keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cortical neuron

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779173/long-lasting-high-lysine-diet-aggravates-white-matter-injury-in-glutaryl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficient-gcdh-mice
#1
Silvia Olivera-Bravo, Bianca Seminotti, Eugenia Isasi, César A Ribeiro, Guilhian Leipnitz, Michael Woontner, Stephen I Goodman, Diogo Souza, Luis Barbeito, Moacir Wajner
Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is a neurometabolic disease caused by deficient activity of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) that results in accumulation of metabolites derived from lysine (Lys), hydroxylysine, and tryptophan catabolism. GA-I patients typically develop encephalopatic crises with striatal degeneration and progressive white matter defects. However, late onset patients as well as Gcdh-/- mice only suffer diffuse myelinopathy, suggesting that neuronal death and white matter defects are different pathophysiological events...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778948/bioisosteres-of-ethyl-8-ethynyl-6-pyridin-2-yl-4h-benzo-f-imidazo-1-5-a-1-4-diazepine-3-carboxylate-hz-166-as-novel-alpha-2-3-selective-potentiators-of-gaba-a-receptors-improved-bioavailability-enhances-anticonvulsant-efficacy
#2
J M Witkin, J L Smith, X Ping, S D Gleason, M M Poe, G Li, X Jin, J Hobbs, J M Schkeryantz, J S McDermott, A I Alatorre, J N Siemian, J W Cramer, D C Airey, K R Methuku, V V N P B Tiruveedhula, T M Jones, J Crawford, M J Krambis, J L Fisher, J M Cook, R Cerne
HZ-166 has previously been characterized as an α2,3-selective GABAA receptor modulator with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and anti-nociceptive properties but reduced motor effects. We discovered a series of ester bioisosteres with reduced metabolic liabilities, leading to improved efficacy as anxiolytic-like compounds in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the anticonvulsant effects KRM-II-81 across several rodent models. In some models we also evaluated key structural analogs. KRM-II-81 suppressed hyper-excitation in a network of cultured cortical neurons without affecting the basal neuronal activity...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778488/the-2016-bernard-sachs-lecture-timing-in-morphogenesis-and-genetic-gradients-during-normal-development-and-in-malformations-of-the-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
Harvey B Sarnat
Nervous system development is quadradimensional. Both normal ontogenesis and developmental malformations are explained in the context of the fourth dimension, timing. Timing of the onset of either the genetic expression of a mutation or an epigenetic event that may be teratogenic is primordial in determining morphogenesis and the forms of malformations with their functional consequences. Multiple genotypes may cause similar phenotypes or a single genotype with different degrees of retained normal genetic expression may result in variable phenotypes...
March 30, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778428/status-dystonicus-due-to-missense-variant-in-arx-diagnosis-and-management
#4
Kathleen M Gorman, Heather Cary, Laura Gaffney, Eva Forman, Dympna Waldron, Fowzy Al-Delami, Bryan J Lynch, Mary D King, Nicholas M Allen
Movement disorders are increasingly identified in infantile encephalopathies due to single gene disorders (e.g. SCN2A, CDKL5, ARX). The associated movement disorder can be challenging to recognise and treat. We report a 2 year-old boy with a background history of Ohtahara syndrome due to a missense variant in ARX (the aristaless-related homeobox gene) who subsequently developed status dystonicus. ARX is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in cortical neuronal development and is associated with a range of important neurodevelopmental disorders depending on the site of the pathogenic variant...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777374/the-tenascin-c-derived-peptide-vswrapta-promotes-neuronal-branching-via-transcellular-activation-of-the-focal-adhesion-kinase-fak-and-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-in-vitro
#5
Marvin Jarocki, Omar Sallouh, Ralf Weberskirch, Andreas Faissner
The central nervous system (CNS) of mammals has a limited regeneration capacity after traumatic events, which causes chronic functional disability. The development of biomaterials aims at providing support for the regeneration process. One strategy integrates peptides that mimic functional domains of extracellular matrix (ECM) or cell adhesion molecules with synthetic polymers designed to present growth-supporting cues to the neuronal microenvironment. Thus, small peptide sequences originating from molecules of the ECM may serve as promising bio-additives, acting as artificial matricryptins to gear cellular processes...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776894/amyloid-pet-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-dementia
#6
V Camacho, A Gómez-Grande, P Sopena, D García-Solís, M Gómez Río, C Lorenzo, S Rubí, J Arbizu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, and is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid plaques with neurofibrillary tangles are a neuropathological hallmark of AD that produces synaptic dysfunction and culminates later in neuronal loss. Amyloid PET is a useful, available and non-invasive technique that provides in vivo information about the cortical amyloid burden. In the latest revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD biomarkers were defined and integrated: pathological and diagnostic biomarkers (increased retention on fibrillar amyloid PET or decreased Aβ1-42 and increased T-Tau or P-Tau in CSF) and neurodegeneration or topographical biomarkers (temporoparietal hypometabolism on 18 F-FDG PET and temporal atrophy on MRI)...
