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human molecular biology

Carrie J Finno, Matthew H Bordbari, Stephanie J Valberg, David Lee, Josi Herron, Kelly Hines, Tamer Monsour, Erica Scott, Danika L Bannasch, James Mickelson, Libin Xu
Specific spontaneous heritable neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with lower serum and cerebrospinal fluid α-tocopherol (α-TOH) concentrations. Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy (eNAD) has similar histologic lesions to human ataxia with vitamin E deficiency caused by mutations in the α-TOH transfer protein gene (TTPA). Mutations in TTPA are not present with eNAD and the molecular basis remains unknown. Given the neuropathologic phenotypic similarity of the conditions, we assessed the molecular basis of eNAD by global transcriptome sequencing of the cervical spinal cord...
October 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Habteab Habtom, Sandrine Demanèche, Lorna Dawson, Chen Azulay, Ofra Matan, Patrick Robe, Ron Gafny, Pascal Simonet, Edouard Jurkevitch, Zohar Pasternak
The ubiquity and transferability of soil makes it a resource for the forensic investigator, as it can provide a link between agents and scenes. However, the information contained in soils, such as chemical compounds, physical particles or biological entities, is seldom used in forensic investigations; due mainly to the associated costs, lack of available expertise, and the lack of soil databases. The microbial DNA in soil is relatively easy to access and analyse, having thus the potential to provide a powerful means for discriminating soil samples or linking them to a common origin...
October 6, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Caroline Rudnicka, Satsuki Mochizuki, Yasunori Okada, Claire McLaughlin, Peter J Leedman, Lisa Stuart, Michael Epis, Gerard Hoyne, Sherif Boulos, Liam Johnson, Markus Schlaich, Vance Matthews
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in men. It is critical to identify and characterize oncogenes that drive the pathogenesis of human prostate cancer. The current study builds upon previous research showing that a disintegrin and metallproteinase (ADAM)28 is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. Our novel study used overexpression, pharmacological, and molecular approaches to investigate the biological function of ADAM28 in human prostate cancer cells, with a focus on cell proliferation and migration...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Le Qin, Yu Zhang, Jie Lin, Yangping Shentu, Xiaoxiao Xie
MicroRNA-455 (miR-455) has been considered as a novel cancer-related miRNA and dysregulated expression frequently occurs in various human types of cancer. However, its clinical significance, its biological function and the underlying molecular signaling involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we found that the expression level of miR-455 was significantly downregulated in both HCC tissues and cell lines. Low expression of miR-455 was significantly associated with poor prognostic features including multiple tumor nodes, high Edmondson‑Steiner grading, advanced tumor-node‑metastasis (TNM) stage and venous infiltration...
September 30, 2016: Oncology Reports
Fa-Min Zeng, Yang-Min Xie, Lian-Di Liao, Li-Yan Li, Bo Chen, Jian-Jun Xie, Li-Yan Xu, En-Min Li
The key molecular events that contribute to tumorigenesis are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize and compare the biological phenotypes of three human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and/or human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7‑immortalized esophageal epithelial cell lines, NE2‑hTERT (NE2), NE3‑E6E7‑hTERT (NE3) and NEcA6‑E6E7‑hTERT (NEcA6). The present study used soft‑agar colony formation assays, tumorigenicity assays in nude mice, and cell proliferation, adhesion and migration assays to identify the biological characteristics of NE2, NE3 and NEcA6 cells...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
A L R Bordinhão, A F Evangelista, R J S Oliveira, T Macedo, H C Silveira, R M Reis, M M Marques
Cediranib, a pan-tyrosine kinase inhibitor is showing promising results for the treatment of several solid tumours. In breast cancer, its effects remain unclear, and there are no predictive biomarkers. Several studies have examined the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to different chemotherapy treatments and found that the expression patterns may be associated with the treatment response. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the cellular behaviour and differential expression profiles of miRNAs in breast cancer cell lines exposed to cediranib...
