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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817801/a-sensitized-igf1-treatment-restores-corticospinal-axon-dependent-functions
#1
Yuanyuan Liu, Xuhua Wang, Wenlei Li, Qian Zhang, Yi Li, Zicong Zhang, Junjie Zhu, Bo Chen, Philip R Williams, Yiming Zhang, Bin Yu, Xiaosong Gu, Zhigang He
A major hurdle for functional recovery after both spinal cord injury and cortical stroke is the limited regrowth of the axons in the corticospinal tract (CST) that originate in the motor cortex and innervate the spinal cord. Despite recent advances in engaging the intrinsic mechanisms that control CST regrowth, it remains to be tested whether such methods can promote functional recovery in translatable settings. Here we show that post-lesional AAV-assisted co-expression of two soluble proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and osteopontin (OPN), in cortical neurons leads to robust CST regrowth and the recovery of CST-dependent behavioral performance after both T10 lateral spinal hemisection and a unilateral cortical stroke...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817799/human-astrocyte-maturation-captured-in-3d-cerebral-cortical-spheroids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Steven A Sloan, Spyros Darmanis, Nina Huber, Themasap A Khan, Fikri Birey, Christine Caneda, Richard Reimer, Stephen R Quake, Ben A Barres, Sergiu P Paşca
There is significant need to develop physiologically relevant models for investigating human astrocytes in health and disease. Here, we present an approach for generating astrocyte lineage cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cytoarchitecture using human cerebral cortical spheroids (hCSs) derived from pluripotent stem cells. We acutely purified astrocyte-lineage cells from hCSs at varying stages up to 20 months in vitro using immunopanning and cell sorting and performed high-depth bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing to directly compare them to purified primary human brain cells...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817580/criticality-predicts-maximum-irregularity-in-recurrent-networks-of-excitatory-nodes
#3
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Ralf Wessel
A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817455/jak-kinase-3-signaling-in-microgliogenesis-from-the-spinal-nestin-progenitors-in-both-development-and-response-to-injury
#4
Sumit Barua, Jee-In Chung, A Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Lee, Soo Hwan Lee, Eun Joo Baik
During spinal cord development, endogenous progenitors expressing nestin can migrate into the target and differentiate into neurons and other glial cells. Microglial cells can also be derived from nestin progenitor cells, even in the adult brain. Knockdown of Jak kinase 3 (Jak3) signaling can increase neurogenesis with longer neurite outgrowth in cortical progenitor cells. This study investigated the effect of Jak3 signaling on differentiation from nestin progenitor cells using E13.5 spinal progenitor cell cultures...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815720/pharmacological-evidence-of-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-pathway-in-anti-pruritic-effects-of-sumatriptan-in-chloroquine-induced-scratching-in-mice
#5
Nazgol-Sadat Haddadi, Sattar Ostadhadi, Saeed Shakiba, Khashayar Afshari, Nastaran Rahimi, Arash Foroutan, Ahmad-Reza Dehpour
Chloroquine (CQ) induces histamine-independent itch in human and mice. We recently reported the role of intradermal nitric oxide (NO)/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in CQ-evoked scratching in mice. Chloroquine stimulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity to over-producing NO in the skin. Sumatriptan, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1b/1d receptors (5-HTR1b/1d) agonist, is involved in pain and used to treat migraine and cluster headaches. According to previous studies, sumatriptan inhibits NOS activity...
August 16, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814784/social-isolation-suppresses-actin-dynamics-and-synaptic-plasticity-through-adf-cofilin-inactivation-in-the-developing-rat-barrel-cortex
#6
Hirobumi Tada, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Kiwamu Takemoto, Susumu Jitsuki, Waki Nakajima, Mayu Koide, Naoko Yamamoto, Akiko Taguchi, Honami Kawai, Kasane Komiya, Kumiko Suyama, Hiroki Abe, Akane Sano, Takuya Takahashi
Exposure to a stressful environment early in life can cause psychiatric disorders by disrupting circuit formation. Actin plays central roles in regulating neuronal structure and protein trafficking. We have recently reported that neonatal isolation inactivated ADF/cofilin, the actin depolymerizing factor, resulted in a reduced actin dynamics at spines and an attenuation of synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor delivery in the juvenile rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), leading to altered social behaviours...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814778/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-sex-differences-in-the-dendritic-morphology-of-developing-murine-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#7
Kimberly P Keil, Sunjay Sethi, Machelle D Wilson, Hao Chen, Pamela J Lein
Altered dendritic morphology is common in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), many of which show sex biases in prevalence, onset and/or severity. However, whether dendritic morphology varies as a function of sex in juvenile mice or primary neuronal cell cultures is largely unknown even though both are widely used models for studying NDDs. To address this gap, we quantified dendritic morphology in CA1 pyramidal hippocampal and adjacent somatosensory pyramidal cortical neurons from male and female postnatal day (P)28 C57BL/6J mice...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814327/neocortical-sox9-radial-glia-generate-glutamatergic-neurons-for-all-layers-but-lack-discernible-evidence-of-early-laminar-fate-restriction
#8
E S Kaplan, K A Ramos-Laguna, A B Mihalas, R A M Daza, R F Hevner
Glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex are derived from embryonic neural stem cells known as radial glial progenitors (RGPs). Early RGPs, present at the onset of cortical neurogenesis, are classically thought to produce columnar clones of glutamatergic neurons spanning the cortical layers. Recently, however, it has been reported that a subset of early RGPs may undergo early commitment to upper layer neuron fates, thus bypassing genesis of deep layer neurons. However, the latter mode of early RGP differentiation was not confirmed in some other studies, and remains controversial...
