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Norihisa Shigemura, Shinya Tane, Kentaro Noda
Chronic allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains a major complication, causing the poor survival after lung transplantation. Although strenuous efforts have been made at preventing CLAD, surgical approaches for lung transplantation have not been updated over the last 2 decades. The bronchial artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the airways and constitutes a functional microvasculature, has occasionally been revascularized during transplants, but this technique did not gain popularity and is not standard in current lung transplantation protocols, despite the fact that a small number of studies have shown beneficial effects of bronchial artery revascularization (BAR) on limiting CLAD...
March 20, 2018: Transplantation
Ömer Sinan Saraç, Rahul Kumar, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Ali Tuğrul Balcı, İsmail Bilgen, Roberto Romero, Adi L Tarca
Crowdsourcing has been used to address computational challenges in systems biology and assess translation of findings across species. Sub-challenge 2 of the sbv IMPROVER Systems Toxicology Challenge was designed to determine whether a common set of genes can be used to identify exposure to cigarette smoke in both human and mouse. Participating teams used a training set of human and mouse blood gene expression data to derive parsimonious models (up to 40 genes) that classify subjects into exposure groups: smokers, former smokers, and never-smokers...
February 2018: Computational Toxicology
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Katharina Wiedemann, Frederik Naujoks, Johanna Wörle, Ramona Kenntner-Mabiala, Yvonne Kaussner, Alexandra Neukum
Automated driving systems are getting pushed into the consumer market, with varying degrees of automation. Most often the driver's task will consist of being available as a fall-back level when the automation reaches its limits. These so-called take-over situations have attracted a great body of research, focusing on various human factors aspects (e.g., sleepiness) that could undermine the safety of control transitions between automated and manual driving. However, a major source of accidents in manual driving, alcohol consumption, has been a non-issue so far, although a false understanding of the driver's responsibility (i...
March 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Christine M Wickens, Rosely Flam-Zalcman, Gina Stoduto, Chloe Docherty, Rita K Thomas, Tara Marie Watson, Justin Matheson, Kamna Mehra, Robert E Mann
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increasing attention to "lower BAC" drinking drivers, typically those whose blood alcohol content (BAC) is under the legal limits defined in criminal law. In 2009, legislation was enacted in Ontario, Canada that enabled police to issue roadside license suspensions to individuals caught driving with BAC between 0.05% and 0.08%, known as the "warn range". Multiple warn range (MWR) offenders are required to attend the Back on Track (BOT) remedial measures program...
March 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Zixu Yang, Nur Amirah Abdul Rashid, Yue Feng Quek, Max Lam, Yuen Mei See, Yogeswary Maniam, Justin Dauwels, Bhing Leet Tan, Jimmy Lee
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is one of the core features of schizophrenia. For its evaluation, current clinical practice relies on detailed neuropsychological batteries which require trained testers and considerable amount of time to administer. Therefore, a brief and reliable screening tool for identification of overall cognitive impairment prior to a detailed comprehensive neurocognitive assessment is needed in a busy clinical setting. This study evaluates the clinical utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and its relationship with functional outcome and demographic characters...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Peggy Stolt-Bergner, Christian Benda, Tim Bergbrede, Hüseyin Besir, Patrick H N Celie, Cindy Chang, David Drechsel, Ariane Fischer, Arie Geerlof, Barbara Giabbai, Joop van den Heuvel, Georg Huber, Wolfgang Knecht, Anita Lehner, Regis Lemaitre, Kristina Nordén, Gwynn Pardee, Ines Racke, Kim Remans, Astrid Sander, Judith Scholz, Magda Stadnik, Paola Storici, Daniel Weinbruch, Isabel Zaror, Linda H L Lua, Sabine Suppmann
Baculovirus-insect cell expression system has become one of the most widely used eukaryotic expression systems for heterologous protein production in many laboratories. The availability of robust insect cell lines, serum-free media, a range of vectors and commercially-packaged kits have supported the demand for maximizing the exploitation of the baculovirus-insect cell expression system. Naturally, this resulted in varied strategies adopted by different laboratories to optimize protein production. Most laboratories have preference in using either the E...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Guangrui Dong, Jiao Shen, Qing Zhang, Jianping Wang, Qingyi Yu, Ray Ming, Kai Wang, Jisen Zhang
Saccharum spontaneum is a major Saccharum species that contributed to the origin of modern sugarcane cultivars, and due to a high degree of polyploidy is considered to be a plant species with one of the most complex genetics. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful and widely used tool in genome studies. Here, we demonstrated that FISH based on bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be used as a specific cytological marker to identify S. spontaneum individual chromosomes and study the relationship between S...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juliann M Mellin, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Caroline Lustenberger, Courtney E Lugo, Morgan L Alexander, John H Gilmore, L Fredrik Jarskog, Flavio Fröhlich
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with schizophrenia experience auditory hallucinations that are refractory to antipsychotic medications. Here, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) that we hypothesized would improve auditory hallucination symptoms by enhancing synchronization between the frontal and temporo-parietal areas of the left hemisphere. METHOD: 22 participants were randomized to one of three arms and received twice daily, 20 min sessions of sham, 10 Hz 2 mA peak-to-peak tACS, or 2 mA tDCS over the course of 5 consecutive days...
