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Estrus cycle

Shayan Abtahi, Erin Howell, Paul J Currie
The present study investigated the relationship between accumbal ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling in alcohol reward in female rats. Animals with guide cannulae targeting the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) and shell (NAcS) were habituated to alcohol for 12 weeks through a two-bottle intermittent access paradigm. JMV2959, a ghrelin antagonist, and exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 agonist, were microinjected at the onset of the nocturnal cycle. Alcohol, food, water, and total fluid intake were measured 2, 6, and 24 h postinjection...
June 20, 2018: Neuroreport
Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Thomas G Biel, Elliot T Rosen, Julia L Bonanno, Baikuntha Aryal, Francesca Mascia, Delaram Moshkelani, Steven Mog, V Ashutosh Rao
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline therapeutic, is widely used to treat a variety of cancer types and known to induce cardiomyopathy in a time and dose-dependent manner. Postmenopausal and hypertensive females are two high-risk groups for developing adverse effects following DOX treatment. This may suggest that endogenous reproductive hormones can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we investigated if the endogenous fluctuations in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in SST-2 tumor-bearing spontaneously hypersensitive rats (SHRs) and evaluate if exogenous administration of E2 and P4 can suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in tumor-bearing ovariectomized SHRs (ovaSHRs)...
June 15, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Catherine Herlta, Rosa Starka, Haukur L Sigmarsson, Johannes Kauffold
OBJECTIVE: To test for the feasibility of transabdominal Doppler sonography (color, power, pulse wave) to define uterine perfusion characteristics throughout the estrous cycle in gilts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 15 gilts were synchronized for estrus and scanned in their following spontaneous cycle while being restrained in a purpose-designed mobile crate. To define uterine perfusion characteristics, vessels in between and within uterine cross-sections were imaged and recorded as video sequences to be analyzed by PixelFlux® software for perfused area (Amix), blood flow velocity (vmix) and intensity (Imix) as well as resistance (RIvmix) and pulsatility index (PIvmix)...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Maurice Meseke, Felicitas Pröls, Camilla Schmahl, Katja Seebo, Claas Kruse, Nicola Brandt, Lars Fester, Lepu Zhou, Roland Bender, Gabriele M Rune
Reelin plays an important role in cerebral cortex development and synaptogenesis. In the hippocampus, the neurosteroid estrogen affects reelin expression. In this study we tested a potential crosstalk between estradiol and reelin, thus the possibility of a reelin-induced activation of the estradiol synthesizing enzyme aromatase. As a model system, we used ovaries, which express reelin and are a major source of estradiol. We found that in wild-type mice, reelin and aromatase are expressed in granulosa cells of growing follicles...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kazuhiro Sano, Chihiro Morimoto, Mariko Nataka, Sergei Musatov, Mumeko C Tsuda, Naoko Yamaguchi, Toshiro Sakamoto, Sonoko Ogawa
17β-Estradiol (E2 ) regulates the expression of female sexual behavior by acting through estrogen receptor (ER) α and β. Previously, we have shown that ERβ knockout female mice maintain high level of lordosis expression on the day after behavioral estrus when wild-type mice show a clear decline of the behavior, suggesting ERβ may be involved in inhibitory regulation of lordosis. However, it is not identified yet in which brain region(s) ERβ may mediate an inhibitory action of E2 . In this study, we have focused on the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) that expresses ERβ in higher density than ERα...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Malgorzata Domino, Bartosz Pawlinski, Magdalena Gajewska, Tomasz Jasinski, Maria Sady, Zdzislaw Gajewski
BACKGROUND: Uterine myoactivity is crucial for successful reproductive performance of the sow. Spontaneous contractions of the uterus are strictly controlled and coordinated. Uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity undergoes hormonal regulation with rapid and long-term effects. What is more, interstitial Cajal-like Cells (ICLC) appear essential for smooth muscle contractility in the reproductive tract where they are suspected to be playing a major role in generating, coordinating, modulating and synchronizing slow triggering waves...