May 15, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775875/the-reduced-level-of-growth-factors-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-is-accompanied-by-regulated-necrosis-in-the-frontal-cortex-but-not-in-the-hippocampus
#7
Mateusz Kucharczyk, Anna Kurek, Bartosz Pomierny, Jan Detka, Mariusz Papp, Katarzyna Tota, Bogusława Budziszewska
In the present study, we asked if the different types of stress alter neuronal plasticity markers distinctively in the frontal cortex (FCx) and in the hippocampus (Hp). To do so, we implemented various stress regimens to analyze changes evoked in these rat brain structures. We utilized several molecular techniques, including western blot, ELISA, quantitative RT-PCR, and various biochemical assays, to examine a range of proteins and subjected rats to behavioral tests to evaluate potential maladaptive alterations...
May 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775570/rapid-non-classical-effects-of-steroids-on-the-membrane-receptor-dynamics-and-downstream-signaling-in-neurons
#8
REVIEW
Klaudia Barabás, Soma Godó, Ferenc Lengyel, Dávid Ernszt, József Pál, István M Ábrahám
Although rapid effects of steroid hormones on membrane receptors and intracellular signaling molecules have been extensively studied in neurons, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms behind these non-classical steroid actions. Single molecule tracking (SMT) studies on live cells demonstrated that surface trafficking of membrane receptors determines their ligand binding properties and downstream signaling events. Recent findings suggest that one of the underlying mechanisms of non-classical steroid actions is the alteration of receptor movements on the membrane surface...
May 15, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774773/mir-711-induced-down-regulation-of-angiopoietin-1-mediates-neuronal-cell-death
#9
Boris Sabirzhanov, Alan Faden, Taryn Aubrecht, Rebecca Henry, Ethan Glaser, Bogdan A Stoica
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a well-known endothelial growth factor but its effects on neurons have yet to be elucidated. We show that Ang-1 is rapidly down-regulated in the injured brain after controlled cortical impact (CCI), a mouse experimental TBI model and in etoposide-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. Ang-1 treatment inhibits etoposide-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa, Puma, Bim, and Bax; reduces markers of caspase-dependent (cytochrome c release/caspase activation) and caspase-independent (apoptosis-inducing factor release) pathways; and limits neuronal cell death...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773979/efficient-coding-and-energy-efficiency-are-promoted-by-balanced-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-currents-in-neuronal-network
#10
Lianchun Yu, Zhou Shen, Chen Wang, Yuguo Yu
Selective pressure may drive neural systems to process as much information as possible with the lowest energy cost. Recent experiment evidence revealed that the ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local cortex is generally maintained at a certain value which may influence the efficiency of energy consumption and information transmission of neural networks. To understand this issue deeply, we constructed a typical recurrent Hodgkin-Huxley network model and studied the general principles that governs the relationship among the E/I synaptic current ratio, the energy cost and total amount of information transmission...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773830/circadian-and-homeostatic-modulation-of-multi-unit-activity-in-midbrain-dopaminergic-structures
#11
Karim Fifel, Johanna H Meijer, Tom Deboer
Although the link between sleep disturbances and dopamine (DA)-related neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders is well established, the impact of sleep alterations on neuronal activity of midbrain DA-ergic structures is currently unknown. Here, using wildtype C57Bl mice, we investigated the circadian- and sleep-related modulation of electrical neuronal activity in midbrain ventral-tegmental-area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN). We found no significant circadian modulation of activity in SN while VTA displayed a low amplitude but significant circadian modulation with increased firing rates during the active phase...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#12
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773806/sensory-representation-of-an-auditory-cued-tactile-stimulus-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-of-the-mouse
#13
Hemanth Mohan, Yasir Gallero-Salas, Stefano Carta, João Sacramento, Balazs Laurenczy, Lazar T Sumanovski, Christiaan P J de Kock, Fritjof Helmchen, Shankar Sachidhanandam
Sensory association cortices receive diverse inputs with their role in representing and integrating multi-sensory content remaining unclear. Here we examined the neuronal correlates of an auditory-tactile stimulus sequence in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) using 2-photon calcium imaging in awake mice. We find that neuronal subpopulations in layer 2/3 of PPC reliably represent texture-touch events, in addition to auditory cues that presage the incoming tactile stimulus. Notably, altering the flow of sensory events through omission of the cued texture touch elicited large responses in a subset of neurons hardly responsive to or even inhibited by the tactile stimuli...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773754/a-critical-neurodevelopmental-role-for-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-neurite-extension-and-radial-migration
#14
Satoshi Kamijo, Yuichiro Ishii, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Kanzo Suzuki, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Hajime Fujii, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Haruhiko Bito
In spite of many association studies linking gene polymorphisms and mutations of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels (VGCC) in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, specific L-type VGCC roles during brain development remain unclear. Yet, calcium signaling has been shown to be essential for neurodevelopmental processes such as sculpting of neurites, functional wiring and fine tuning of growing networks. To bridge this gap, we performed submembraneous calcium imaging using a membrane-tethered genetically-encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Lck-G-CaMP7...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772957/brain-machine-interfaces-powerful-tools-for-clinical-treatment-and-neuroscientific-investigations
#15
Marc W Slutzky
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have exploded in popularity in the past decade. BMIs, also called brain-computer interfaces, provide a direct link between the brain and a computer, usually to control an external device. BMIs have a wide array of potential clinical applications, ranging from restoring communication to people unable to speak due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or a stroke, to restoring movement to people with paralysis from spinal cord injury or motor neuron disease, to restoring memory to people with cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772203/the-dynamical-regime-of-sensory-cortex-stable-dynamics-around-a-single-stimulus-tuned-attractor-account-for-patterns-of-noise-variability
#16
Guillaume Hennequin, Yashar Ahmadian, Daniel B Rubin, Máté Lengyel, Kenneth D Miller
Correlated variability in cortical activity is ubiquitously quenched following stimulus onset, in a stimulus-dependent manner. These modulations have been attributed to circuit dynamics involving either multiple stable states ("attractors") or chaotic activity. Here we show that a qualitatively different dynamical regime, involving fluctuations about a single, stimulus-driven attractor in a loosely balanced excitatory-inhibitory network (the stochastic "stabilized supralinear network"), best explains these modulations...