March 10, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Zuzana Tulpová, Ming-Cheng Luo, Helena Toegelová, Paul Visendi, Satomi Hayashi, Petr Vojta, Etienne Paux, Andrzej Kilian, Michaël Abrouk, Jan Bartoš, Marián Hajdúch, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards, Jaroslav Doležel, Hana Šimková
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant part of the world's population. The growing demand on its production can be satisfied by improving yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Knowledge of the genome sequence would aid in discovering genes and QTLs underlying these traits and provide a basis for genomics-assisted breeding. Physical maps and BAC clones associated with them have been valuable resources from which to generate a reference genome of bread wheat and to assist map-based gene cloning...
March 8, 2018: New Biotechnology
S Mykolenko, V Liedienov, M Kharytonov, N Makieieva, T Kuliush, I Queralt, E Marguí, M Hidalgo, G Pardini, M Gispert
The work was conducted to establish contamination from improper disposal of hazardous wastes containing lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) into nearby soils. Besides other elements in the affected area, the biological role of Sb, its behaviour in the pedosphere and uptake by plants and the food chain was considered. Wastes contained 139532 ± 9601 mg kg-1 (≈14%) Pb and 3645 ± 194 mg kg-1 (≈0.4%) Sb respectively and variability was extremely high at a decimetre scale. Dramatically high concentrations were also found for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sn and Zn...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Noora K Airaksinen, Ilona S Nurmi-Lüthje, J Matti Kataja, Heikki P J Kröger, Peter M J Lüthje
BACKGROUND: Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. METHODS: Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006...
March 3, 2018: Injury
C Y Daniel Lee, Anthony Daggett, Xiaofeng Gu, Lu-Lin Jiang, Peter Langfelder, Xiaoguang Li, Nan Wang, Yingjun Zhao, Chang Sin Park, Yonatan Cooper, Isabella Ferando, Istvan Mody, Giovanni Coppola, Huaxi Xu, X William Yang
Variants of TREM2 are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To study whether increasing TREM2 gene dosage could modify the disease pathogenesis, we developed BAC transgenic mice expressing human TREM2 (BAC-TREM2) in microglia. We found that elevated TREM2 expression reduced amyloid burden in the 5xFAD mouse model. Transcriptomic profiling demonstrated that increasing TREM2 levels conferred a rescuing effect, which includes dampening the expression of multiple disease-associated microglial genes and augmenting downregulated neuronal genes...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Katherine Z Sanidad, Haixia Yang, Weicang Wang, E Ilker Ozay, Jun Yang, Min Gu, Emmet Karner, Jianan Zhang, Daeyoung Kim, Lisa M Minter, Hang Xiao, Guodong Zhang
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BET), and chloroxylenol (PCMX) are antimicrobial ingredients used in many consumer products and are frequently detected in the environment. In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed 19 antimicrobial ingredients from consumer antiseptic wash products, but deferred rulemaking for BAC, BET, and PCMX to allow additional time to develop new safety and efficacy data for these three antimicrobials. Therefore, it is important and timely to better understand the effects of these three compounds on human health...
March 5, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Xuan Zhuang, Katherine R Murphy, Laura Ghigliotti, Eva Pisano, C-H Christina Cheng
Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are a novel evolutionary innovation in members of the northern cod fish family (Gadidae), crucial in preventing death from inoculative freezing by environmental ice in their frigid Arctic and sub-Arctic habitats. However, the genomic origin and molecular mechanism of evolution of this novel life-saving adaptive genetic trait remained to be definitively determined. To this end, we constructed large insert genomic DNA BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) libraries for two AFGP-bearing gadids, the high-Arctic polar cod Boreogadus saida and the cold-temperate Atlantic tomcod Microgadus tomcod, to isolate and sequence their AFGP genomic regions for fine resolution evolutionary analyses...