June 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Ke Wang, Hailong Yan, Han Xu, Qing Yang, Sihuan Zhang, Chuanying Pan, Hong Chen, Haijing Zhu, Jinwang Liu, Lei Qu, Xianyong Lan
The ruminant casein gene family (CSNs, link as CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) is characterized by diverse variations and has been extensively studied for ruminant milk traits, however, studies on insertion/deletion (indel) mutations within this gene family and their effects on prolificacy are extremely limited. This study aimed to detect possible novel indels within CSNs in an indigenous Chinese goat breed-Shaanbei White Cashmere goat (SBWC, n = 3047) and four other Chinese goat breeds (n = 1136) with varied litter size rates (105%-283%) and different estrus types (seasonal vs...
June 1, 2018: Gene
Atul Kumar Verma, Ajit Singh Mahla, Ravjibhai Karshanbhai Chaudhari, Amit Kumar Singh, Amit Khatti, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Narayan Dutta, Gyanendra Singh, Mihir Sarkar, Harendra Kumar, Dushyant Yadav, Narayanan Krishnaswamy
Decreasing the ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) through dietary manipulation improves the reproductive functions in the dairy cow. This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil that provided different levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to determine the optimum dose with respect to endometrial and ovarian functions in the doe. Normal cyclic goats (n = 20) were divided into four groups (n = 5/group) and the fish oil was supplemented for 55 days such that EPA and DHA content were 0, 72, 156 and 312 mg/Kg body weight for CON, LOW, MED and HIGH groups, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Ann E Egan, Abigail M K Thompson, Dana Buesing, Sarah M Fourman, Amy E B Packard, Tegesty Terefe, Dan Li, Xia Wang, Seongho Song, Matia B Solomon, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
Eating palatable foods can provide stress relief, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. We previously characterized a limited sucrose intake (LSI) paradigm in which twice-daily access to a small amount of 30% sucrose (vs. water as a control) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress and alters neuronal activation in stress-regulatory brain regions in male rats. However, women may be more prone to 'comfort feeding' behaviors than men, and stress-related eating may vary across the menstrual cycle...
May 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Renee L Thompson, Allan J Gunn, Cyril P Stephen, Heather Ip, Victoria J Brookes
Uterine luminal pH has been demonstrated to be a valid indicator of uterine health in species such as cattle and sheep. However, research regarding uterine luminal pH in equines is lacking. The objectives of this study were to assess uterine luminal pH in mares during the estrous cycle, and evaluate the effect of dilute vinegar lavage on both uterine luminal pH and endometrial health. The study was conducted using a randomized block design in which eight mares (four Thoroughbred and four Standardbred) were aged matched then randomly assigned to two groups...
May 19, 2018: Theriogenology
N J Chaudhary, D M Patel, A J Dhami, K B Vala, K K Hadiya, J A Patel
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Doublesynch and Estradoublesynch protocols on estrus induction, conception rates, plasma progesterone, protein, and cholesterol profile in anestrus Gir heifers. Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 pubertal anestrus Gir heifers were selected from the field and farm conditions. The heifers were dewormed (injection ivermectin, 100 mg, s/c) and supplemented with minerals and vitamins (injection organic phosphorus 800 mg and injection Vitamin AD3 E and Biotin 10 ml i/m) and multi-mineral bolus at 1 bolus daily for 7 days...
April 2018: Veterinary World
Boknam Lee, Seth W Kullman, Erin E Yost, Lynn Worley-Davis, Kenneth H Reckhow
A facility-wide estrogen budget model was developed to assess the excretion of natural estrogens by swine in a commercial swine farrowing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) in North Carolina, using an object-oriented Bayesian network (OOBN) approach. The OOBN model is the combination of twelve objects of Bayesian network models, which characterize the estrogen budget flows based on the sow reproductive cycle (i.e., pre-estrus, estrus, and lactation) for the three natural estrogen types [estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3)] within each barn...
May 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sukhbir Kaur, William L Benton, Sirima A Tongkhuya, Cierra M C Lopez, Lynda Uphouse, Dayna L Averitt
Many persistent pain conditions occur predominantly in women making pain a major women's health issue. One theory for the prevalence in females is hormone modulation of pain mechanisms. The peripheral release of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) has been implicated in various sexually dimorphic pain conditions; yet no studies have examined the effect of ovarian hormones on peripheral 5HT-evoked pain behaviors. We hypothesized that peripheral 5HT evokes greater pain behaviors in female rodents during estrus and/or proestrus, stages of the estrous cycle where ovarian hormones are greatly fluctuating...
