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Estrus cycle

Ignacio M Helbling, Carlos A Busatto, Silvana A Fioramonti, Juan I Pesoa, Liliana Santiago, Diana A Estenoz, Julio A Luna
PURPOSE: Planned reproduction in cattle involves regulation of estrous cycle and the use of artificial insemination. Cycle control includes the administration of exogenous progesterone during 5-8 days in a controlled manner allowing females to synchronize their ovulation. Several progesterone delivery systems are commercially available but they have several drawbacks. The aim of the present contribution was to evaluate chitosan microparticles entrapping progesterone as an alternative system...
February 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
He Lin, Zhongying Liu, Zifeng Pi, Lihui Men, Weijia Chen, Zhiqiang Liu
Estrogens are biologically active steroid hormones mainly released from the ovary by ovarian secretion of estrogen into the circulating blood to regulate or function at the distal target. Estrogens play an important role in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system, especially for post-menopausal women. Panax ginseng Mayer has been reported to relieve women's menopausal symptoms and affect estrogen activities. However, the mechanism of its estrogen regulation has not yet been clearly investigated...
February 19, 2018: Food & Function
Abu Sadat Md Sayem, Nelli Giribabu, Kamarulzaman Karim, Lay Khiang Si, Sekaran Muniandy, Naguib Salleh
Sex-steroids play important role in modulating uterine functions. We hypothesized that these hormones affect expression of proteins in the uterus related to thyroid hormone action. Therefore, changes in expression levels of receptors for thyroid hormone (TRα-1 and TRβ-1), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSHR), vitamin D (VDR) and retinoid acid (RAR) as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in uterus were investigated under sex-steroid influence. METHODS: Two rat models were used: (i) ovariectomised, sex-steroid replaced and (ii) intact, at different phases of oestrous cycle...
February 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ravjibhai K Chaudhari, Ajit Singh Mahla, Amit Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Abhijit M Pawde, G V P P S Ravi Kumar, GyanendraSingh, Mihir Sarkar, Harendra Kumar, Krishnaswamy Narayanan
Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F 2α and E 2 during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days...
February 8, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Andrea Contini, Fabrizio Sanna, Paola Maccioni, Giancarlo Colombo, Antonio Argiolas
The existence of sex differences was studied in a rat model of operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavored beverage (CFB), which possesses strong reinforcing properties and is avidly consumed by rats. Whether these differences occurred concomitantly to changes in extracellular dopamine in the dialysate obtained from the nucleus accumbens, was assessed by intracerebral microdialysis. Male, ovariectomized and intact female rats showed similar self-administration profiles, with minor differences in both acquisition and maintenance phases...
February 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Zhang-Dong Xie, Yi-Min Guo, Mei-Juan Ren, Jichun Yang, Shao-Fang Wang, Tong-Hui Xu, Li-Ming Chen, Ying Liu
Uterine fluid contains a high concentration of [Formula: see text] which plays an essential role in sperm capacitation and fertilization. In addition, the [Formula: see text] concentration in uterine fluid changes periodically during the estrous cycle. It is well-known that the endometrial epithelium contains machineries involving the apical SLC26 family anion exchangers for secreting [Formula: see text] into the uterine fluid. In the present study, we find for the first time that the electroneutral Na+/[Formula: see text] cotransporter NBCn1 is expressed at the apical membrane of the endometrial epithelium...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ivaylo Evgueniev Balabanov, Ken Ichi Matsuda, Hiroko Mori, Shunji Yamada, Keito Kitagawa, Yukina Yamamoto, Shinji Tsukahara, Masaki Tanaka
During extended observation of estrogen receptor (ER) α-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus, we previously identified a novel nucleus, the Sagittalis Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (SGN), in the interstitial area between the arcuate nucleus and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. The SGN exhibits sexual dimorphism in its volume and cell count, and estrous cycle related variations in ERα-immunoreactivity. These characteristics of the SGN implicate the nucleus in sex-biased brain functions and behaviors...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
François Charrier, Sophie Rossi, Ferran Jori, Oscar Maestrini, Céline Richomme, François Casabianca, Christian Ducrot, Johan Jouve, Nicole Pavio, Marie-Frédérique Le Potier
Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild-domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Federico Randi, Michael McDonald, Pat Duffy, Alan K Kelly, Patrick Lonergan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body temperature fluctuations, as measured by external auditory canal temperature, to the onset of estrus and ovulation. Beef heifers (n = 44, mean age 23.5 ± 0.4 months, mean weight 603.3 ± 5.7 kg) were fitted with a Boviminder® ear tag 2 weeks before the start of the estrous synchronization protocol to allow acclimatization. The device recorded the temperature, accurate to 0.01° Fahrenheit, every 10 min and transmitted the data via a base station over the internet where it could be accessed remotely...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
M P T Owen, K J McCarty, C G Hart, C S Steadman, C O Lemley
Previous studies have characterized ovarian steroid synthesis which directly affects uterine environment and blood flow. Clearance of steroids occurs primarily in hepatic tissues, however, it was discovered that there is an abundant activity of the phase II steroid metabolizing enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in uterine biopsies. No minimally invasive techniques for collecting endometrial perfusion, which is affected by steroids and indicative of reproductive health, have been developed for livestock...
February 1, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Laura Amendolagine, Tad Schoffner, Lynn Koscielny, Mandi Schook, Debra Copeland, James Casteel, Brianna Duff, Diana Koester
Although numbers of giant anteaters within North American facilities have been steadily increasing for the last 15 years, the population now exhibits an unstable age distribution with genetically valuable individuals nearing reproductive senescence. Contributing to this issue is the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) described lack of standardization of breeding introduction practices and high risk of female injury occurring during such pairings. This report describes the development of a successful breeding protocol at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo based on hormone monitoring and efficient communication between science and animal management teams that minimizes risk of female injury...
February 5, 2018: Zoo Biology
N A Dennis, K Stachowicz, B Visser, F S Hely, D K Berg, N C Friggens, P R Amer, S Meier, C R Burke
Fertility of the dairy cow relies on complex interactions between genetics, physiology, and management. Mathematical modeling can combine a range of information sources to facilitate informed predictions of cow fertility in scenarios that are difficult to evaluate empirically. We have developed a stochastic model that incorporates genetic and physiological data from more than 70 published reports on a wide range of fertility-related traits in dairy cattle. The model simulates pedigree, random mating, genetically correlated traits (in the form of breeding values for traits such as hours in estrus, estrous cycle length, age at puberty, milk yield, and so on), and interacting environmental variables...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hongqin Zhang, Qianqian Luo, Xueyan Lu, Na Yin, Dongli Zhou, Lianshuang Zhang, Wei Zhao, Dong Wang, Pengchao Du, Yun Hou, Yan Zhang, Wendan Yuan
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the effects of human placenta mesenchymal stem cell (hPMSC) transplantation on granulosa cell apoptosis and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in autoimmune drug-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) mice. The aim of this research is to investigate the mechanisms of hPMSCs on ovarian reserve capacity. METHODS: The POF mice model was established by injection of zona pellucida 3 peptide (pZP3)...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Bruna Furlan Polegato, Eveline Dos Santos Zanetti, José Maurício Barbanti Duarte
The marsh deer is an endangered species from the marshlands of central South America. This study aimed to characterize certain aspects of the reproductive physiology of marsh deer hinds, including the duration and fecal progestins profile of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and post-partum periods, and evaluate the effect of cloprostenol administration on this species. The experimental group consisted of six females and one fertile male marsh deer. During monitoring of the estrous cycle, the fresh fecal samples were collected daily and, during pregnancy, they were collected twice weekly...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Corinne P Kozlowski, Helen L Clawitter, Tim Thier, Martha T Fischer, Cheryl S Asa
Although reproduction in the domestic horse has been well described, less is known about reproduction in wild equids. This study describes endocrine patterns associated with estrous cycles and pregnancy for Somali wild asses (Equus africanus somaliensis), an endangered African equid. Fecal samples were collected three times per week for more than 2 years from five female Somali wild asses at the Saint Louis Zoo; progestagen and estrogen metabolites were quantified using commercially available immunoassays. Progestagen analysis indicated that cycle lengths were 27...
