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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224860/estrous-detection-intensity-and-accuracy-and-optimal-timing-of-insemination-with-automated-activity-monitors-for-dairy-cows
#1
C N S LeRoy, J S Walton, S J LeBlanc
The objectives of this observational study were to assess the ability of automated activity monitoring (AAM) to detect estrus for first insemination, the accuracy of detection, and the optimum interval from the estrus alert from the AAM system to insemination. Four commercial farms using 1 of 2 commercial AAM systems were studied over 1 yr. Cows were inseminated between 55 and 80 d in milk (DIM) based on AAM only, then by a combination of AAM and timed artificial insemination (AI). Blood progesterone was measured in 1,014 cows at wk 5, 7, and 9 postpartum; purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) was assessed at wk 5; and lameness and BCS at wk 7...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224098/role-of-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#2
Brian T Palmisano, Lin Zhu, John M Stafford
Before menopause, women are protected from atherosclerotic heart disease associated with obesity relative to men. Sex hormones have been proposed as a mechanism that differentiates this risk. In this review, we discuss the literature around how the endogenous sex hormones and hormone treatment approaches after menopause regulate fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol metabolism to influence cardiovascular risk.The important regulatory functions of estrogen signaling pathways with regard to lipid metabolism have been in part obscured by clinical trials with hormone treatment of women after menopause, due to different formulations, routes of delivery, and pairings with progestins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214044/milk-yield-and-kit-development-of-four-breeds-of-rabbit-in-ibadan-nigeria
#3
Olatunji Abubakar Jimoh, Emmanuel Olabisi Ewuola
Background: Rabbit breeding with high performance imported ones would be of benefit for genetic diversity and improvement of performance in domestic rabbit breeds. The rearing of more productive rabbit breeds could be pathway to improve the productivity and reduce the production cost. Maternal nutritional status exert a great influence on reproductive functions of does, which may expand from conception, through gestation and parturition and development of kits to puberty. Methods: Four breeds of rabbit were evaluated for their parturition, weaning and pubertal differences among the rabbit population in Ibadan, Nigeria...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199102/effect-of-repeated-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-administration-on-reproductive-function-and-hair-cortisol-concentration-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-goats
#4
Natsumi Endo, Hiroaki Yamane, Larasati Puji Rahayu, Tomomi Tanaka
Measurement of the cortisol concentration in hair has been used as an index of chronic stress in several species including humans, wildlife and domestic animals. However, how accurately the cortisol concentration in hair reflects the changes in circulating cortisol concentrations has not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the reproductive function during the estrous cycle and hair cortisol concentrations in goats...
November 30, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198975/improvement-of-bovine-in%C3%A2-vitro-embryo-production-by-ovarian-follicular-wave-synchronization-prior-to-ovum-pick-up
#5
F L B Cavalieri, F Morotti, M M Seneda, A H B Colombo, M A Andreazzi, I P Emanuelli, L P Rigolon
This study evaluated the effects of the synchronization of ovarian follicular wave emergence on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production. Bos indicus cows (n = 20) were divided into two groups (control vs. synchronization) and subjected to repeated ovum pick-up (OPU) sessions (8 replicates each, with an interval of 21 days in a 2 × 2 crossover design) and subsequent in vitro embryo production. Cows in the control group (n = 10) were submitted to OPU procedures without any stimulation every 21 days...
November 26, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197981/the-effects-of-ceftriaxone-on-cue-primed-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-male-and-female-rats-estrous-cycle-effects-on-behavior-and-protein-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#6
Allison R Bechard, Peter U Hamor, Marek Schwendt, Lori A Knackstedt
RATIONALE: Effective pharmacological treatments to prevent cocaine relapse remain elusive. In male rats, ceftriaxone attenuates the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking while increasing glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and xCT expression in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc). Despite reported sex differences in cocaine relapse, these effects have not yet been confirmed in female rats. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of ceftriaxone on cue-primed reinstatement and cocaine-induced alterations in glutamatergic proteins in the NAc of female rats...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196492/high-fat-diet-exposure-from-pre-pubertal-age-induces-pcos-in-rats
#7
Roshni S Patel, Gaurang B Shah
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal models focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Therefore, we hypothesized that high fat diet feeding to pre-pubertal female rats results in both reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. Pre-pubertal female rats were divided into two groups: group I received normal pellet diet and group II received high fat diet (HFD)...
