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Estrus cycle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056994/hexokinase-2-drives-glycogen-accumulation-in-equine-endometrium-at-day-12-of-diestrus-and-pregnancy
#1
Sarah A Bramer, Alysson Macedo, Claudia Klein
BACKGROUND: Secretion of histotroph during the prolonged pre-implantation phase in mares is crucial to pregnancy maintenance, manifested as increased embryonic loss in mares with age-related endometrial degeneration. Glycogen content of uterine histotroph is higher during the progesterone-dominated phase of the estrous cycle in mares, but regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: mRNA expression of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes (HK1, HK2, GSK3B, GYS1, PEPCK, PKM, PYGM) in endometrial samples were compared among mares in anestrus, estrus, and at Day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy...
January 5, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046180/effect-of-timing-of-relocation-of-replacement-gilts-from-group-pens-to-individual-stalls-before-breeding-on-fertility-and-well-being
#2
R V Knox, J Shen, L L Greiner, J F Connor
Variation in gilt fertility is associated with increased replacement and reduced longevity. Stress before breeding is hypothesized to be involved in reduced fertility. This study tested the timing of gilt relocation from pens to individual stalls before breeding on fertility and well-being. The experiment was performed in replicates on a commercial research farm. After detection of first estrus, gilts ( = 563) were assigned to treatment for relocation into stalls 3 wk (REL3wk), 2 wk (REL2wk), or 1 wk (REL1wk) before breeding at second estrus...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043377/short-term-supplementation-with-maize-increases-ovulation-rate-in-goats-when-dietary-metabolizable-energy-provides-requirements-for-both-maintenance-and-1-5-times-maintenance
#3
Daniel M Nogueira, Ahmad Eshtaeba, John Cavalieri, Lee A Fitzpatrick, Bruce Gummow, Dominique Blache, Anthony J Parker
This study aimed to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics in goats submitted to synchronization of estrus and supplemented with diets that differed in the metabolizable energy source and amount of energy. The experiment was carried out using 42 does allocated into three treatments, fed for 9 days with a ration providing 1.0 times maintenance containing maize (1 MM, n = 14) or without maize (1 M, n = 14) or a ration providing 1.5 times maintenance containing maize (1.5 MM, n = 14). Estrus was synchronized with two injections of cloprostenol given 7 days apart...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043372/relationships-among-stallion-fertility-and-semen-traits-using-estimated-breeding-values-of-german-warmblood-stallions
#4
Maren Gottschalk, Harald Sieme, Gunilla Martinsson, Ottmar Distl
A high quality of stallion semen is of particular importance for maximum reproductive efficiency. In the present study, we estimated the relationships among estimated breeding values (EBVs) of semen traits and EBVs for the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per estrus cycle (EBV-PAT) for 100 German Warmblood stallions using correlation and general linear model analyses. The most highly correlated sperm quality trait was total number of progressively motile sperm (r = 0.36). EBV-PAT was considered in three classes with stallions 1 SD below (<80), around (80-120), and above (>120) the population mean of 100...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011259/exploration-of-luteinizing-hormone-in-murrah-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-urine-extended-surge-window-opens-door-for-estrus-prediction
#5
Ramu Muthu Selvam, Suneel Kumar Onteru, Varij Nayan, Muthusamy Sivakumar, Dheer Singh, Govindaraju Archunan
Estrus detection in buffaloes has been a major concern for decades, and lack of reliable methods affects their effective reproductive management. Luteinizing hormone (LH) detection in urine is in practice for several mammals for timed insemination, whereas very few reports are available on buffalo urinary LH. The focus of this study is to detect the presence of LH in buffalo urine, quantitate variation in urinary LH during different estrous cycle phases and examine the duration of mid-cycle LH window. Nearly hundred buffaloes were examined, longitudinal urine samples (n=42) were collected from seventeen animals and classified into respective phases based on several estrus detection parameters...
December 21, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997360/salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-decreases-estrogen-level-without-side-effects-on-reproductive-tissues-in-immature-ovariectomized-mice
#6
Ying Xu, Ting Chen, Xin Li, Ya-Kun Qu, Jin-Na An, Hong-Xia Zheng, Zi-Jia Zhang, Na Lin
Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge(SM) is a popular herb for alleviating menopausal symptoms, although the scientific evidence of applying SM to estrogen replacement therapy is limited. In this study, we characterized the estrogenic activity of SM using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and performed in vitro studies focusing on the estrogen receptor (ER) pathway for further molecular characterizations. SM treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity by promoting the development of uterus and vagina in immature mice, restoring the estrus cycle and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice, as well as increasing the expressions of ERα and ERβ at protein and mRNA level in the reproductive tissues...