May 23, 2018: Neuroscience
Gabriela Manzano-Nieves, Mizan Gaillard, Meghan Gallo, Kevin G Bath
Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered processing of threat signals, and increased lifetime risk of anxiety and affective pathology, disorders that disproportionately affect females. We tested the impact of a limited bedding paradigm of ELS (from P4-11) on contextual threat learning, context memory, footshock sensitivity, and anxietylike behavior, in adult male and female mice. To examine contextual threat learning, mice conditioned by context/footshock association were tested 24 hr later for the context memory...
May 21, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
B Elisabeth Rink, Juliane Kuhl, Cristina L Esteves, Hilari M French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, F Xavier Donadeu
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) play key roles in tissue homeostasis. In the cyclic equine endometrium, this may be regulated by changes in serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones. This study was designed to investigate the changes in endometrial expression of MSC markers during reproductive cycles in mares and the influence of sex steroid hormones on endometrial MSC proliferation in vitro. Endometrial biopsies were collected from pony mares at different reproductive stages (estrus; day 5 and 13 after ovulation; seasonal anestrus; 20 h and 7days post-partum; n = 5 per stage) and were analyzed by RT-qPCR...
May 4, 2018: Theriogenology
Xiaolong Zhou, Songbai Yang, Feifei Yan, Ke He, Ayong Zhao
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in the estrous cycle and the regulation of reproduction. Here, we investigated the genome-wide profiles of DNA methylation in porcine proestrus and estrus ovaries using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq). The results showed that DNA methylation was enriched in intergenic and intron regions. The methylation levels of coding regions were higher than those of the 5' and 3' flanking regions of genes. There were 4813 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of CpG islands in the estrus vs...
May 18, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Ryan R Witt, Lyn A Hinds, John C Rodger
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists that induce a reversible contraceptive state in several marsupials have the potential to be used to synchronize estrus. We used a model macropod, the tammar wallaby (Notamacropus eugenii), to investigate whether Lucrin Depot (AbbVie), a GnRH agonist microsphere preparation, could (1) inhibit follicular development and estrus in a cycle reactivated by removal of pouch young (RPY) and (2) facilitate a synchronous return to estrus. Our results show that females reactivated with bromocriptine and RPY in early seasonal quiescence (July 2015) were inhibited by Lucrin Depot (0...
April 30, 2018: Theriogenology
Lun Hua, Yong Zhuo, Dandan Jiang, Jing Li, Xiaohua Huang, Yingguo Zhu, Zhen Li, Lijun Yan, Chao Jin, Xuemei Jiang, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Jian Li, Bin Feng, De Wu
Both ovarian E2 and hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are critical for energy homeostasis and white adipose tissue browning. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is abundantly expressed in liver. However, whether FGF21 has a role in E2-induced white adipose tissue browning remains uncertain. In this study, we showed that hepatic Fgf21 expression and secretion during estrus cycle changed with the tetradian oscillatory secretion of circulation E2 in adult, female mice, with their peak expressions and secretions at the proestrus...
May 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Michelle Anne Kutzler
Since 1939, scientists have studied estrous cycle manipulation in dogs resulting in more articles published in this field that any other area of canine reproduction. Estrous cycle manipulation in dogs must be safe and reliable. Dopamine agonists, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, and gonadotropins are hormones that have been used for estrus induction in bitches but each treatment has advantages and disadvantages. Despite widespread availability of these medications throughout the rest of the world, there are no drugs currently labeled for canine estrus induction in the United States...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Hoon Jang
CREBZF (cAMP-response element binding protein zhangfei) is a member of ATF/CREB family, and which regulates various cellular functions by suppressing major factors with direct interaction. In this study, we have examined the expression of CREBZF on mouse endometrium during uterus estrous cycles and estrogen (E2) treatment. In uterus, CREBZF mRNA expression was higher than other organs and mRNA and protein of CREBZF was increased in proestrus phase and decreased in estrus phase. The expression of CREBZF in 3-weeks old mouse uterus was reduced by E2 injection in endometrium...
March 2018: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
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