and unmyelinated axons, and the total myelin coverage along individual axons progressed up to two years of age...
March 19, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Leonie Asboth, Lucia Friedli, Janine Beauparlant, Cristina Martinez-Gonzalez, Selin Anil, Elodie Rey, Laetitia Baud, Galyna Pidpruzhnykova, Mark A Anderson, Polina Shkorbatova, Laura Batti, Stephane Pagès, Julie Kreider, Bernard L Schneider, Quentin Barraud, Gregoire Courtine
Severe spinal cord contusions interrupt nearly all brain projections to lumbar circuits producing leg movement. Failure of these projections to reorganize leads to permanent paralysis. Here we modeled these injuries in rodents. A severe contusion abolished all motor cortex projections below injury. However, the motor cortex immediately regained adaptive control over the paralyzed legs during electrochemical neuromodulation of lumbar circuits. Glutamatergic reticulospinal neurons with residual projections below the injury relayed the cortical command downstream...
March 19, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit.We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ana Catarina Franco, Olympia Kremmyda, Jan Rémi, Soheyl Noachtar
OBJECTIVE: Positive interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are rarely recorded from surface EEG, due to the orientation of the cortex and its neurons. Their frequency and significance in adults is unknown, and has only been studied as a phenomenon of the neonatal period and childhood. We aimed to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of positive epileptiform discharges in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 24,178 reports from 18,060 patients of non-invasively recorded EEGs for various indications...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tesfaye W Tefera, Karin Borges
Although alterations in energy metabolism are known in ALS, the specific mechanisms leading to energy deficit are not understood. We measured metabolite levels derived from injected [1-13 C]glucose and [1,2-13 C]acetate (i.p.) in cerebral cortex and spinal cord extracts of wild type and hSOD1G93A mice at onset and mid disease stages using high-pressure liquid chromatography,1 H and13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of spinal and cortical CNS total lactate, [3-13 C]lactate, total alanine and [3-13 C]alanine, but not cortical glucose and [1-13 C]glucose, were reduced mostly at mid stage indicating impaired glycolysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Pia Lau, Andreas Wollbrink, Robert Wunderlich, Alva Engell, Alwina Löhe, Markus Junghöfer, Christo Pantev
Tinnitus is a prevalent phenomenon and bothersome for people affected by it. Its occurrence and maintenance have a clear neuroscientific tie and one aspect are differences in the neuronal oscillatory pattern, especially in auditory cortical areas. As studies in this field come to different results, the aim of this study was to analyze a large number of participants to achieve more stable results. Furthermore, we expanded our analysis to two variables of potential influence, namely being a novice to neuroscientific measurements and the exclusion of psychological comorbidities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Julia U Henschke, Frank W Ohl, Eike Budinger
During aging, human response times (RTs) to unisensory and crossmodal stimuli decrease. However, the elderly benefit more from crossmodal stimulus representations than younger people. The underlying short-latency multisensory integration process is mediated by direct crossmodal connections at the level of primary sensory cortices. We investigate the age-related changes of these connections using a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil), retrograde tracer injections into the primary auditory (A1), somatosensory (S1), and visual cortex (V1), and immunohistochemistry for markers of apoptosis (Caspase-3), axonal plasticity (Growth associated protein 43, GAP 43), and a calcium-binding protein (Parvalbumin, PV)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Rodrigo F O Pena, Sebastian Vellmer, Davide Bernardi, Antonio C Roque, Benjamin Lindner
Recurrent networks of spiking neurons can be in an asynchronous state characterized by low or absent cross-correlations and spike statistics which resemble those of cortical neurons. Although spatial correlations are negligible in this state, neurons can show pronounced temporal correlations in their spike trains that can be quantified by the autocorrelation function or the spike-train power spectrum. Depending on cellular and network parameters, correlations display diverse patterns (ranging from simple refractory-period effects and stochastic oscillations to slow fluctuations) and it is generally not well-understood how these dependencies come about...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Oscar J Avella Gonzalez, John K Tsotsos
Attention modulates neural selectivity and optimizes the allocation of cortical resources during visual tasks. A large number of experimental studies in primates and humans provide ample evidence. As an underlying principle of visual attention, some theoretical models suggested the existence of a gain element that enhances contrast of the attended stimuli. In contrast, the Selective Tuning model of attention (ST) proposes an attentional mechanism based on suppression of irrelevant signals. In this paper, we present an updated characterization of the ST-neuron proposed by the Selective Tuning model, and suggest that the inclusion of adaptation currents (Ih) to ST-neurons may explain the temporal profiles of the firing rates recorded in single V4 cells during attentional tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Daniel Pensold, Geraldine Zimmer
