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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-towards-self-organized-criticality
#1
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915117/from-intentions-to-actions-neural-oscillations-encode-motor-processes-through-phase-amplitude-and-phase-amplitude-coupling
#2
Etienne Combrisson, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Juan Lp Soto, Golnoush Alamian, Philippe Kahane, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Aymeric Guillot, Karim Jerbi
Goal-directed motor behavior is associated with changes in patterns of rhythmic neuronal activity across widely distributed brain areas. In particular, movement initiation and execution are mediated by patterns of synchronization and desynchronization that occur concurrently across distinct frequency bands and across multiple motor cortical areas. To date, motor-related local oscillatory modulations have been predominantly examined by quantifying increases or suppressions in spectral power. However, beyond signal power, spectral properties such as phase and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) have also been shown to carry information with regards to the oscillatory dynamics underlying motor processes...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915073/a-mathematical-model-of-reward-and-executive-circuitry-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Anca Raˇdulescu, Rachel Marra
The neuronal circuit that controls obsessive and compulsive behaviors involves a complex network of brain regions (some with known involvement in reward processing). Among these are cortical regions, the striatum and the thalamus (which compose the CSTC pathway), limbic areas such as the amygdala and the hippocampus, and well as dopamine pathways. Abnormal dynamic behavior in this brain network is a hallmark feature of patients with increased anxiety and motor activity, like the ones affected by OCD. There is currently no clear understanding of precisely what mechanisms generate these behaviors...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915027/tonotopic-representation-of-loudness-in-the-human-cortex
#4
Andrew Thwaites, Josef Schlittenlacher, Ian Nimmo-Smith, William D Marslen-Wilson, Brian C J Moore
A prominent feature of the auditory system is that neurons show tuning to audio frequency; each neuron has a characteristic frequency (CF) to which it is most sensitive. Furthermore, there is an orderly mapping of CF to position, which is called tonotopic organization and which is observed at many levels of the auditory system. In a previous study (Thwaites et al., 2016) we examined cortical entrainment to two auditory transforms predicted by a model of loudness, instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, using speech as the input signal...
November 30, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914953/both-secreted-and-the-cellular-levels-of-bdnf-attenuated-due-to-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-primary-cultures-of-cortical-neurons
#5
İrem Lütfiye Atasoy, Erdinç Dursun, Duygu Gezen Ak, Derya Metin Armağan, Melek Öztürk, Selma Yılmazer
Intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a major neuropathological hallmark of taupathies such as Alzheimer's disease. Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of PP2A, leading to abnormal tau phosphorylation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is selectively downregulated in AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of OKA induced tau hyperphosphorylation on secreted and cellular levels of BDNF in primary cortical neurons that were treated with 25nM OKA...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914952/independent-tonotopy-and-thalamocortical-projection-patterns-in-two-adjacent-parts-of-the-classical-primary-auditory-cortex-in-mice
#6
Hiroaki Tsukano, Masao Horie, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Ryuichi Hishida, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsuei Shibuki
Amid recent amendment of delineation of a mouse auditory cortical map, a caudal auditory field, originally defined as the primary auditory cortex (AI), was divided into the AI and dorsomedial field (DM), based on distinct high frequency areas. A low frequency area was not previously established in the DM because responses to low frequency tones were weak in this area. This may lead to the misconception that the DM is an atypical region that lacks a low frequency band. In the current study, we confirmed that the DM has a low frequency area that is completely independent from the AI...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914882/representation-of-the-body-in-the-lateral-striatum-of-the-freely-moving-rat-fast-spiking-interneurons-respond-to-stimulation-of-individual-body-parts
#7
Julianna Kulik, Anthony Pawlak, Manraj Kalkat, Kevin Coffey, Mark O West
: Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. It is becoming increasingly evident that these sparsely distributed neurons exert a strong inhibitory effect on Medium Spiny projection Neurons (MSNs). MSNs in lateral striatum receive direct synaptic input from regions of cortex representing discrete body parts, and show phasic increases in activity during touch or movement of specific body parts...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913587/suppressing-n-acetyl-l-aspartate-naa-synthesis-prevents-loss-of-neurons-in-a-murine-model-of-canavan-leukodystrophy
#8
Jiho Sohn, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Travis Burns, Laird Miers, Christopher Croteau, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by aspartoacylase (ASPA) deficiency. The lack of functional ASPA, an enzyme enriched in oligodendroglia that cleaves N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) to acetate and L-aspartic acid, elevates brain NAA and causes "spongiform" vacuolation of superficial brain white matter and neighboring gray matter. In children with Canavan disease, neuroimaging shows early-onset dysmyelination and progressive brain atrophy. Neuron loss has been documented at autopsy in some cases. Prior studies have shown that mice homozygous for the Aspa nonsense mutation Nur7 also develop brain vacuolation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913432/von-economo-neurons-and-fork-cells-a-neurochemical-signature-linked-to-monoaminergic-function
#9
Anke A Dijkstra, Li-Chun Lin, Alissa L Nana, Stephanie E Gaus, William W Seeley
The human anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices are distinguished by 2 unique Layer 5 neuronal morphotypes, the von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells, whose biological identity remains mysterious. Insights could impact research on diverse neuropsychiatric diseases to which these cells have been linked. Here, we leveraged the Allen Brain Atlas to evaluate mRNA expression of 176 neurotransmitter-related genes and identified vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit θ (GABRQ), and adrenoreceptor α-1A (ADRA1A) expression in human VENs, fork cells, and a minority of neighboring Layer 5 neurons...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#10
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912755/establishment-of-high-reciprocal-connectivity-between-clonal-cortical-neurons-is-regulated-by-the-dnmt3b-dna-methyltransferase-and-clustered-protocadherins
#11
Etsuko Tarusawa, Makoto Sanbo, Atsushi Okayama, Toshio Miyashita, Takashi Kitsukawa, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Sonoko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shunsuke Toyoda, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi, Yumiko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The specificity of synaptic connections is fundamental for proper neural circuit function. Specific neuronal connections that underlie information processing in the sensory cortex are initially established without sensory experiences to a considerable extent, and then the connections are individually refined through sensory experiences. Excitatory neurons arising from the same single progenitor cell are preferentially connected in the postnatal cortex, suggesting that cell lineage contributes to the initial wiring of neurons...
