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HDL Dementia

Roshanak Bayatmakoo, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi
AIM: Atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries lead to a broad range of cerebrovascular disorders such as vascular dementia and ischaemic stroke. Recent studies have verified the beneficial role of atorvastatin (AV) in atherosclerosis. Despite a large body of studies, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been completely explained. In this study, several experiments were performed on atherosclerotic rat models to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of AV in the carotid artery...
May 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Ałła Graban, Anna Wiśniewska, Wanda Łojkowska, Anna Bochyńska, Magdalena Gugała-Iwaniuk, Ksenia Sławińska, Agnieszka Ługowska, Danuta Ryglewicz, Hanna Wehr
The aim of the study was to determine the role of adiponectin, leptin and resistin in various types of dementia and to investigate their association with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. In 205 patients with dementia [89 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 47 with vascular dementia (VaD), 69 with mixed dementia (MD)], 113 persons with mild cognitive impairment and in 107 controls serum adiponectin, leptin and resistin levels, pro-inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitotriosidase] and anti-inflammatory (25-OH vitamin D, HDL-cholesterol and paraoxonase 1) markers, as well as glucose metabolism parameters (glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR) were determined...
April 18, 2017: Biogerontology
Alex Cole Birdsill, Stephanie Oleson, Sonya Kaur, Evan Pasha, Adele Ireton, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana Haley
The aging U.S. population and the recent rise in the prevalence of obesity are two phenomena of great importance to public health. In addition, research suggests that midlife body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for dementia, a particularly costly disease, in later life. BMI could influence brain health by adversely impacting cerebral white matter. Recently, greater BMI has been associated with lower white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of tissue microstructure, as measured by diffusion-tensor imaging in midlife...
April 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Sabrina Schilling, Christophe Tzourio, Aïcha Soumaré, Sara Kaffashian, Jean-François Dartigues, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Cécilia Samieri, Carole Dufouil, Stéphanie Debette
BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors have been proposed as important targets for the prevention of dementia. As lipid fractions represent easily modifiable targets, we examined the longitudinal relationship of baseline lipid fractions with 13-y incident dementia and its subtypes (Alzheimer disease [AD] and mixed or vascular dementia) in older community-dwelling persons. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Non-institutionalized persons aged 65+ y (n = 9,294) were recruited for the Three-City Study (3C Study), a population-based cohort study from the electoral rolls of the cities of Dijon, Bordeaux, and Montpellier, France, between March 1999 and March 2001...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
Simon R Cox, Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Alison Pattie, Natalie A Royle, Janie Corley, Benjamin S Aribisala, Sarah E Harris, Maria Valdés Hernández, Alan J Gow, Susana Muñoz Maniega, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
We examined whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) status interacts with vascular risk factors (VRFs) to predict the progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on brain MRI scans over a specific period of life in older age when the risk of dementia increases. At age 73 years, baseline VRFs were assessed via self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, and via objective measures of blood HbA1c, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and blood high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (HDL) ratio...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Marilia Cardoso Smith, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
Hypercholesterolemia and statin use have been unevenly associated with clinical change in Alzheimer's disease dementia. In this longitudinal study, 192 consecutive outpatients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease dementia were stratified according to APOE haplotypes, and followed for one year to investigate associations of lipid profile variations and lipophilic statin therapy with changes in cognition, caregiver burden, basic and instrumental functionality. Overall, 102 patients (53.1%) carried APOE4+ haplotypes and 90 (46...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Chaoran Ma, Zhaoxue Yin, Pengfei Zhu, Jiesi Luo, Xiaoming Shi, Xiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies regarding the lipid-cognition relation in older adults are limited and have generated mixed results. We thus examined whether higher blood cholesterol concentrations were associated with faster cognitive decline in a community-based longitudinal study of Chinese elderly. METHODS: The study included 1,159 Chinese adults aged over 60 years (women: 48.7%, mean age: 79.4 years), who were free of dementia, Parkinson disease and stroke at the baseline...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Yuzhen Xu, Qian Wang, Ruiting Cui, Kaili Lu, Yunlin Liu, Yuwu Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Uric acid (UA) has long been implicated as a critical cause of cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, UA was also expected to play an important role in antioxidant and neuroprotection recently. We hypothesized that UA may have a protective role against VD. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum UA and cognitive dysfunction in VD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were altogether 127 VD subjects and 81 nondemented controls enrolled in our study...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
Rui Wang, Zhaoyu Chen, Yongmei Fu, Xiaobo Wei, Jinchi Liao, Xu Liu, Bingjun He, Yunqi Xu, Jing Zou, Xiaoyan Yang, Ruihui Weng, Sheng Tan, Christopher McElroy, Kunlin Jin, Qing Wang
Objectives: Cystatin C (Cys C) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) play critical roles in neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). However, whether they can be used as reliable biomarkers to distinguish patients with dementia from healthy subjects and to determine disease severity remain largely unknown. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine plasma Cys C and HDL levels of 88 patients with dementia (43 AD patients, 45 VaD patients) and 45 healthy age-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Rosalinde E R Slot, Argonde C Van Harten, Maartje I Kester, Wesley Jongbloed, Femke H Bouwman, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Robert Veerhuis, Wiesje M van der Flier
BACKGROUND: HDL-cholesterol transporter Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) holds neuroprotective properties, such as inhibition of amyloid-β aggregation. Low plasma ApoA1 concentrations are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about ApoA1 levels in the pre-dementia stages of AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma ApoA1 levels and clinical progression toward AD in non-demented elderly. METHODS: From the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort, we included 429 non-demented elderly with subjective cognitive decline (SCD; n = 206, 61±9 years, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) 28±2) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 223, 67±8 years, MMSE 27±2), with a mean follow-up of 2...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kaarin J Anstey, Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell, Ruth Peters
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have reported that midlife high total serum cholesterol (TC) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in late-life but findings have been based on few studies and previous reviews have been limited by a lack of compatible data. OBJECTIVE: We synthesized all high quality data from cohort studies reporting on the association between total serum cholesterol measured and late-life cognitive outcomes including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), any dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Juho Tynkkynen, Jussi A Hernesniemi, Tiina Laatikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Jouko Sundvall, Jaana Leiviskä, Perttu Salo, Veikko Salomaa
Data on associations of apolipoproteins A-I and B (apo A-I, apo B) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are conflicting. Our aim was to examine, whether apo B, apoA-I, their ratio, or HDL-C are significant, independent predictors of incident dementia and AD in the general population free of dementia at baseline. We analyzed the results from two Finnish prospective population-based cohort studies in a total of 13,275 subjects aged 25 to 74 years with mainly Caucasian ethnicity...