March 3, 2018: Marine Genomics
Hiroyuki Ishiura, Koichiro Doi, Jun Mitsui, Jun Yoshimura, Miho Kawabe Matsukawa, Asao Fujiyama, Yasuko Toyoshima, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hitoshi Takahashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Wei Qu, Kazuki Ichikawa, Hideaki Yurino, Koichiro Higasa, Shota Shibata, Aki Mitsue, Masaki Tanaka, Yaeko Ichikawa, Yuji Takahashi, Hidetoshi Date, Takashi Matsukawa, Junko Kanda, Fumiko Kusunoki Nakamoto, Mana Higashihara, Koji Abe, Ryoko Koike, Mutsuo Sasagawa, Yasuko Kuroha, Naoya Hasegawa, Norio Kanesawa, Takayuki Kondo, Takefumi Hitomi, Masayoshi Tada, Hiroki Takano, Yutaka Saito, Kazuhiro Sanpei, Osamu Onodera, Masatoyo Nishizawa, Masayuki Nakamura, Takeshi Yasuda, Yoshio Sakiyama, Mieko Otsuka, Akira Ueki, Ken-Ichi Kaida, Jun Shimizu, Ritsuko Hanajima, Toshihiro Hayashi, Yasuo Terao, Satomi Inomata-Terada, Masashi Hamada, Yuichiro Shirota, Akatsuki Kubota, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Kishin Koh, Yoshihisa Takiyama, Natsumi Ohsawa-Yoshida, Shoichi Ishiura, Ryo Yamasaki, Akira Tamaoka, Hiroshi Akiyama, Taisuke Otsuki, Akira Sano, Akio Ikeda, Jun Goto, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, and mutations in genes encoding ion channels or neurotransmitter receptors are frequent causes of monogenic forms of epilepsy. Here we show that abnormal expansions of TTTCA and TTTTA repeats in intron 4 of SAMD12 cause benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME). Single-molecule, real-time sequencing of BAC clones and nanopore sequencing of genomic DNA identified two repeat configurations in SAMD12. Intriguingly, in two families with a clinical diagnosis of BAFME in which no repeat expansions in SAMD12 were observed, we identified similar expansions of TTTCA and TTTTA repeats in introns of TNRC6A and RAPGEF2, indicating that expansions of the same repeat motifs are involved in the pathogenesis of BAFME regardless of the genes in which the expanded repeats are located...
March 5, 2018: Nature Genetics
Elena A Salina, Mikhail A Nesterov, Zeev Frenkel, Antonina A Kiseleva, Ekaterina M Timonova, Federica Magni, Jan Vrána, Jan Šafář, Hana Šimková, Jaroslav Doležel, Abraham Korol, Ekaterina M Sergeeva
BACKGROUND: The IWGSC strategy for construction of the reference sequence of the bread wheat genome is based on first obtaining physical maps of the individual chromosomes. Our aim is to develop and use the physical map for analysis of the organization of the short arm of wheat chromosome 5B (5BS) which bears a number of agronomically important genes, including genes conferring resistance to fungal diseases. RESULTS: A physical map of the 5BS arm (290 Mbp) was constructed using restriction fingerprinting and LTC software for contig assembly of 43,776 BAC clones...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Christopher M Altman, Nadja Schreiber Compo, Dawn McQuiston, Angelica V Hagsand, Jiselle Cervera
Research on alcohol and witness memory has burgeoned over the last decade. However, most studies have tested participants at relatively low breath alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, unrepresentative of those encountered by officers in the field. To examine how higher intoxication levels might impair witness memory for events and faces, the current research tested participants' ability to recall a mock crime at elevated BAC levels (>.08%). The BAC levels of bar patrons (N = 138) were recorded before witnessing a video-taped mock crime...
March 4, 2018: Memory
Silvia Kocanova, Isabelle Goiffon, Kerstin Bystricky
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a common technique used to label DNA and/or RNA for detection of a genomic region of interest. However, the technique can be challenging, in particular when applied to single genes in human cancer cells. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for analysis of short (35kb to 300kb) genomic regions in three dimensions (3D). We discuss the experimental design and provide practical considerations for 3D imaging and data analysis to determine chromatin folding. We demonstrate that 3D FISH using BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes) or fosmids can provide detailed information of the architecture of gene domains...
February 28, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Mohan Penumala, Raveendra Babu Zinka, Jeelan Basha Shaik, Suresh Kumar Reddy Mallepalli, Ramakrishna Vadde, Damu Gangaiah Amooru
BACKGROUND: Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies revealed that Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) are most likely to appear simultaneously in aged people as T2D is a major risk factor for AD. Therefore, development of potential multifunctional agents for dual therapy of AD and T2D has received much attention. Buchanania axillaris, Hemidesmus indicus and Rhus mysorensis have been used extensively in popular medicine. The present study was aimed at phytochemical profiling and evaluating multifunctional ability of titled plants in the AD and T2D dual therapy...
March 2, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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