keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cortical neuron

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108489/processing-of-egomotion-consistent-optic-flow-in-the-rhesus-macaque-cortex
#1
Benoit R Cottereau, Andrew T Smith, Samy Rima, Denis Fize, Yseult Héjja-Brichard, Luc Renaud, Camille Lejards, Nathalie Vayssière, Yves Trotter, Jean-Baptiste Durand
The cortical network that processes visual cues to self-motion was characterized with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 3 awake behaving macaques. The experimental protocol was similar to previous human studies in which the responses to a single large optic flow patch were contrasted with responses to an array of 9 similar flow patches. This distinguishes cortical regions where neurons respond to flow in their receptive fields regardless of surrounding motion from those that are sensitive to whether the overall image arises from self-motion...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108396/serotonin-5-ht4-receptors-modulate-the-development-of-glutamatergic-input-to-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#2
Angela Chen, Katherine D Hubbert, Pasha F Foroudi, Vivian F Lu, Skirmantas Janušonis
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a major serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-producing region in the central nervous system. It receives glutamatergic inputs from several brain regions, which are reciprocally modulated by serotonergic signals. We investigated whether serotonin 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4Rs) play a role in the development of glutamatergic control of the DRN, with an emphasis on cortical inputs. Double-label immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to quantify vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1)-immunoreactive terminals in the DRN of mice with a null-mutation in the 5-HT4R gene...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106772/neuroprotective-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-of-csp-1103-in-primary-cortical-neurons-exposed-to-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation
#3
Vanessa Porrini, Ilenia Sarnico, Marina Benarese, Caterina Branca, Mariana Mota, Annamaria Lanzillotta, Arianna Bellucci, Edoardo Parrella, Lara Faggi, Pierfranco Spano, Bruno Pietro Imbimbo, Marina Pizzi
CSP-1103 (formerly CHF5074) has been shown to reverse memory impairment and reduce amyloid plaque as well as inflammatory microglia activation in preclinical models of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, it was found to improve cognition and reduce brain inflammation in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Recent evidence suggests that CSP-1103 acts through a single molecular target, the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD), a transcriptional regulator implicated in inflammation and apoptosis...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106556/an-improved-drugs-screening-system-reveals-that-baicalein-ameliorates-the-a%C3%AE-ampa-nmda-induced-depolarization-of-neurons
#4
Tian-Syuan Lin, Han-Jung Tsai, Chih-Han Lee, Yan-Qing Song, Rih-Sheng Huang, Hsiu-Mei Hsieh-Li, Mei-Chih Liang, Yenshou Lin
The presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in brain tissue is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). At least some Aβ neurotoxicity is caused by the presence of excess glutamate that has been induced by Aβ accumulation. Memantine is currently the only NMDA receptor inhibitor approved for treating moderate-to-severe AD patients. We utilized primary cortical neurons and DiBAC4(3), a slow-response voltage sensitive fluorescence dye, to create a novel system for screening herbal medicines that allows the identification of pure compounds able to ameliorate Aβ-induced abnormal depolarization...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106136/long-term-exposure-to-835%C3%A2-mhz-rf-emf-induces-hyperactivity-autophagy-and-demyelination-in-the-cortical-neurons-of-mice
#5
Ju Hwan Kim, Da-Hyeon Yu, Yang Hoon Huh, Eun Ho Lee, Hyung-Gun Kim, Hak Rim Kim
Radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) is used globally in conjunction with mobile communications. There are public concerns of the perceived deleterious biological consequences of RF-EMF exposure. This study assessed neuronal effects of RF-EMF on the cerebral cortex of the mouse brain as a proxy for cranial exposure during mobile phone use. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 835 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 5 hours/day during 12 weeks. The aim was to examine activation of autophagy pathway in the cerebral cortex, a brain region that is located relatively externally...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106089/release-activity-dependent-control-of-vesicle-endocytosis-by-the-synaptic-adhesion-molecule-n-cadherin
#6
Bernd van Stegen, Sushma Dagar, Kurt Gottmann
At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4-64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105729/whole-genome-grey-and-white-matter-dna-methylation-profiles-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Jose Vicente Sanchez-Mut, Holger Heyn, Enrique Vidal, Raúl Delgado-Morales, Sebastian Moran, Sergi Sayols, Juan Sandoval, Isidre Ferrer, Manel Esteller, Johannes Gräff
The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105686/visual-tactile-processing-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-emerges-before-cross-modal-experience
