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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231681/noninvasive-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-for-the-treatment-of-orofacial-pain
#1
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: tDCS is a promising method for the treatment of chronic pain. Electrode placement locations must be chosen in accordance with the density and the time course of the current in order to prevent pathological changes in the underlying tissue. In order to reduce current spatial variability, more electrodes of the same polarity are placed in a circle around the second electrode of the opposite polarity. The applied current produced the greatest changes directly beneath the electrodes: the cathode reduces the excitability of cortical neurons, while the anode has the opposite effect...
October 24, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231470/rapid-integration-of-artificial-sensory-feedback-during-operant-conditioning-of-motor-cortex-neurons
#2
Mario Prsa, Gregorio L Galiñanes, Daniel Huber
Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231378/unbalanced-synaptic-inputs-underlying-multi-peaked-frequency-selectivity-in-rat-auditory-cortex
#3
Chang Zhou, Can Tao, Guangwei Zhang, Sumei Yan, Lijuan Wang, Yi Zhou, Ying Xiong
By measuring the frequency selectivity at different intensities in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats, we found that a small group of cortical neurons can exhibit relatively weak but robust selectivity at multiple frequencies that are different from the most preferred frequency. Both in vivo multi-unit recordings (26/93 recordings) and single-unit recordings (16/137 neurons) confirmed that the preferred frequencies are periodic and have an averaged bandwidth (BW) of 0.3-0.4 octaves, which leads to multi-peaked frequency selectivity...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230854/opposite-effects-of-hdac5-and-p300-on-mrtf-a-related-neuronal-apoptosis-during-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#4
Na Li, Qiong Yuan, Xiao-Lu Cao, Ying Zhang, Zhen-Li Min, Shi-Qiang Xu, Zhi-Jun Yu, Jing Cheng, Chunxiang Zhang, Xia-Min Hu
Our recent study has revealed that the myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) is involved in the apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and histone acetyltransferase p300 (P300) are two well-known regulators for transcription factors; however, their roles in MRTF-A-related effect on neuronal injuries during I/R are still unclear. In this study, in a model rat cerebral I/R injury via middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, we found that the expression and activity of HDAC5 was upregulated, whereas p300 and MRTF-A were downregulated both in expression and activity during I/R...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230845/dynamic-models-of-large-scale-brain-activity
#5
REVIEW
Michael Breakspear
Movement, cognition and perception arise from the collective activity of neurons within cortical circuits and across large-scale systems of the brain. While the causes of single neuron spikes have been understood for decades, the processes that support collective neural behavior in large-scale cortical systems are less clear and have been at times the subject of contention. Modeling large-scale brain activity with nonlinear dynamical systems theory allows the integration of experimental data from multiple modalities into a common framework that facilitates prediction, testing and possible refutation...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230208/optogenetic-activation-of-vglut2-expressing-excitatory-neurons-blocks-epileptic-seizure-like-activity-in-the-mouse-entorhinal-cortex
#6
Latefa Yekhlef, Gian Luca Breschi, Stefano Taverna
We investigated whether an anti-epileptic effect is obtained by selectively activating excitatory neurons expressing ChR2 under the promoter for the synaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). VGLUT2-expressing cells were optically stimulated while local field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in mouse entorhinal cortical slices perfused with the proconvulsive compound 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). In control conditions, blue light flashes directly depolarized the majority of putative glutamatergic cells, which in turn synaptically excited GABAergic interneurons...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229935/mice-deficient-in-l-12-15-lipoxygenase-show-increased-vulnerability-to-3-nitropropionic-acid-neurotoxicity
#7
Yan He, Rita C Akumuo, Yuan Yang, Sandra J Hewett
Considerable evidence supports a contributory role for leukocyte-type 12/15 Lipoxygenase (L-12/15 LO) in mediating hippocampal and cortical neuronal injury in models of Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Whether L-12/15 LO contributes to neuronal injury in a model of Huntington's disease (HD) has yet to be determined. HD is characterized by marked striatal neuronal loss, which can be mimicked in humans and animals by inhibition of mitochondrial complex II using 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP). Herein, we compared histological and behavioral outcomes between mice that were wild-type or null for L-12/15 LO following systemic injection of 3NP...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229923/epigenetic-regulation-of-reln-and-gad1-in-the-frontal-cortex-fc-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-subjects
#8
Adrian Zhubi, Ying Chen, Alessandro Guidotti, Dennis R Grayson