August 16, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813670/nkx2-1-is-required-in-the-embryonic-septum-for-cholinergic-system-development-learning-and-memory
#9
Lorenza Magno, Caswell Barry, Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Polyvios Theodotou, Michael Häusser, Nicoletta Kessaris
The transcription factor NKX2-1 is best known for its role in the specification of subsets of cortical, striatal, and pallidal neurons. We demonstrate through genetic fate mapping and intersectional focal septal deletion that NKX2-1 is selectively required in the embryonic septal neuroepithelium for the development of cholinergic septohippocampal projection neurons and large subsets of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In the absence of NKX2-1, these neurons fail to develop, causing alterations in hippocampal theta rhythms and severe deficiencies in learning and memory...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813464/representation-of-three-dimensional-space-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-the-echolocating-bat-p-discolor
#10
Wolfgang Greiter, Uwe Firzlaff
The auditory cortex is an essential center for sound localization. In echolocating bats, combination sensitive neurons tuned to specific delays between call emission and echo perception represent target distance. In many bats, these neurons are organized as a chronotopically organized map of echo delay. However, it is still unclear to what extend these neurons can process directional information and thereby form a three-dimensional representation of space. We investigated the representation of three-dimensional space in the auditory cortex of Phyllostomus discolor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812939/removing-dysfunctional-mitochondria-from-axons-independent-of-mitophagy-under-pathophysiological-conditions
#11
Mei-Yao Lin, Xiu-Tang Cheng, Yuxiang Xie, Qian Cai, Zu-Hang Sheng
Chronic mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in major neurodegenerative diseases. Long-term cumulative pathological stress leads to axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Therefore, the early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. We recently investigated the axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer disease (AD)-linked neurons...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811775/metformin-attenuate-ptz-induced-apoptotic-neurodegeneration-in-human-cortical-neuronal-cells
#12
Fehmida Bibi, Ikram Ullah, Myeong Ok Kim, Muhammad Imran Naseer
OBJECTIVE: Seizures are one of the neurodegenerative disorders of human being. Metformin has antioxidant properties and commonly used as an oral antidiabetic drug. The current study was aimed to observe the neuroprotective effect of metformin against PTZ-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in human cortical neuronal cell culture. METHODS: To observe that exposure of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) at the dose of (30mM) for 30 minutes induced neuronal cell death by activation of caspase-3 in human cortical neuronal 2 (HCN-2) cell line...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811646/pafah1b1-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-gaba-neurons-and-synaptic-e-i-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#13
Matthew T Dinday, Kelly M Girskis, Sunyoung Lee, Scott C Baraban, Robert F Hunt
Hemizygous mutations in the human gene encoding platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha (Pafah1b1), also called Lissencephaly-1, can cause classical lissencephaly, a severe malformation of cortical development. Children with this disorder suffer from deficits in neuronal migration, severe intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy and early death. While many of these features can be reproduced in Pafah1b1(+/-) mice, the impact of Pafah1b1(+/-) on the function of individual subpopulations of neurons and ultimately brain circuits is largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811534/distinct-projection-patterns-of-different-classes-of-layer-2-principal-neurons-in-the-olfactory-cortex
#14
Camille Mazo, Julien Grimaud, Yasuyuki Shima, Venkatesh N Murthy, C Geoffrey Lau
The broadly-distributed, non-topographic projections to and from the olfactory cortex may suggest a flat, non-hierarchical organization in odor information processing. Layer 2 principal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) can be divided into 2 subtypes: semilunar (SL) and superficial pyramidal (SP) cells. Although it is known that SL and SP cells receive differential inputs from the olfactory bulb (OB), little is known about their projections to other olfactory regions. Here, we examined axonal projections of SL and SP cells using a combination of mouse genetics and retrograde labeling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811196/inhibitions-of-pkc-and-camk-ii-synergistically-rescue-ischemia-induced-astrocytic-dysfunction
#15
Zhan Liu, Ying Huang, Lina Liu, Li Zhang
Ischemic neuronal death is presumably caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, in which the increased glutamate release and impaired glutamate reuptake lead to glutamate accumulation. Mechanisms underlying the ischemic deficiency of astrocytic glutamate reuptake remain unclear, which we have studied by analyzing the effect of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitions on astrocytic glutamate transporter during ischemia. Glutamate transporter current was recorded on the astrocytes in cortical slices...