December 20, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988272/the-impact-of-postnatal-leuprolide-acetate-treatment-on-reproductive-characteristics-in-a-rodent-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
Lady Katerine Serrano Mujica, Kalyne Bertolin, Alessandra Bridi, Werner Giehl Glanzner, Vitor Braga Rissi, Flávia de Los Santos de Camargo, Renato Zanella, Osmar Damian Prestes, Rafael Noal Moresco, Alfredo Quites Antoniazzi, Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves, Melissa Orlandin Premaor, Fabio Vasconcellos Comim
In this study, a GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate (LA), was given as a single depot injection before 48 h of life to Wistar female rats allotted to prenatal (E16-18) and postnatal androgenization (day 5 of life) by the use of testosterone propionate, looking for reproductive endpoints. Remarkably, a single injection of LA increased the estrus cycles in the postnatal group (PostN) from 0% to 25% of the estrus cycles in the postnatal LA treated group (PostN L). LA also reduced the serum testosterone levels and cysts and atretic follicles in PostN L in contrast with rats (>100 days) from the PostN group (p = 0...
December 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956788/steroid-and-metabolic-hormonal-profile-of-porcine-serum-vis-%C3%A3-vis-ovarian-follicular-fluid
#8
Soumen Naskar, S Borah, Y Vashi, R Thomas, D K Sarma, J Goswami, S K Dhara
AIM: This study was conducted to understand whether serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones may be indicative of their level in ovarian follicular fluid (FF) in porcine, and its influence on fertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ovaries from pigs (n=32) of two genetic groups, namely, native (Ghungroo; n=16) and crossbred (Hampshire × Ghungroo; n=16) were collected. Both the genetic groups comprised gilts (n=8) and sows (n=8), and sows were in luteal phase of estrus cycle...
November 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902923/kisspeptin-expression-is-decreased-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-hypothyroid-female-rats-with-irregular-estrus-cycles
#9
Yuji Tomori, Ken Takumi, Norio Iijima, Shinro Takai, Hitoshi Ozawa
Insufficiency of thyroid hormones inhibits gonadotropin release and results in dysregulation of reproductive function, although the precise mechanism of this disrupted gonadotropin secretion remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that strongly stimulates gonadotropin secretion and plays an important role in reproductive function. To examine the involvement of kisspeptin in the dysregulation of gonadotropin secretion in hypothyroidism, we investigated Kiss1 mRNA expression and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of female rats treated with propylthiouracil (PTU)...
November 27, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899720/luteal-function-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-arginine-treated-ewes-fed-different-planes-of-nutrition
#10
Casie S Bass, Dale A Redmer, Samantha L Kaminski, Anna T Grazul-Bilska
Functions of corpus luteum (CL) are influenced by numerous factors including hormones, growth and angiogenic factors, nutritional plane and dietary supplements such as arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid and precursor for proteins, polyamines and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to determine if Arg supplementation to ewes fed different planes of nutrition influences: (1) progesterone (P4) concentrations in serum and luteal tissue, (2) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and receptor (R) soluble guanylate cyclase β protein and mRNA expression and (3) luteal mRNA expression for selected angiogenic factors during the estrous cycle...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898863/rapid-communication-expression-of-an-endogenous-retroviral-element-during-early-gestation-in-beef-heifers
#11
K J McLean, M S Crouse, M R Crosswhite, D N Black, C R Dahlen, P P Borowicz, L P Reynolds, A K Ward, B W Neville, J S Caton
Endogenous retroviral gene elements have been implicated in development and formation of the feto-maternal interface. A variant of the syncytin endogenous retroviral envelope gene family, , was recently found in ruminants. We hypothesized that mRNA would be differentially expressed in utero-placental tissues and would fluctuate during key time points of early gestation in beef heifers. Commercial Angus crossbred heifers ( = 46; ∼15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7kg) housed in 6-animal pens were fed daily with native grass hay and supplemented with cracked corn to gain 0...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898848/rapid-communication-isolation-of-glucose-transporters-and-in-bovine-uteroplacental-tissues-from-days-16-to-50-of-gestation
#12
M S Crouse, J S Caton, K J McLean, P P Borowicz, L P Reynolds, C R Dahlen, B W Neville, A K Ward
Glucose transporter solute carrier family 2 member 14 () is a duplicon of glucose transporter solute carrier family 2 member 3 () with a 95% shared homology to and has not previously been isolated in ruminant uteroplacental tissues. The transporter has been previously isolated in Holstein heifer uterine epithelium but not in ovine epithelium. We hypothesized that and its duplicon would be found in bovine uteroplacental tissues and that maternal nutrition and day of gestation would impact mRNA expression of and ...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876215/serological-evaluation-of-ovarian-steroids-of-red-rumped-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-during-the-estrous-cycle-phases
#13
Michele D Singh, Michael J Morris, Diva Anelie Guimarães, Gregory Bourne, Gary W Garcia
The objective of this study was to evaluate serum progesterone (P4) and 17β estradiol (E2) concentrations throughout the estrous cycle in the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). A total of eight multiparous, captive-bred females were bled throughout their estrous cycle via saphenous venipuncture, with E2 and P4 concentrations being measured via ELISA of the serum collected. Serum E2 ranged from 1212 to 3500pg/ml with a peak value coinciding with observed estrus. However, two additional peak values for E2 were also recorded, one each in metestrus and proestrus respectively...