#8
Malte Bieler, Kay Sieben, Sandra Schildt, Brigitte Röder, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
The presumptive unisensory neocortical areas process multisensory information by oscillatory entrainment of neuronal networks via direct cortico-cortical projections. While neonatal unimodal experience has been identified as necessary for setting up the neuronal networks of multisensory processing, it is still unclear whether early cross-modal experience equally controls the ontogeny of multisensory processing. Here, we assess the development of visual-somatosensory interactions and their anatomical substrate by performing extracellular recordings of network activity in primary sensory cortices in vivo and assessing the cortico-cortical connectivity in pigmented rats...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104431/abnormal-regional-spontaneous-neuronal-activity-associated-with-symptom-severity-in-treatment-naive-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-revealed-by-resting-state-functional-mri
#9
Linlin Qiu, Xiangshuai Fu, Shuai Wang, Qunfeng Tang, Xingui Chen, Lin Cheng, Fuquan Zhang, Zhenhe Zhou, Lin Tian
A large number of neuroimaging studies have revealed the dysfunction of brain activities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during various tasks. However, regional spontaneous activity abnormalities in OCD are gradually being revealed. In this current study, we aimed to investigate cerebral regions with abnormal spontaneous activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and further explored the relationship between the spontaneous neuronal activity and symptom severity of patients with OCD...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103479/subcortical-source-and-modulation-of-the-narrowband-gamma-oscillation-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#10
Aman B Saleem, Anthony D Lien, Michael Krumin, Bilal Haider, Miroslav Román Rosón, Asli Ayaz, Kimberly Reinhold, Laura Busse, Matteo Carandini, Kenneth D Harris
Primary visual cortex exhibits two types of gamma rhythm: broadband activity in the 30-90 Hz range and a narrowband oscillation seen in mice at frequencies close to 60 Hz. We investigated the sources of the narrowband gamma oscillation, the factors modulating its strength, and its relationship to broadband gamma activity. Narrowband and broadband gamma power were uncorrelated. Increasing visual contrast had opposite effects on the two rhythms: it increased broadband activity, but suppressed the narrowband oscillation...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103228/human-specific-cortical-synaptic-connections-and-their-plasticity-is-that-what-makes-us-human
#11
Joana Lourenço, Alberto Bacci
One outstanding difference between Homo sapiens and other mammals is the ability to perform highly complex cognitive tasks and behaviors, such as language, abstract thinking, and cultural diversity. How is this accomplished? According to one prominent theory, cognitive complexity is proportional to the repetition of specific computational modules over a large surface expansion of the cerebral cortex (neocortex). However, the human neocortex was shown to also possess unique features at the cellular and synaptic levels, raising the possibility that expanding the computational module is not the only mechanism underlying complex thinking...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103118/park2-dependent-mitophagy-induced-by-acidic-postconditioning-protects-against-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-extends-the-reperfusion-window
#12
Zhe Shen, Yanrong Zheng, Jiaying Wu, Ying Chen, Xiaoli Wu, Yiting Zhou, Yang Yuan, Shousheng Lu, Lei Jiang, Zhenghong Qin, Zhong Chen, Weiwei Hu, Xiangnan Zhang
Prompt reperfusion after cerebral ischemia is critical for neuronal survival. Any strategies that extend the limited reperfusion window will be of great importance. Acidic postconditioning (APC) is a mild acidosis treatment that involves inhaling CO2 during reperfusion following ischemia. APC attenuates ischemic brain injury although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here we report that APC reinforces ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitophagy in middle cortical artery occlusion (MCAO)-treated mice, and in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated brain slices and neurons...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102462/cerebellar-pathways-in-mouse-model-of-purkinje-cell-degeneration-detected-by-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging-tractography
#13
Yuri Kanamaru, Jianxue Li, Natalie Stewart, Richard L Sidman, Emi Takahashi
Cerebellar MR imaging has several challenging aspects, due to the fine, repetitive layered structure of cortical folia with underlying axonal pathways. In this MR study, we imaged with high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) abnormal cerebellar cortical structure (gray matter) and myelinated axonal pathways (white matter) of a mouse spontaneous mutation, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), in which almost all Purkinje neurons degenerate, mainly between postnatal days 20 and 35. Mouse brains at postnatal day 20 (P20) and at 8 months were scanned, and known or expected abnormalities, such as reduction of the white matter volume, disorganized pathways likely linked to parallel fibers, mossy fibers, and other fibers running from/to the cerebellar cortex were observed in mutant mice...