August 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810189/hydroxy-substituted-trans-cinnamoyl-derivatives-as-multifunctional-tools-in-the-context-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Angela De Simone, Manuela Bartolini, Andrea Baschieri, Kim Y P Apperley, Huan Huan Chen, Melissa Guardigni, Serena Montanari, Tereza Kobrlova, Ondrej Soukup, Luca Valgimigli, Vincenza Andrisano, Jeffrey W Keillor, Manuela Basso, Andrea Milelli
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial pathology that requires multifaceted agents able to address its peculiar nature. In recent years, a plethora of proteins and biochemical pathways has been proposed as possible targets to counteract neurotoxicity. Although the complex scenario is not completely elucidated, close relationships are emerging among some of these actors. In particular, increasing evidence has shown that aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and oxidative stress are strictly interconnected and their concomitant modulation may have a positive and synergic effect in contrasting AD-related impairments...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808237/coding-and-small-non-coding-transcriptional-landscape-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-cortical-tubers-implications-for-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#17
James D Mills, Anand M Iyer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Anika Bongaarts, Jasper J Anink, Bart Janssen, Till S Zimmer, Wim G Spliet, Peter C van Rijen, Floor E Jansen, Martha Feucht, Johannes A Hainfellner, Pavel Krsek, Josef Zamecnik, Katarzyna Kotulska, Sergiusz Jozwiak, Anna Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Paolo Curatolo, David J Kwiatkowski, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Lars von Oerthel, Marco F Hoekman, Jan A Gorter, Peter B Crino, Angelika Mühlebner, Brendon P Scicluna, Eleonora Aronica
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder that results from a mutation in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes leading to constitutive activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). TSC is associated with autism, intellectual disability and severe epilepsy. Cortical tubers are believed to represent the neuropathological substrates of these disabling manifestations in TSC. In the presented study we used high-throughput RNA sequencing in combination with systems-based computational approaches to investigate the complexity of the TSC molecular network...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808026/superior-colliculus-encodes-visual-saliency-before-the-primary-visual-cortex
#18
Brian J White, Janis Y Kan, Ron Levy, Laurent Itti, Douglas P Munoz
Models of visual attention postulate the existence of a bottom-up saliency map that is formed early in the visual processing stream. Although studies have reported evidence of a saliency map in various cortical brain areas, determining the contribution of phylogenetically older pathways is crucial to understanding its origin. Here, we compared saliency coding from neurons in two early gateways into the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1) and the evolutionarily older superior colliculus (SC). We found that, while the response latency to visual stimulus onset was earlier for V1 neurons than superior colliculus superficial visual-layer neurons (SCs), the saliency representation emerged earlier in SCs than in V1...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807873/neurophysiologically-informed-markers-of-individual-variability-and-pharmacological-manipulation-of-human-cortical-gamma
#19
A D Shaw, R J Moran, S D Muthukumaraswamy, J Brealy, D E Linden, K J Friston, K D Singh
The ability to quantify synaptic function at the level of cortical microcircuits from non-invasive data would be enormously useful in the study of neuronal processing in humans and the pathophysiology that attends many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we provide proof of principle that one can estimate inter-and intra-laminar interactions among specific neuronal populations using induced gamma responses in the visual cortex of human subjects - using dynamic causal modelling based upon the canonical microcircuit (CMC; a simplistic model of a cortical column)...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807859/widespread-functional-opsin-transduction-in-the-rat-cortex-via-convection-enhanced-delivery-optimized-for-horizontal-spread
#20
Zeyang Yu, Arto Nurmikko, Ilker Ozden
BACKGROUND: Widespread opsin expression in the cortex of rats, where transgenic models have not been established, is not practical to achieve with the traditional diffusion-based virus transduction methods (DBD). NEW METHOD: We developed protocols for convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of virus for optogenetic transduction of the rat cortex. Targeting the motor forelimb area as an example, we performed dual-site CED (6 μL of virus per site, 3 mm pitch between sites) in the rat motor cortex...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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