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770576/the-extracellular-zn-2-concentration-surrounding-excited-neurons-is-high-enough-to-bind-amyloid-%C3%AE-revealed-by-a-nanowire-transistor
#17
Ankur Anand, Chih-Hung Chi, Subhasree Banerjee, Ming-Yi Chou, Fan-Gang Tseng, Chien-Yuan Pan, Yit-Tsong Chen
The Zn2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of glutamatergic neurons is coreleased with glutamate upon stimulation, resulting in the elevation of extracellular Zn2+ concentration (CZn2+ex). This elevation of CZn2+ex regulates the neurotransmission and facilitates the fibrilization of amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the exact CZn2+ex surrounding neurons under (patho)physiological conditions is not clear and the connection between CZn2+ex and the Aβ fibrilization remains obscure. Here, a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) with the Zn2+ -sensitive fluorophore, FluoZin-3 (FZ-3), to quantify the CZn2+ex in real time is modified...
May 16, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769630/locally-induced-neuronal-synchrony-precisely-propagates-to-specific-cortical-areas-without-rhythm-distortion
#18
Haruo Toda, Keisuke Kawasaki, Sho Sato, Masao Horie, Kiyoshi Nakahara, Asim K Bepari, Hirohito Sawahata, Takafumi Suzuki, Haruo Okado, Hirohide Takebayashi, Isao Hasegawa
Propagation of oscillatory spike firing activity at specific frequencies plays an important role in distributed cortical networks. However, there is limited evidence for how such frequency-specific signals are induced or how the signal spectra of the propagating signals are modulated during across-layer (radial) and inter-areal (tangential) neuronal interactions. To directly evaluate the direction specificity of spectral changes in a spiking cortical network, we selectively photostimulated infragranular excitatory neurons in the rat primary visual cortex (V1) at a supra-threshold level with various frequencies, and recorded local field potentials (LFPs) at the infragranular stimulation site, the cortical surface site immediately above the stimulation site in V1, and cortical surface sites outside V1...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769525/asynchronous-suppression-of-visual-cortex-during-absence-seizures-in-stargazer-mice
#19
Jochen Meyer, Atul Maheshwari, Jeffrey Noebels, Stelios Smirnakis
Absence epilepsy is a common childhood disorder featuring frequent cortical spike-wave seizures with a loss of awareness and behavior. Using the calcium indicator GCaMP6 with in vivo 2-photon cellular microscopy and simultaneous electrocorticography, we examined the collective activity profiles of individual neurons and surrounding neuropil across all layers in V1 during spike-wave seizure activity over prolonged periods in stargazer mice. We show that most (~80%) neurons in all cortical layers reduce their activity during seizures, whereas a smaller pool activates or remains neutral...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768946/neuroprotective-role-of-astroglia-in-parkinson-disease-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-through-dopamine-induced-activation-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#20
Kyoko Mashima, Shinichi Takahashi, Kazushi Minami, Yoshikane Izawa, Takato Abe, Naoki Tsukada, Takako Hishiki, Makoto Suematsu, Mayumi Kajimura, Norihiro Suzuki
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of Parkinson disease. Although released dopamine at the synaptic terminal is mostly reabsorbed by dopaminergic neurons, some dopamine is presumably taken up by astroglia. This study examined the dopamine-induced astroglial protective function through the activation of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro experiments were performed using striatal neurons and cortical or striatal astroglia prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats or C57BL/6 mice...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
keyword
keyword
27907
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"