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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792734/clinical-updates-on-perianal-fistulas-in-crohn-s-disease
#1
Ori Rackovsky, Robert Hirten, Ryan Ungaro, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Perianal fistulizing disease is an aggressive and debilitating phenotype of Crohn's disease (CD), representing a significant therapeutic challenge. New work has led to advancement in epidemiology and long term outcomes of perianal disease. The range of therapeutic options continues to expand, including new biologic agents, biosimilars, and stem cell therapy. Areas covered: We discuss updates to all aspects of management of perianal disease, with a focus on the last three years of published data. Areas considered include new data on epidemiology and prognostication, medical and surgical therapy, and stem cell therapy...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792371/biologics-monitoring-incongruity-between-recommendations-and-clinician-monitoring-trends
#2
Anish Nadkarni, Kimberly Hyde, Leah A Cardwell, Steven R Feldman
BACKGROUND: Biologics are a commonly used treatment for moderate to severe psoriasis. Monitoring laboratory test overuse provide little definitive benefit to patients. OBJECTIVE: We aim to query a Humana database to gain insight regarding current dermatologist laboratory monitoring practices for psoriasis patients on biologics. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Humana database. Our cohort included 333 patients with primary ICD-9 diagnosis of psoriasis (696...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792144/biomedical-applications-of-aromatic-azo-compounds-from-chromophore-to-pharmacophore
#3
Yousaf Ali, Shafida Abd Hamid, Umer Rashid
Azo dyes are widely used in textile, fiber, cosmetic, leather, paint and printing industries. Besides their characteristic coloring function, biological properties of certain azo compounds including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and cytotoxic are also reported. Azo compounds can be used as drug carriers, either by acting as a 'cargo' that entrap therapeutic agents or by prodrug approach. The drug is released by internal or external stimuli in the region of interest, as observed in colon-targeted drug delivery...
May 23, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791832/rationale-opportunities-and-reality-of-biosimilar-medications
#4
Gary H Lyman, Robin Zon, R Donald Harvey, Richard L Schilsky
Biologic therapies for cancer and other disorders contribute to improved outcomes for many patients but also account for a large proportion of health care expenditures. Opportunities for cost containment may emerge as the patents on originator products expire and highly similar agents known as..
May 24, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791363/design-of-a-portable-phantom-device-to-simulate-tissue-oxygenation-and-blood-perfusion
#5
Xiang Lv, Hongyu Chen, Guangli Liu, Shuwei Shen, Qiang Wu, Chuanzhen Hu, Jialuo Li, Erbao Dong, Ronald X Xu
We propose a portable phantom system for calibration and validation of medical optical devices in a clinical setting. The phantom system comprises a perfusion module and an exchangeable tissue-simulating phantom that simulates tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion. The perfusion module consists of a peristaltic pump, two liquid storage units, and two pressure suppressors. The tissue-simulating phantom is fabricated by a three-dimensional (3D) printing process with microchannels embedded to simulate blood vessels...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791297/late-positive-component-event-related-potential-amplitude-predicts-long-term-classroom-based-learning
#6
Katherine W Turk, Ala'a A Elshaar, Rebecca G Deason, Nadine C Heyworth, Corrine Nagle, Bruno Frustace, Sean Flannery, Ann Zumwalt, Andrew E Budson
It is difficult to predict whether newly learned information will be retrievable in the future. A biomarker of long-lasting learning, capable of predicting an individual's future ability to retrieve a particular memory, could positively influence teaching and educational methods. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated as a potential biomarker of long-lasting learning. Prior ERP studies have supported a dual-process model of recognition memory that categorizes recollection and familiarity as distinct memorial processes with distinct ERP correlates...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791039/racial-differences-in-completion-of-the-living-kidney-donor-evaluation-process
#7
Komal Kumar, James M Tonascia, Abimereki D Muzaale, Tanjala S Purnell, Shane E Ottmann, Fawaz Al Ammary, Mary G Bowring, Anna Poon, Elizabeth A King, Allan B Massie, Eric K H Chow, Alvin G Thomas, Hao Ying, Marvin Borja, Jonathan M Konel, Macey Henderson, Andrew M Cameron, Jacqueline M Garonzik-Wang, Dorry L Segev
Racial disparities in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) persist but the most effective target to eliminate these disparities remains unknown. One potential target could be delays during completion of the live donor evaluation process. We studied racial differences in progression through the evaluation process for 247 African American (AA) and 664 non-AA living donor candidates at our center between January 2011-March 2015. AA candidates were more likely to be obese (38% vs. 22%: p<0.001), biologically-related (66% vs...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790928/using-meshes-for-mesh-term-enrichment-and-semantic-analyses
#8
Guangchuang Yu
Summary: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the NLM controlled vocabulary used to manually index articles for MEDLINE/PubMed. MeSH provides unique and comprehensive annotations for life science. The meshes package implements measurement of the semantic similarity of MeSH terms and gene products to help using MeSH vocabulary in knowledge mining. Enrichment analysis to extract the biological meanings from gene list, expression profile and genomic regions is also provided using MeSH annotation...