December 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187696/accuracy-of-follicle-count-and-ovulation-confirmation-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-microminipigs-with-normal-estrus-cycles
#8
Masaki Takasu, Ryoko Baba, Satsuki Owada, Kotono Nakamura, Julio Almunia, Noriko Nishii, Hitoshi Kitagawa
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is suggested to be useful for counting follicles and confirming ovulation in microminipigs. However, its accuracy is unknown. We have compared the number of follicles counted by MRI to that of corpus hemorrhagicum confirmed directly by visual inspection. The follicles of 17 microminipigs were counted by using ovarian MRI on a 0.4 Tesla MRI System every 24 hours after estrus until follicle images disappeared. Then, we performed laparotomy to count their corpus hemorrhagicum. Significant correlation was observed between follicle counts obtained using MRI (5...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180134/learning-and-memory-are-impaired-in-the-object-recognition-task-during-metestrus-diestrus-and-after-sleep-deprivation
#9
Joshua Cordeira, Sai Saroja Kolluru, Heather Rosenblatt, Jenny Kry, Robert E Strecker, Robert W McCarley
Females are an under-represented research model and the mechanisms through which sleep loss impairs cognition are not clear. Since levels of reproductive hormones and the estrous cycle are sensitive to sleep loss and necessary for learning and memory, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation impacts learning and memory in female mice by interfering with the estrous cycle. We used the object recognition task to assess learning and memory in female mice during separate phases of the estrous cycle and after sleep loss...
November 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174142/estimating-probability-of-insemination-success-using-milk-progesterone-measurements
#10
P Blavy, N C Friggens, K R Nielsen, J M Christensen, M Derks
The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of progesterone profile features and other cow-level factors on insemination success to provide a real-time predictor equation of probability of insemination success. Progesterone profiles from 26 dairy herds were analyzed and the effects of profile features (progesterone slope, cycle length, and cycle height) and cow traits (milk yield, parity, insemination during the previous estrus) on likelihood of artificial insemination success were estimated. The equation was fitted on a training data set containing data from 16 herds (6,246 estrous cycles from 3,404 lactations)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147481/is-precocious-puberty-linked-to-hypothalamic-expression-of-arginine-phenylalanine-amide-related-peptide
#11
REVIEW
Yuanyuan He, Wen Sun, Jian Yu
The up-regulation and down-regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in central precocious puberty is not yet known. However, recent advances in neuroendocrinology have shown the controlling role of arginine-phenylalanine RF-amide-related peptides (RFRPs) on GnRH secretion in different phenomenon of reproduction such as estrus cycle and pregnancy, but the exact role of RFRPs in puberty and its related pathologic condition, precocious puberty, is not clear yet. This paper hypothesizes that RFRP is a regulatory peptide of puberty and might prevent the precocious puberty...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134975/plasma-interleukin-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-concentrations-at-the-different-phases-of-the-oestrus-cycle-in-clomiphene-treated-female-rats
#12
S Co Nwangwu, S J Josiah, C U Urom-Ndubuisi, S I Owoeye, P E Osagiede, A W Oyeyemi, D R Omotosho
Interleukin - 1β (IL-1β) is a signal molecule known for its role in inflammation and immune response. However,there are reports on the possible effects of IL-1β in ovulation and various aspects on female reproduction. It was thereforenecessary to determine plasma IL-1β levels in female rats administered ovulation inducing agent clomiphene citrate. In thiswork, a total of forty (40) female wistar rats weighing between 150g and 225g were used. Twenty of the rats wereadministered 0.14mg/kg clomiphene citrate orally daily for five days while the other twenty which served as control, receivednormal saline...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128220/identification-of-potential-embryokines-in-the-bovine-reproductive-tract
#13
P Tríbulo, L G B Siqueira, L J Oliveira, T Scheffler, P J Hansen
Knowledge of the molecules used by the maternal reproductive tract to regulate development of the preimplantation embryo is largely incomplete. The goal of the present experiment was to identify candidates for this function. The approach was to assess expression patterns in the endometrium and oviduct of 93 genes encoding for hormones, growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and WNT-related molecules. Results show that all of the genes were expressed in the reproductive tract. Expression in oviduct was affected by day of the estrous cycle for 21 genes with 11 genes having highest expression at estrus (CCL21, CTGF, CXCL10, CXCL16, DKK3, FGF10, IL18, IL33, IL34, PGF, and SFRP2), one gene at d 3 (WNT4), 8 at d 5 (BMP7, HGF, IL6, SFRP1, TGFB1, WIF1, WNT2, and WNT5A), and one at d 7 (IK)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102931/corpus-luteum-regression-induced-by-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-in-microminipigs-during-the-normal-estrous-cycle
#14
Michiko Noguchi, Masaya Hirata, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Akihide Tanimoto
Induction of corpus luteum regression and subsequent estrus using prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in microminipigs was investigated. Microminipigs with normal estrous cycle were treated with PGF2α as 0.75 mg (0.75 PG group, n=3) or 1.5 mg (1.5 PG group, n=4) dinoprost injected into the vulva at 24-h intervals at 10 days after the onset of estrus (D0), D1 and D2. Three microminipigs were not treated (control group). The estrous interval in the 1.5 PG group was significantly shortened compared to the control and 0...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100665/sex-steroid-receptors-prostaglandin-e2-receptors-and-cyclooxygenase-in-the-equine-cervix-during-estrus-diestrus-and-pregnancy-gene-expression-and-cellular-localization
#15
Claudia B Fernandes, Shavahn C Loux, Kirsten E Scoggin, Edward L Squires, Mats H Troedsson, Alejandro Esteller-Vico, Barry A Ball
The cervix is a dynamic structure that undergoes dramatic changes during the estrous cycle, pregnancy and parturition. It is well established that hormonal changes, including estrogens, progestogens and prostaglandins, regulate the expression of key proteins involved in cervical function. The arachidonic acid cascade is important in the remodeling and relaxation of the cervix in the days preceding parturition. Despite the complexity of this mechanism, regulation of cervical function has received little study in the mare...