Both Reelin (RELN) and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD1) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We have previously shown that both mRNAs are reduced in the cerebella (CB) of ASD subjects through a mechanism that involves increases in the amounts of MECP2 binding to the corresponding promoters. In the current study, we examined the expression of RELN, GAD1, GAD2, and several other mRNAs implicated in this disorder in the frontal cortices (FC) of ASD and CON subjects. We also focused on the role that epigenetic processes play in the regulation of these genes in ASD brain...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229400/trans-synaptic-retrograde-degeneration-in-the-human-visual-system-slow-silent-and-real
#9
REVIEW
Marc Dinkin
Degeneration of neuron and axons following injury to cells with which they synapse is termed trans-synaptic degeneration. This phenomenon may be seen in postsynaptic neurons (anterograde) or in presynaptic neurons (retrograde). Retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration (RTSD) of the retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fiber layer following injury to the occipital lobe has been well documented histologically in animal studies, but its occurrence in the human retina was, for many years, felt to be limited to cases of neonatal injury during a critical period of neuronal development...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228585/fixation-target-representation-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-anti-saccade-task
#10
Xin Zhou, Christos Constantinidis
Neurons that discharge strongly during the time period of fixation of a visual target and cease to discharge prior to saccade initiation have been described in the brain stem, superior colliculus, and cortical areas. In subcortical structures, fixation neurons play a reciprocal role with saccadic neurons during the generation of eye movements. Their role in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is less obvious and it is not known if they are activated by fixation, inhibit saccade generation, or play a role in more complex functions such as the inhibition of inappropriate responses...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228580/probing-phase-and-frequency-dependent-characteristics-of-cortical-neurons-using-combined-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-transcranial-magnetic
#11
Sara Jeanne Hussain, Nivethida Thirugnanasambandam
Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral stimulation combined with TMS can be used to study cortical interneuronal circuitry. By combining these procedures with concurrent transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), Guerra and colleagues recently showed that different cortical interneuronal populations are differentially modulated by the phase and frequency of tACS-imposed oscillations (Guerra et al. 2016, Phase dependency of the human primary motor cortex and cholinergic inhibition cancellation during beta tACS, Cerebral Cortex 26:3977-2990)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227899/peripheral-sensory-stimulation-is-neuroprotective-in-a-rat-photothrombotic-ischemic-stroke-model
#12
Aishwarya Bandla, Chua Le Teng Sherry, Frances Lim, Chan Kim Chuan, Lun-De Liao, Nitish V Thakor, Aishwarya Bandla, Chua Le Teng Sherry, Frances Lim, Chan Kim Chuan, Lun-De Liao, Nitish V Thakor, Lun-De Liao, Nitish V Thakor, Frances Lim, Chua Le Teng Sherry, Aishwarya Bandla, Chan Kim Chuan
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Thrombolytic therapy using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), the only FDA-approved drug for acute ischemia, is limited by a narrow therapeutic time window and risk of hemorrhage. There is a serious need for a neuroprotective therapy which is clinically viable. We earlier demonstrated that peripheral sensory stimulation (PSS) is a potential therapeutic intervention for hyperacute ischemia resulting in recovery of neurovascular functions when administered immediately following ischemia onset in a rat model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227541/effects-of-electrode-displacement-in-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-computational-study
#13
Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Hyeon Seo
In order to understand better the ways in which cortical excitability is linked to target brain areas, this study describes the effects of focalized high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), and investigates the way in which these effects persisted after the stimulus electrodes were displaced from the target area. We constructed a 3D volume conduction model of an anatomically realistic head that is ideal for HD-tDCS, as well as compartmental models of layer 3 and layer 5 pyramidal neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227393/an-integrated-neuroprotective-intervention-for-brain-ischemia-validated-by-ecog-fpam
#14
Yu-Hang Liu, Lun-De Liao, Su Jing Chan, Aishwarya Bandla, Nitish V Thakor, Yu-Hang Liu, Lun-De Liao, Su Jing Chan, Aishwarya Bandla, Nitish V Thakor, Yu-Hang Liu, Aishwarya Bandla, Nitish V Thakor, Su Jing Chan, Lun De Liao
Brain ischemia is a neurological deficit caused by a reduction in the blood supply to tissue, and one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Currently, the most well-known therapeutic agent for ischemia recovery is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), but it is viable for only a small portion (approximately 3.6%) of ischemic patients and may cause side effects such as tissue damage. Thus, introducing a new therapeutic concept for ischemia, we proposed an integrated intervention combining global and focal stimulations in this article...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227096/prediction-of-forelimb-muscle-emgs-from-the-corticospinal-signals-in-rats
#15
Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin, Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin, Sinan Gok, Mesut Sahin