December 2, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912087/plug-and-play-brain-understanding-integration-of-transplanted-neurons-for-brain-repair
#12
Shane Grealish, Malin Parmar
In a recent issue of Nature,Falkner et al. (2016) use chronic two-photon imaging, virus-based transsynaptic tracing, and dynamic calcium indicators to elegantly demonstrate extensive in vivo functional maturation and target-specific functional integration of transplanted embryonic mouse cortical progenitors into adult lesioned visual cortical circuits.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#13
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911814/distinct-cortical-and-striatal-actions-of-a-%C3%AE-arrestin-biased-dopamine-d2-receptor-ligand-reveal-unique-antipsychotic-like-properties
#14
Nikhil M Urs, Steven M Gee, Thomas F Pack, John D McCorvy, Tama Evron, Joshua C Snyder, Xiaobao Yang, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Emiliana Borrelli, William C Wetsel, Jian Jin, Bryan L Roth, Patricio O'Donnell, Marc G Caron
The current dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates striatal hyperdopaminergia and cortical hypodopaminergia. Although partial agonists at DA D2 receptors (D2Rs), like aripiprazole, were developed to simultaneously target both phenomena, they do not effectively improve cortical dysfunction. In this study, we investigate the potential for newly developed β-arrestin2 (βarr2)-biased D2R partial agonists to simultaneously target hyper- and hypodopaminergia. Using neuron-specific βarr2-KO mice, we show that the antipsychotic-like effects of a βarr2-biased D2R ligand are driven through both striatal antagonism and cortical agonism of D2R-βarr2 signaling...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911754/cortical-control-of-spatial-resolution-by-vip-interneurons
#15
Inbal Ayzenshtat, Mahesh Miikael Karnani, Jesse Jackson, Rafael Yuste
: Neuronal tuning, defined by the degree of selectivity to a specific stimulus, is a hallmark of cortical computation. Understanding the role of GABAergic interneurons in shaping cortical tuning is now possible with the ability to manipulate interneuron classes selectively. Here, we show that interneurons expressing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP(+)) regulate the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using two-photon calcium imaging and optogenetic manipulations of VIP(+) cell activity, we found that activating VIP(+) cells elicited a stronger network response to stimuli of higher SFs, whereas suppressing VIP(+) cells resulted in a network response shift toward lower SFs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911752/frontosubthalamic-circuits-for-control-of-action-and-cognition
#16
Adam R Aron, Damian M Herz, Peter Brown, Birte U Forstmann, Kareem Zaghloul
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911741/neural-stem-cells-to-cerebral-cortex-emerging-mechanisms-regulating-progenitor-behavior-and-productivity
#17
Noelle D Dwyer, Bin Chen, Shen-Ju Chou, Simon Hippenmeyer, Laurent Nguyen, H Troy Ghashghaei
This review accompanies a 2016 SFN mini-symposium presenting examples of current studies that address a central question: How do neural stem cells (NSCs) divide in different ways to produce heterogeneous daughter types at the right time and in proper numbers to build a cerebral cortex with the appropriate size and structure? We will focus on four aspects of corticogenesis: cytokinesis events that follow apical mitoses of NSCs; coordinating abscission with delamination from the apical membrane; timing of neurogenesis and its indirect regulation through emergence of intermediate progenitors; and capacity of single NSCs to generate the correct number and laminar fate of cortical neurons...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909264/global-ablation-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-increases-glycolysis-in-cortical-neurons-subjected-to-energetic-stressors
#18
Matthew Nichols, Pia A Elustondo, Jordan Warford, Aruloli Thirumaran, Evgeny V Pavlov, George S Robertson
The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca(2+) handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+)-induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909100/lhx2-interacts-with-the-nurd-complex-and-regulates-cortical-neuron-subtype-determinants-fezf2-and-sox11
#19
Bhavana Muralidharan, Zeba Khatri, Upasana Maheshwari, Ritika Gupta, Basabdatta Roy, Saurabh J Pradhan, Krishanpal Karmodiya, Hari Padmanabhan, Ashwin Shetty, Chinthapalli Balaji, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam, Jeffrey D Macklis, Sanjeev Galande, Shubha Tole
: In the developing cerebral cortex, sequential transcriptional programs take neuroepithelial cells from proliferating progenitors to differentiated neurons with unique molecular identities. The regulatory changes that occur in the chromatin of the progenitors are not well understood. During deep layer neurogenesis, we show that transcription factor Lhx2 binds to distal regulatory elements of Fezf2 and Sox11, critical determinants of neuron subtype identity in the mouse neocortex. We demonstrate that Lhx2 binds to the NuRD histone remodeling complex subunits LSD1, HDAC2, and RBBP4, which are proximal regulators of the epigenetic state of chromatin...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909098/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#20
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under such pathological conditions as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries ranging from severe to mild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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