October 7, 2016: Oncology Reports
Arvind Sivasubramanian, Patricia Estep, Heather Lynaugh, Yao Yu, Adam Miles, Josh Eckman, Kevin Schutz, Crystal Piffath, Nadthakarn Boland, Rebecca Hurley Niles, Stéphanie Durand, Todd Boland, Maximiliano Vásquez, Yingda Xu, Yasmina Abdiche
Successful discovery of therapeutic antibodies hinges on the identification of appropriate affinity binders targeting a diversity of molecular epitopes presented by the antigen. Antibody campaigns that yield such broad "epitope coverage" increase the likelihood of identifying candidates with the desired biological functions. Accordingly, epitope binning assays are employed in the early discovery stages to partition antibodies into epitope families or "bins" and prioritize leads for further characterization and optimization...
October 17, 2016: MAbs
Guangbin Jiang, Li Wen, Hongmei Zheng, Zhiyuan Jian, Weiping Deng
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of cancer, which presents rapid tumor growth, drug resistance, and metastasis. Recently, microRNAs are shown to be involved in the cell biological processes in HCC, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the cellular function and molecular mechanism of miR-204-5p in HCC. SIRT1 mRNA and miR-204-5p were examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. SIRT1 protein levels were measured by Western blotting...
October 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Ciara M Kelly, Yelena Y Janjigian
Gastric cancer is a biologically heterogeneous tumor. The identification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) biomarker overexpression in gastric cancer represented a significant step towards unraveling the molecular complexity of this disease. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy, in the first-line setting of patients with metastatic, HER2-positive gastric and gastroesophageal, represents the first targeted therapeutic to demonstrate improvement in response rate and survival in gastric cancer...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Maurizio Cirilli, Oxana Bereshchenko, Olga Ermakova, Claus Nerlov
BACKGROUND: C/EBPa and C/EBPb are transcription factors with tissue specific expression regulating several important cellular processes. They work by recruiting protein complexes to a common DNA recognition motif and both are able to compensate each other's absence in many cell types, thus showing functional redundancy. They also play distinct roles in specific cellular pathways and their abnormal functioning gives raise to different human pathologies. METHODS: To investigate the molecular basis of C/EBPa and C/EBPb specificity and redundancy we characterized their in vivo protein-protein interaction networks by Tandem Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry...
October 13, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Monika Łęgowska, Yveline Hamon, Anna Wojtysiak, Renata Grzywa, Marcin Sieńczyk, Timo Burster, Brice Korkmaz, Adam Lesner
Cathepsin C is a wildly expressed cysteine exopeptidase that is mostly recognized for the activation of the granule-associated proinflammatory serine proteases in neutrophils, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and mast cells. It has been shown that the enzyme can be secreted extracellularly; however, its occurrence in human bodily fluids/physiological samples has not been thoroughly studied. In the course of this study, the first fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides for the measurement of the activity of human cathepsin C were designed and synthesized...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yu Gu, Yanfang Liu, Sanjie Cao, Xiaobo Huang, Zhicai Zuo, Shumin Yu, Junliang Deng, Chunbang Ding, Ming Yuan, Liuhong Shen, Rui Wu, Yiping Wen, Zhihua Ren, Qin Zhao, Guangneng Peng, Zhijun Zhong, Chengdong Wang, Xiaoping Ma
Cladosporium cladosporioides is a ubiquitous fungus, causing infections in plants, humans, and animals. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used in this study to identify differences in gene expression between two C. cladosporioides strains, the highly virulent Z20 strain and the lowly virulent Zt strain. A total of 61 unigenes from the forward library and 42 from the reverse library were identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that these genes were involved in various biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vladimir V Besprozvannykh, Konstantin V Rozhkovan, Alexey V Ermolenko
Echinostomatoidea is a large, globally distributed and heterogeneous group of hermaphroditic digeneans that parasite, as adults, vertebrate hosts of all classes. Species of this group have received attention from researchers as they can cause diseases in wildlife and humans. Here we describe the biological and molecular phylogenetic characteristics of Stephanoprora chasanensis n. sp. (Digenea: Echinochasmidae). The life cycle of this fluke was experimentally completed by the use of hosts, i.e. Stenothyra recondite Lindholm, 1929 snail (the 1st intermediate), Rhynchocypris percnurus mantschuricus (Berg, 1907) freshwater fish (the 2nd intermediate) and Gallus gallus chicken (the definitive host)...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology International