The correct establishment of inhibitory circuits is crucial for cortical functionality and defects during the development of γ-aminobutyric acid-expressing cortical interneurons contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A critical developmental step is the migration of cortical interneurons from their site of origin within the subpallium to the cerebral cortex, orchestrated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. In addition to genetic networks, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are suggested to drive stage-specific gene expression underlying developmental processes...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Tanzila Mukhtar, Verdon Taylor
The cerebral cortex is composed of billions of morphologically and functionally distinct neurons. These neurons are produced and organized in a regimental fashion during development. The ability of neurons to encode and elicit complex cognitive and motor functions depends on their precise molecular processes, identity, and connectivity established during development. Elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate development of the neocortex has been a challenge for many years. The cerebral cortical neuronal subtypes are classified based on morphology, function, intrinsic synaptic properties, location, connectivity, and marker gene expression...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Xuepei Lei, Jianwei Jiao
Neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation in the developing brain is a complex process precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Although epigenetic modification has been reportedly involved in the regulation of the cerebral cortex, whether UTX, an H3K27me3 demethylase, regulates the development of cerebral cortex during the embryonic period is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Utx deficiency by knockdown and conditional knockout increases NSC proliferation and decreases terminal mitosis and neuronal differentiation...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Dexter R F Irvine
Perceptual learning, improvement in discriminative ability as a consequence of training, is one of the forms of sensory system plasticity that has driven profound changes in our conceptualization of sensory cortical function. Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of auditory perceptual learning have indicated that the characteristics of the learning, and by implication the nature of the underlying neural changes, are highly task specific. Some studies in animals have indicated that recruitment of neurons to the population responding to the training stimuli, and hence an increase in the so-called cortical "area of representation" of those stimuli, is the substrate of improved performance, but such changes have not been observed in other studies...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
Jianjun Meng, Zhong Li, Hongjian Li, Jianbin Zhu, Hongbo Yu
Cortices are non-uniform in their capacity for adaptive changes. In cat area 17, pinwheel centers of the orientation map demonstrated much greater selectivity shifts after the orientation adaptation than the iso-orientation domains (Dragoi et al., 2001a). However, whether this heterogeneity exists in other visual cortical regions remains unclear. Similar to area 17, area 21a neurons in cats are well known to be functionally clustered according to their orientation preference in iso-orientation domains that converge at pinwheel centers but with a higher pinwheel density (Huang et al...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience
Alireza Mohammadi, Ali Maleki-Jamshid, Davood Sanooghi, Peiman Brouki Milan, Arash Rahmani, Farshid Sefat, Koorosh Shahpasand, Mansoureh Soleimani, Mehrdad Bakhtiari, Rafie Belali, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, George Perry, Masoud Mozafari
A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Huajuan Xiao, Ziling Sun, Jun Wan, Shengtao Hou, Yi Xiong
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are widely-expressed transmembrane proteins in the nervous system. Recent studies suggest that Pcdhs play multiple critical roles during neuronal development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Pcdh7 in neurons are still largely unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that the expression of Pcdh7 during mouse brain development was regulated spatiotemporally. We observed that the elevated expression of Pcdh7 led to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in primary cortical neurons...
March 13, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Xueying Wang, Ksenia V Kastanenka, Michal Arbel-Ornath, Caitlin Commins, Akira Kuzuya, Amanda J Lariviere, Grant A Krafft, Franz Hefti, Jasna Jerecic, Brian J Bacskai
Soluble amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) are widely recognized neurotoxins that trigger aberrant signaling in specific subsets of neurons, leading to accumulated neuronal damage and memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the profound downstream consequences of AβO-triggered events is dysregulation of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ), which has been implicated in synaptic failure, cytoskeletal abnormalities, and eventually neuronal death. We have developed an in vitro/in vivo drug screening assay to evaluate putative AβO-blocking candidates by measuring AβO-induced real-time changes in [Ca2+ ]i ...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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