December 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875754/the-impact-of-diet-and-arginine-supplementation-on-pancreatic-mass-digestive-enzyme-activity-and-insulin-containing-cell-cluster-morphology-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-sheep
#14
F E Keomanivong, A T Grazul-Bilska, D A Redmer, C S Bass, S L Kaminski, P P Borowicz, J D Kirsch, K C Swanson
To determine the effect of feed intake and arginine treatment during different stages of the estrous cycle on pancreatic mass, digestive enzyme activity, and histological measurements, ewes (n = 120) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary groups; control (CON; 2.14-Mcal metabolizable energy/kg), underfed (UF; 0.6 × CON), or overfed (OF; 2 × CON) over 2 yr. Estrus was synchronized using a controlled internal drug release device for 14 d. At controlled internal drug release withdrawal, ewes from each dietary group were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments; Arg (L-Arg HCl, 155-μmol/kg BW) or Sal (approximately 10-mL saline)...
October 21, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872713/expression-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-markers-in-mouse-uterine-tissue-during-estrous-cycle
#15
Kolsum Choobineh, Saeed Zavareh, Mojdeh Salehnia, Mohamad Taghi Ghorbanian, Seyed Hassan Paylakhi
It was assumed that uterine stem cells are responsible for the unique regenerative capacity of uterine. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of the pluripotent stem cell markers in the mice uterine tissue during different stages of estrous cycles. Twelve virgin female NMRI mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were considered at proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus according to the cell types observed in the vaginal smear and underwent hysterectomy operation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining for pluripotent stem cell markers (SOX2, OCT4, KLF4, and NANOG) were performed...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868280/chlamydial-infection-enhances-expression-of-the-polymeric-immunoglobulin-receptor-pigr-and-transcytosis-of-iga
#16
Charles W Armitage, Connor P O'Meara, Kenneth W Beagley
PROBLEM: The pIgR mediates transport of IgA into the lumen of mucosal tissues preventing pathogenic infection. Despite this, the expression of pIgR during chlamydial infections of the male and female reproductive tracts remains poorly understood. METHOD OF STUDY: The expression of pIgR in response to hormone cycling or over the course of chlamydial infection was determined in vitro and in vivo by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: PIgR was upregulated in response to Chlamydia spp...
January 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847429/evaluation-of-salivary-electrolytes-during-estrous-cycle-in-murrah-buffaloes-with-reference-to-estrus-detection
#17
Indu Devi, Pawan Singh, Surerder Singh Lathwal, A Kumaresan, Kuldeep Dudi
AIM: Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride) during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes...
October 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845690/characterization-of-the-cervical-mucus-plug-in-mares
#18
S C Loux, K E Scoggin, M H T Troedsson, E L Squires, B A Ball
The cervical mucus plug (CMP) is believed to play an integral role in the maintenance of pregnancy in the mare, primarily by inhibiting microbial entry. Unfortunately, very little is known about its composition or origin. To determine the proteomic composition of the CMP, we collected CMPs from mares (n = 4) at 9 months of gestation, and proteins were subsequently analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. Results were searched against EquCab2.0, and proteomic pathways were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Histologic sections of the CMP were stained with H&E and PAS...
February 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842717/mhc-correlated-preferences-in-diestrous-female-horses-equus-caballus
#19
D Burger, C Meuwly, E Marti, H Sieme, M Oberthür, J Janda, S Meinecke-Tillmann, C Wedekind
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been shown to influence communication in many vertebrates, possibly with context-specific MHC-correlated reactions. Here we test for MHC-linked female preferences in the polygynous horse (Equus caballus) by repeatedly exposing 19 mares to a group of seven sexually experienced stallions. Each mare was tested four times during two consecutive reproductive cycles, twice during estrus and twice during diestrus. Male plasma testosterone concentrations were determined from weekly blood samples, and equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) class I and II alleles were determined serologically at the end of the experiments...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837330/reinforcing-properties-of-an-intermittent-low-dose-of-ketamine-in-rats-effects-of-sex-and-cycle
#20
Katherine N Wright, Caroline E Strong, Marjorie N Addonizio, Naomi C Brownstein, Mohamed Kabbaj
RATIONALE: Repeated intermittent exposure to ketamine has rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but the abuse potential has only been assessed at high doses. Furthermore, while females are more susceptible to depression and more sensitive to ketamine's antidepressant-like effects, the abuse potential for ketamine in females is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to determine the reinforcing properties of low-dose intermittent ketamine in adult rats of both sexes and determine whether cycling gonadal hormones influence females' response to ketamine...
November 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
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