Maryam Saberi Karimian, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Monocyte chemoattractant/chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the CC chemokine family, is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and tissue infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. Its role in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory diseases has been widely recognized, thus making MCP-1 a possible target for anti-inflammatory treatments. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a natural polyphenol derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma Longa L. (turmeric). Anti-inflammatory action underlies numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin in the control and prevention of several diseases...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yan Zhou, Yanzhen Han, Zhitao Zhang, Zhe Shi, Liyuan Zhou, Xiaohong Liu, Xiaoyan Jia
Increasing evidence has confirmed that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to the proliferation and invasion of human cancers. Previous studies have shown that the dysregulation of miR-124 is in numerous cancers. However, the roles of miR-124 in human osteosarcoma (OS) have not been well clarified. Therefore, this study was to investigate the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of miR-124 in OS cell lines, discussing whether it could be a therapeutic biomarker of OS in the future. In this study, our results demonstrated that miR-124 was down-regulated in OS cell lines and tissues...
October 14, 2016: Human Cell
Amanda J Kennedy, Peiran Yang, Cai Read, Rhoda E Kuc, Lucy Yang, Emily J A Taylor, Colin W Taylor, Janet J Maguire, Anthony P Davenport
BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of chemerin are significantly higher in hypertensive patients and positively correlate with blood pressure. Chemerin activates chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1 or ChemR23) and is proposed to activate the "orphan" G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), which has been linked with hypertension. Our aim was to localize chemerin, CMKLR1, and GPR1 in the human vasculature and determine whether 1 or both of these receptors mediate vasoconstriction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using immunohistochemistry and molecular biology in conduit arteries and veins and resistance vessels, we localized chemerin to endothelium, smooth muscle, and adventitia and found that CMKLR1 and GPR1 were widely expressed in smooth muscle...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Heather Marion Ames, Ming Yuan, Maria Adelita Vizcaíno, Wayne Yu, Fausto J Rodriguez
Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas and glioneuronal tumors represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression/translation that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing, and have an important role in cancer, including brain tumors...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Steven J Eliades, Cory T Miller
There has been recent increasing interest in the use of marmosets, a New World primate species, as a model in biomedical research. One of the principal advantages of marmosets as a research model is their rich vocal repertoire and communicative vocal behaviors displayed both in the wild and in captivity. Studies of this species' vocal communication system have the potential to reveal the evolutionary underpinnings of human speech, and therefore are of interest to the neuroscience and biology research communities...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Lin Wang, Ling Wang
Animal models are one of the most important tools in the study of human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. They are particularly important in light of the major limitations of the cell culture system for HEV. Besides nonhuman primates, which are extremely valuable because of their susceptibility to HEV genotypes 1-4, animals like swine, rabbit, and chicken are also potential models for studies of pathogenesis, cross-species infection, and the molecular biology of HEV. Identification of the most useful animal model for human HEV infection studies is crucial to further investigations into this ubiquitous yet poorly understood virus...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Dan Wang, Tong Xiang, Zhongquan Zhao, Kailong Lin, Pin Yin, Lupin Jiang, Zhiqing Liang, Bo Zhu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a group of cells which possess the ability of self-renewing and unlimited proliferation. And these CSCs are thought to be the cause of metastasis, recurrence and resistance. Recent study has found that pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemotactic factor mediate the self-renewing and differentiation of most of CSCs. Thus we speculate that ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) can also maintain the ability of self-renewing and differentiation by releasing inflammatory factor. This report we discuss the biological characteristics and the specific molecular mechanism mediated by interleukin-23 (IL-23) and its receptor on the self-renewing of OCSCs...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
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