December 2016: Age (2005-)
Massimiliano Castellazzi, Alessandro Trentini, Arianna Romani, Giuseppe Valacchi, Tiziana Bellini, Gloria Bonaccorsi, Enrico Fainardi, Carlotta Cavicchio, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni Zuliani, Carlo Cervellati
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is mechanistically related to oxidative stress, inflammation and atherosclerosis and this multirole nature positions the enzyme as potential pathogenic player and candidate biomarker for many diseases. Our previous work suggests that decline in serum PON-1 activities, i.e. arylesterase and paraoxonase, might be associated with the occurrence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) or vascular dementia (VAD). The present study aimed to: (1) expand our previous findings in a larger and different population, including patients with LOAD-VAD mixed dementia (MD); (2) explore a possible association between PON-1 and multiple sclerosis (MS); (3) evaluate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of PON-1 activities might be useful biomarkers for MS...
December 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
G Siegel, F H M E Mockenhaupt, A-L Behnke, E Ermilov, K Winkler, A R Pries, M Malmsten, R Hetzer, R Saunders, B Lindman
Arteriosclerosis with its clinical sequelae (cardiac infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial occlusive disease) and vascular/Alzheimer dementia not only result in far more than half of all deaths but also represent dramatic economic problems. The reason is, among others, that diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for both disorders, and the number of diabetics strongly increases worldwide. More than one-half of infants in the first 6months of life have already small collections of macrophages and macrophages filled with lipid droplets in susceptible segments of the coronary arteries...
June 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Cristina Gussago, Beatrice Arosio, Franca Rosa Guerini, Evelyn Ferri, Andrea Saul Costa, Martina Casati, Elisa Mariadele Bollini, Francesco Ronchetti, Elena Colombo, Giuseppina Bernardelli, Mario Clerici, Daniela Mari
Vitamin D is a seco-sterol produced endogenously in the skin or obtained from certain foods. It exerts its action through binding to intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR). Lately, the role of vitamin D has been revised regarding its potential advantage on delaying the process of aging. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of VDR gene polymorphisms in healthy aging and longevity. We evaluated the frequency of four polymorphisms of the VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) in centenarians (102 subjects, mean age: 102...
August 2016: Endocrine
Yuzhen Xu, Qian Wang, Yunlin Liu, Ruiting Cui, Kaili Lu, Yuwu Zhao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accumulating evidence indicates that various infections contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) has been implicated as a risk factor of atherosclerosis for stroke and other cardiovascular disease, but limited data exist regarding vascular dementia (VD). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Hp infection and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with VD. METHODS: A total of 354 patients who were diagnosed with VD were enrolled...
March 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
N P Catoira, F Tapajóz, R F Allegri, J Lajfer, M J Rodríguez Cámara, M L Iturry, G O Castaño
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity, as well as evidence about this pathology as a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, is increasing worldwide. Executive functions have been found to be compromised in most studies, although the specific results are dissimilar. Obese young women constitute an interesting study and intervention group, having been found to be unaffected by age and hormonal negative effects on cognition and considering that their health problems affect not only themselves but their families and offspring...
April 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Manja Koch, Majken K Jensen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dementia is a major cause of disability and institutionalization. Apart from age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, there are currently no established, clinically relevant, noninvasive markers of dementia. We conducted a literature search of recent observational epidemiological studies evaluating the relevance of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoproteins as biomarkers of future and prevalent risk of dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: HDL-C and apolipoproteins, such as apoE have been suggested to play important roles in brain function and have been associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease in observational studies...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Cheng Ma, Jin Li, Zhijun Bao, Qingwei Ruan, Zhuowei Yu
Background. Advancing age, chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and disorders of lipid metabolism are positively linked to the late-life cognitive impairment. Serum biomarkers may be associated with the cognitive status in older men. Methods. 440 old male subjects with different cognitive functions were recruited to investigate probable serum markers. Pearson Chi-Squared test, univariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate biomarkers which may be associated with cognitive status...
2015: BioMed Research International
Andrew L Siebel, Sarah Elizabeth Heywood, Bronwyn A Kingwell
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its principal apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have now been convincingly shown to influence glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The key clinically relevant observations are that both acute HDL elevation via short-term reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusion and chronically raising HDL via a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor reduce blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). HDL may mediate effects on glucose metabolism through actions in multiple organs (e...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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