January 29, 2018: Zoo Biology
Ivan V Oliveira Neto, Igor F Canisso, Lorenzo G Segabinazzi, Camila P F Dell'Aqua, Marco A Alvarenga, Frederico O Papa, Jose A Dell'Aqua
This study compared hormone treatments given to mares during anestrus, spring transition, and different stages of the estrous cycle, by assessing uterine features and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer (ET). Embryo recipient mares (n = 160) were equally arranged as follows: G1-spontaneous ovulation (control), G2-anestrus, G3-spring transition, G4-early estrus, G5-estrus, G6-diestrus, G7-early diestrus treated with a dose of dinoprost, and G8-early diestrus treated with two doses of dinoprost. At treatment initiation (Day-4), G2-7 were given dinoprost and estradiol-17β, thereafter, estradiol-17β was repeated on Days-3,-2, and -1...
December 23, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Pradeepthi Bathala, Zeinab Fereshteh, Kun Li, Amal A Al-Dossary, Deni S Galileo, Patricia A Martin-DeLeon
STUDY QUESTIONS: Are extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the murine oviduct (oviductosomes, OVS) conserved in humans and do they play a role in the fertility of Pmca4-/-females? SUMMARY ANSWER: OVS and their fertility-modulating proteins are conserved in humans, arise via the apocrine pathway, and mediate a compensatory upregulation of PMCA1 (Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 1) in Pmca4-/- female mice during proestrus/estrus, to account for their fertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: Recently murine OVS were identified and shown during proestrus/estrus to express elevated levels of PMCA4 which they can deliver to sperm...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Noriko Funasaka, Motoi Yoshioka, Toshiaki Ishibashi, Toshiyuki Tatsukawa, Hideaki Shindo, Koji Takada, Masayuki Nakamura, Tomohiko Iwata, Kaoru Fujimaru, Taira Tanaka
We monitored annual fluctuations of gonadal steroid levels in three sexually mature captive finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis; two males and one female) from two different facilities over 56-91 months. Two animals (one male and one female) were held in an indoor tank with a sunroof (facility A) and the other male was held in an indoor tank without a sunroof (facility B). Water temperatures in both facilities reflected seasonal changes during the study period with a minor difference in the fluctuation pattern...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Anne Marie Z Jukic, Allen J Wilcox, D Robert McConnaughey, Clarice R Weinberg, Anne Z Steiner
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with subfertility and prolonged estrus cycles in animals, but humans have not been well studied. METHODS: A prospective time-to-pregnancy study, Time to Conceive (2010-2015), collected up to 4 months of daily diary data. Participants were healthy, late reproductive-aged women in North Carolina who were attempting pregnancy. We examined menstrual cycle length as a continuous variable, as well as in categories: long (35+ days) and short (≤25 days)...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology
N G Shashikumar, R K Baithalu, S Bathla, S A Ali, P Rawat, A Kumaresan, S Kumar, B R Maharana, G Singh, D S Puneeth Kumar, S K Singh, S S Lathwal, L Jaiswal, T K Mohanty, A K Mohanty
Accurate and efficient detection of estrus is one of the major constraints for exploitation of the production potential of buffalo owing to its poor manifestation of estrus signs, seasonal differences in expression and higher incidences of silent estrus (29%). The current study focused on identification of estrus specific candidate proteins in saliva of buffaloes. Estrus was detected based on behavioral signs in response to the teaser and changes in reproductive organs and confirmed by per-rectal examination, trans-rectal USG of reproductive organs, cervico-vaginal mucus characteristics and blood serum progesterone estimation...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
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