May 22, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788469/influences-and-impact-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-the-setting-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Seyedehsan Navabi, Venkata Subhash Gorrepati, Sanjay Yadav, Jaykrishna Chintanaboina, Sarah Maher, Peter Demuth, Benjamin Stern, August Stuart, Andrew Tinsley, Kofi Clarke, Emmanuelle D Williams, Matthew D Coates
Background: Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing anxiety or depression (A&D). Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) with comorbid A&D are both more challenging to manage. IBD providers need to better understand the causes and impact of A&D in order to improve care for IBD patients. We sought to identify clinical factors that influence development of A&D and healthcare utilization in IBD. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis using an IBD natural history registry from a single tertiary care referral center...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788338/clinical-pharmacology-in-adult-and-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Amy Hemperly, William J Sandborn, Niels Vande Casteele
This review describes the clinical pharmacology of the major drugs used for the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety profile are discussed. Some small molecules were developed to act systemically (eg, ozanimod) or locally (eg, aminosalicylates) and thus have disparate pharmacokinetic properties. In addition, locally acting compounds have been optimized to mitigate systemic exposure-eg, budesonide, which undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism-thereby reducing systemic bioavailability and side effects...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788272/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-with-ustekinumab-and-vedolizumab-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Sophie Restellini, Reena Khanna, Waqqas Afif
In patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) with TNF-α antagonists has led to a personalized approach to optimize treatment and has been shown to be cost-effective. The utility of this TDM-based personalized approach for novel biologic agents, which target different inflammatory pathways, is unclear. Commercial assays for ustekinumab (UST) and vedolizumab (VDZ) are available, but there is little available guidance for clinicians regarding the use of TDM with these drugs...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788218/evolution-of-the-randomized-controlled-trial-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-current-challenges-and-future-solutions
#12
Reena Khanna, Guangyong Zou, Brian G Feagan
As knowledge of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has grown, many new medical therapies have become available. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of new drugs has conventionally been established with placebo-controlled randomized trials. However, given that highly effective and safe biologic agents such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists, vedolizumab, and ustekinumab are currently available, the continued use of placebo-controlled studies to evaluate new molecules should be questioned...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788102/legalization-of-medicinal-marijuana-has-minimal-impact-on-use-patterns-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Ami M Merker, Mahrukh Riaz, Sonia Friedman, Jessica R Allegretti, Joshua Korzenik
Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have reported use of marijuana to treat symptoms of the disease, yet its classification as a Schedule 1 substance by the federal government has restricted its use. In 2012, Massachusetts legalized medicinal marijuana. We aimed to assess the impact of legalization on use in IBD. Methods: Consecutive patients with IBD, cared for at a tertiary care center in Boston, were surveyed regarding use of marijuana, including its perceived benefits and attitudes...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788100/a-cell-based-approach-to-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-entering-an-era-of-regenerative-medicine
#14
Amy L Lightner
Corticosteroids, and more recently biologics, have been the mainstay of therapy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Unfortunately, both are fraught with side effects and limited by lack of efficacy or loss of response. Many patients ultimately succumb to medically refractory disease and require an operation. As we enter an era of regenerative medicine, a new genre of cell-based therapeutics offers significant promise for both an improved safety profile and improved efficacy compared with conventional treatment approaches...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787445/deployment-of-the-dosikit-system-under-operational-conditions-experience-from-a-french-defense-national-nuclear-exercise
#15
F Entine, J Bensimon Etzol, C Bettencourt, M Dondey, X Michel, G Gagna, G Gellie, Y Corre, N Ugolin, S Chevillard, J-C Amabile
Estimation of the dose received by accidentally irradiated victims is based on a tripod: clinical, biological, and physical dosimetry. The DosiKit system is an operational and mobile biodosimetry device allowing the measurement of external irradiation directly on the site of a radiological accident. This tool is based on capillary blood sample and hair follicle collection. The aim is to obtain a whole-body and local-surface dose assessment. This paper is about the technical evaluation of the DosiKit; the analytical process and scientific validation are briefly described...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787444/french-policies-for-victim-management-during-mass-radiological-accidents-attacks
#16
Diane Riccobono, Marco Valente, Michel Drouet, Franck Calamai, Amandine Abriat
In the current international context, emergency medical services have to be prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Emergency response to radiological or nuclear events requires coordination between many components: the fire brigade, emergency medical services (including nurses and physicians), police, hospitals, etc. To optimize efficiency, victim management in France is governed by specific policies and planned responses. This plan for radiological/nuclear event response is inspired by military chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear victim management in the operational theatre and is based on extraction (removal to a safe environment), first triage, decontamination, second triage, treatment, substance identification, and training...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#17
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786160/aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-neurocomputational-study-on-bradykinesia
#18
Mauro Ursino, Chiara Baston
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785886/treatment-of-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-paediatric-patients-a-monocentric-experience
#19
Paola S Buonuomo, Marina Macchiaiolo, Giovanna Leone, Paola Valente, Gerarda Mastrogiorgio, Maria Gnazzo, Ippolita Rana, Michaela V Gonfiantini, Maria G Gagliardi, Francesca Romano, Andrea Bartuli
Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and accelerated atherosclerosis. The presence of double gene defects in the LDL-Receptor, either the same defect (homozygous) or two different LDL-raising mutations (compound heterozygotes) or other variants, identify the homozygous phenotype (HopFH). Apheresis is a procedure in which plasma is separated from red blood cells before the physical removal of LDL-C or the LDL-C is directly removed from whole blood...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784371/phosphate-imprinted-magnetic-nanoparticles-using-phenylphosphonic-acid-as-a-template-for-excellent-recognition-of-tyrosine-phosphopeptides
#20
Qisi Liu, Kaina Zhang, Yuhao Jin, Xiangfeng Wang, Yuan Liu, Hailing Liu, Mengxia Xie
The tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins and peptides plays a vital role in cell signal transduction pathways, and it is very important to assay them for understanding their action mechanism. Due to the low levels of the tyrosine phosphopeptides (pTyr) in cells, it is a challenge to enrich them with traditional sorbents, therefore, development of specific and selective sorbents is urgent and necessary. In this work, the phosphate-imprinted magnetic nanoparticles (PMNPs) to enrich the pTyr with high efficiency and selectivity have been fabricated using the phenylphosphonic acid as a template for the "epitope" of pTyr...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
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