To generate voluntary forearm movements, the information that is encoded in the activity of the cortical neurons has to travel through the spinal cord and activate the skeletal muscles. The axons carrying these signals are tightly bundled together in the descending tracts that control the spinal circuitry innervating the forearm muscles. In this paper, we show that corticospinal tract (CST) signals can be used to predict forearm electromyographic (EMG) activities that are recorded during an isometric-pull task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226863/synaptic-depression-depends-on-charge-delivered-to-network
#16
Robert D Graham, Sharon Jose, Alex Kaiser, Nathalia Peixoto, Robert D Graham, Sharon Jose, Alex Kaiser, Nathalia Peixoto, Sharon Jose, Alex Kaiser, Robert D Graham, Nathalia Peixoto
In vitro neuronal networks cultured on microelectrode arrays enable the study of network electrophysiology on a fundamental level. Neuronal response to electrical stimulation is an area of interest at the laboratory bench and in the clinic, given its wide application for remedying neurological disorders. Here we investigated the change in cortical network response over time to varied amounts of charge used for stimulation, which may lead to a phenomenon known as selective adaptation. There is a charge threshold that invokes a reverberating network response; when stimulating at 900 mV, five stimulation electrodes were required to elicit a response across the entire network...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226862/novel-fractal-planar-electrode-design-for-efficient-neural-stimulation
#17
Xuefeng Wei, Mehdi Benmassaoud, Miriam Meller, Sindhuja Kuchibhatla, Xuefeng Wei, Mehdi Benmassaoud, Miriam Meller, Sindhuja Kuchibhatla, Mehdi Benmassaoud, Sindhuja Kuchibhatla, Miriam Meller, Xuefeng Wei
Planar electrodes are used in epidural spinal cord stimulation and cortical stimulation. Stimulation efficiency of an electrode is characterized by its ability to activate a volume of neural tissue with lower voltage and power requirements. As current density tends to increase towards the sharp edges of an electrode, we hypothesize that electrode designs involving a greater amount of sharp edges will have higher variations of current density, and therefore increase stimulation efficiency, compared to electrodes with flat or rounded edges...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226823/properties-of-primary-motor-cortical-local-field-potentials-in-the-leg-and-trunk-representations-during-arm-movements
#18
Adil A Tobaa, Matthew D Best, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Kazutaka Takahashi, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Adil A Tobaa, Matthew D Best, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Kazutaka Takahashi, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Adil A Tobaa, Matthew D Best, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Kazutaka Takahashi, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
Large, spatially-distributed populations of motor cortical neurons are recruited during upper limb movements. Here, we examined how beta attenuation, a mesoscopic reflection of unit engagement, varies across a spatially expansive sampling of primary motor cortex in a non-human primate (macaca mulatta). We found that electrodes in both the trunk and leg representation of motor cortex exhibit qualitatively similar behavior to electrodes in the arm representation during a planar reaching task, despite the fact that there were no overt movements of the trunk or leg...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226818/stochastic-modeling-of-spontaneous-bursting-activity-to-simulate-neural-responses-of-in-vitro-networks-on-multielectrode-arrays
#19
Gaetano Valenza, Gianluca Vannucci, Enzo Wanke, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza, Gianluca Vannucci, Enzo Wanke, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza, Enzo Wanke, Gianluca Vannucci, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo
The study of neuronal bursting activity, observed in cell-culture, is physiologically important because is correlated with synaptic transmission, plasticity, and information processing. However, besides strong ethical issues related to the use of animal models, there are many limitations due to experimental setup and neural signaling acquisition. In this study, we propose a stochastic modeling approach to simulate neural dynamics observed in networks of neocortical neurons from an ex vivo normal mouse. Specifically, we devised a stochastic version of the Izhichevich's model of cortical neurons, and simulated a network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons also accounting for cell signaling delays...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226768/thalamic-gamma-band-desynchronization-in-a-computational-model-of-the-auditory-pathway
#20
Ana E Uriarte, Lars Haab, Narsis Salafzoon, Daniel J Strauss, Ana E Uriarte, Lars Haab, Narsis Salafzoon, Daniel J Strauss, Ana E Uriarte, Lars Haab, Narsis Salafzoon, Daniel J Strauss
Recent studies have focused on modeling the response of the early auditory processing stages to sound stimuli. However, the influence of sound on the higher stages like the auditory thalamus are not well identified. To understand how different sound stimuli affect the response of neurons in these higher stages, it is necessary to model the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve (AN) through the different stages up to the cortex. In this article we present a model of one of the paths through which sound travels from the AN to the cortex...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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