January 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101529/cortico-cortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-areas-and-associated-symptoms-in-migraine
#14
Duncan J Hodkinson, Rosanna Veggeberg, Aaron Kucyi, Koene R A van Dijk, Sophie L Wilcox, Steven J Scrivani, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino-vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico-cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101525/untangling-basal-ganglia-network-dynamics-and-function-role-of-dopamine-depletion-and-inhibition-investigated-in-a-spiking-network-model
#15
Mikael Lindahl, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are a crucial brain system for behavioral selection, and their function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), where neurons exhibit inappropriate synchronization and oscillations. We present a spiking neural model of basal ganglia including plausible details on synaptic dynamics, connectivity patterns, neuron behavior, and dopamine effects. Recordings of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus and Type A (TA; arkypallidal) and Type I (TI; prototypical) neurons in globus pallidus externa were used to validate the model...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101397/statistical-parametric-mapping-of-stimuli-evoked-changes-in-total-blood-flow-velocity-in-the-mouse-cortex-obtained-with-extended-focus-optical-coherence-microscopy
#16
Paul J Marchand, Arno Bouwens, Tristan Bolmont, Vincent K Shamaei, David Nguyen, Daniel Szlag, Jérôme Extermann, Theo Lasser
Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging is the current gold-standard in neuroimaging. fMRI exploits local changes in blood oxygenation to map neuronal activity over the entire brain. However, its spatial resolution is currently limited to a few hundreds of microns. Here we use extended-focus optical coherence microscopy (xfOCM) to quantitatively measure changes in blood flow velocity during functional hyperaemia at high spatio-temporal resolution in the somatosensory cortex of mice. As optical coherence microscopy acquires hundreds of depth slices simultaneously, blood flow velocity measurements can be performed over several vessels in parallel...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101166/hsp70-inducer-17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin-provides-neuroprotection-via-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Youquan Gu, Jun Chen, Tianhong Wang, Chaoning Zhou, Zhaodong Liu, Lanhua Ma
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the predominant cause of mortality in young adults and children living in China. TBI induces inflammatory responses; in addition, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 are important pro-inflammatory cytokines. Considering the observation that Hsp-70 overexpression can exert neuroprotection, identifying a drug that is able to induce the upregulation of Hsp70 has the potential to be a promising therapy for the treatment of neurological diseases. Thus, the present study assessed the clinical effectiveness of an anticancer drug and Hsp70 activator, 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), to evaluate its potential as a treatment for patients with TBI...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100746/end-stopping-predicts-curvature-tuning-along-the-ventral-stream
#18
Carlos R Ponce, Till S Hartmann, Margaret S Livingstone
: Neurons in primate inferotemporal cortex (IT) are clustered into patches of shared image preferences. Functional imaging has shown that these patches are activated by natural categories (e.g., faces, body parts, and places), artificial categories (numerals, words) and geometric features (curvature and real-world size). These domains develop in the same cortical locations across monkeys and humans, which raises the possibility of common innate mechanisms. Although these commonalities could be high-level template-based categories, it is alternatively possible that the domain locations are constrained by low-level properties such as end-stopping, eccentricity, and the shape of the preferred images...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100658/maps-of-cone-opsin-input-to-mouse-v1-and-higher-visual-areas
#19
Issac Rhim, Gabriela Coello-Reyes, Hee-Kyoung Ko, Ian Nauhaus
Studies in the mouse retina have characterized the spatial distribution of an anisotropic ganglion cell and photoreceptor mosaic, which provides a solid foundation to study how the cortex pools from afferent parallel color channels. In particular, the mouse's retinal mosaic exhibits a gradient of wavelength sensitivity along its dorsoventral axis. Cones at the ventral extreme mainly express S-opsin, which is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Then, moving toward the retina's dorsal extreme, there is a transition to M-opsin dominance...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100654/dissociation-between-sustained-single-neuron-spiking-%C3%AE-rhythmicity-and-transient-%C3%AE-lfp-oscillations-in-primate-motor-cortex
#20
Michael Everett Rule, Carlos E Vargas-Irwin, John P Donoghue, Wilson Truccolo
Determining the relationship between single-neuron spiking and transient (~20 Hz) beta local field potential (β-LFP) oscillations is an important step for understanding the role of these oscillations in motor cortex. We show that while motor cortex firing rates and beta spiking rhythmicity remain sustained during steady-state movement preparation periods, β-LFP oscillations emerge, in contrast, as short transient events. Single-neuron mean firing rates within and outside transient β-LFP events showed no differences, and no consistent correlation was found between the beta oscillations' amplitude and firing rates, as was the case for movement and visual-cue related β-LFP suppression...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
keyword
keyword
27907
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"