October 31, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080668/exercise-or-saccharin-during-abstinence-block-estrus-induced-increases-in-nicotine-seeking
#16
Wendy J Lynch, Lillian Tan, Syeda Narmeen, Rebecca Beiter, Darlene H Brunzell
Recent evidence suggests that adolescent and young adult females may be particularly responsive to nicotine use interventions that include exercise or environmental enrichment. This possibility was addressed in the current study by comparing the efficacy of exercise versus non-exercise environmental enrichment (saccharin) during abstinence at reducing subsequent nicotine-seeking/relapse vulnerability in an adolescent-onset rat model. The efficacy of each intervention was examined as a function of estrous cycle phase given findings indicating that hormonal status influences relapse vulnerability and treatment outcome in females...
October 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080479/estrus-synchronization-and-fixed-time-artificial-insemination-alter-calving-distribution-in-bos-indicus-influenced-beef-heifers
#17
N Oosthuizen, P L P Fontes, C D Sanford, F M Ciriaco, D D Henry, L B Canal, N DiLorenzo, G C Lamb
To determine the effects of estrus synchronization (ES) and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) on calving distribution in Bos indicus influenced heifers, 751 Bos taurus × Bos indicus beef heifers were enrolled in a completely randomized design at 2 locations from January to May of 2016. Within location, all heifers were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 1) SYNCH (n = 371); heifers were exposed to the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol where they were treated with 100 μg of GnRH, 25 mg of PGF2α, and a controlled internal drug releasing insert (CIDR) on d 0; heifers received 50 mg of PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 5, and were treated with 100 μg of GnRH and TAI 66 ± 2 h later on d 8; or 2) CONTROL (n = 380); heifers were exposed to natural service without ES or TAI...
October 20, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069288/lesion-development-is-modulated-by-the-natural-estrous-cycle-and-mouse-strain-in-a-minimally-invasive-model-of-endometriosis
#18
Kelsi N Dodds, Elizabeth A H Beckett, Susan F Evans, Mark R Hutchinson
Many rodent models of endometriosis are invasive, involving surgery to implant donor endometrial tissue into recipient animals. Moreover, few studies have compared and contrasted lesions between rodent strains and estrous stages without exogenous hormone manipulation. This is despite extensive data demonstrating that genetic and hormonal factors can influence endometriosis progression. Here, we have refined a minimally-invasive model of endometriosis using naturally cycling mice (donor and recipient matched for cycle phase) to investigate lesion development in two different strains (C57BL/6 and Balb/C), induced in estrous stages of high and low estrogen (proestrus or estrus, respectively), and with varying amounts of donor endometrial tissue (7...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066528/acute-nutrient-treatment-causes-alterations-in-intra-follicular-antioxidation-and-akt-signaling
#19
Haitao Nie, Yixuan Guo, Xiaolei Yao, Tiewei Ma, KaiPing Deng, Zheng Wang, Guomin Zhang, Lingwei Sun, Zi Yu Wang, HengChang Wang, Feng Wang
This study aimed to determine if short-term nutrient alteration affects 1) ovary morphology, 2) plasma and ovarian antioxidant capability, and 3) cell apoptosis and Akt signaling within the ovary. After estrus synchronization, 24 Hu sheep were assigned to three groups based on the nutrient requirement recommended for maintenance (M): 1×M (Control), 1.5×M (S), and 0.5×M (R) during day 7 to 14 of their estrous cycle. The results indicated that undernourishment significantly increased the counts and volume of follicles <2...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047357/effects-of-inbreeding-and-other-systematic-effects-on-fertility-of-black-forest-draught-horses-in-germany
#20
Maarit Müller-Unterberg, Sandra Wallmann, Ottmar Distl
BACKGROUND: The Black Forest Draught horse (BFDH) is an endangered German coldblood breed with its origin in the area of the Black Forest in South Germany. In this retrospective study, the influence of the inbreeding coefficient on foaling rates was investigated using records from ten breeding seasons. Due to the small population size of BFDH, the level of inbreeding is increasing and may have an effect on foaling rates.The data of the present study included all coverings reported for 1024 BFDH mares in the years 2001-2009...
October 18, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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