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Hiv and yeast infection

J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Wiyada Dankai, Monsicha Pongpom, Sirida Youngchim, Chester R Cooper, Nongnuch Vanittanakom
Talaromyces marneffei, formerly Penicillium marneffei, is a thermally dimorphic fungus. It causes a fatal disseminated disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Studies on the stress defense mechanism of T. marneffei can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenicity and the progression of the disease due to this fungus. The basic leucine-zipper (bZip) transcription factor gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, named yap1 (yeast activating protein-1), is known as a crucial central regulator of stress responses including those caused by oxidative agents, cadmium, and drugs...
2016: PloS One
Stephen K Kyei, Henry Ogbomo, ShuShun Li, Martina Timm-McCann, Richard F Xiang, Shaunna M Huston, Anutosh Ganguly, Pina Colarusso, M John Gill, Christopher H Mody
UNLABELLED: Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and a leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in AIDS patients. Natural killer (NK) cells are important immune effector cells that directly recognize and kill C. neoformans via a perforin-dependent cytotoxic mechanism. We previously showed that NK cells from HIV-infected patients have aberrant anticryptococcal killing and that interleukin-12 (IL-12) restores the activity at least partially through restoration of NKp30. However, the mechanisms causing this defect or how IL-12 restores the function was unknown...
2016: MBio
Ana C P Souto, Lucas X Bonfietti, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Luciana Trilles, Marilena Martins, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Cau D Pham, Liline Martins, Wallace Dos Santos, Marilene Chang, Fabio Brito-Santos, Dayane C S Santos, Silvana Fortes, Shawn R Lockhart, Bodo Wanke, Márcia S C Melhem, Márcia S Lazéra, Wieland Meyer
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ha Thuc Ai Hien, Tran Tan Thanh, Nguyen Thi Mai Thu, Ashley Nguyen, Nguyen Tat Thanh, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, Cameron Simmons, Cecilia Shikuma, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy Thwaites, Thuy Le
Penicilliosis caused by Talaromyces marneffei is a common AIDS-defining illness in South and Southeast Asia. Diagnosis is based on culture which can take up to 14 days for identification, leading to treatment delay and increased mortality. We developed a TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the MP1 gene encoding an abundant cell wall protein specific to T. marneffei. The assay's performance was evaluated in MP1-containing plasmids, clinical isolates, and plasma from HIV-infected patients with and without penicilliosis...
July 25, 2016: Mycoses
Partha Pratim Das, Lahari Saikia, Reema Nath, Sanjib Kumar Phukan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The changing spectrum of Candida species in causation of oropharyngeal candidiasis and their antifungal susceptibility pattern among the HIV infected individuals has made the identification to species level mandatory and detection of drug resistance necessary for patient care. The present study was carried out to determine the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting both HIV seropositive and seronegative individuals...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Ruchita Tyagi, Arshdeep Kaur, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Harpreet Kaur Puri, Neena Sood
Histoplasma capsulatum is no longer confined to certain geographic areas and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy and organomegaly in HIV-positive patients. We present an unusual case of a 20-year-old immunocompromised male of African origin presenting with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and retroperitoneal and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears from the cervical lymph node revealed numerous yeast forms of histoplasma in macrophages. The patient succumbed to the fulminant infection...
July 2016: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Huy X Ngo, Sanjib K Shrestha, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Invasive fungal infections are on the rise due to an increased population of critically ill patients as a result of HIV infections, chemotherapies, and organ transplantations. Current antifungal drugs are helpful, but are insufficient in addressing the problem of drug-resistant fungal infections. Thus, there is a growing need for novel antimycotics that are safe and effective. The ebselen scaffold has been evaluated in clinical trials and has been shown to be safe in humans. This makes ebselen an attractive scaffold for facile translation from bench to bedside...
July 19, 2016: ChemMedChem
Panibud Wongprommek, Methee Chayakulkeeree
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Histoplasmosis capsulatum (H. capsulatum), a dimorphic fungus. Histoplasmosis is not endemic to Thailand. Cases of histoplasmosis are sporadic and mostly associated with HIV disease. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of histoplasmosis in Thai patients have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with histoplasmosis at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective investigation studied adult patients with histoplasmosis who attended Siriraj Hospital for treatment between 2002 and 2012 (11 years)...
March 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Aghil Sharifzadeh, Ali Reza Khosravi, Shahin Ahmadian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection of the oral cavity which usually occurs in the immunocompromised individuals. Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the most common species of yeast responsible for oral candidiasis. This study investigated the effects of Satureja hortensis L. essentiall oil (EO) on the planktonic, biofilm formation and mature biofilms of C. albicans isolates from buccal lesions of HIV(+) individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT reduction assay, broth micro-dilution method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to determine the effect of mentioned EO on the C...
July 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sebastien Bertout
Cryptococcal meningitis is a dreadful opportunistic fungal infection amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. One complication in the management of the disease is the possible infection of a patient by two or more different strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. This study investigated the intra-individual genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolates from Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Twenty-five clinical isolates were obtained during a prospective study...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Stacey R Gish, Ezekiel J Maier, Brian C Haynes, Felipe H Santiago-Tirado, Deepa L Srikanta, Cynthia Z Ma, Lucy X Li, Matthew Williams, Erika C Crouch, Shabaana A Khader, Michael R Brent, Tamara L Doering
UNLABELLED: Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous, opportunistic fungal pathogen that kills over 600,000 people annually. Here, we report integrated computational and experimental investigations of the role and mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in cryptococcal infection. Major cryptococcal virulence traits include melanin production and the development of a large polysaccharide capsule upon host entry; shed capsule polysaccharides also impair host defenses. We found that both transcription and translation are required for capsule growth and that Usv101 is a master regulator of pathogenesis, regulating melanin production, capsule growth, and capsule shedding...
2016: MBio
Keshava K Datta, Arun H Patil, Krishna Patel, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Santosh Renuse, Jyothi E Kaviyil, Raja Sekhar, Aryashree Arunima, Bhavna Daswani, Inderjeet Kaur, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Ranjana Sinha, Sangeeta Jaiswal, S Sivapriya, Yeshwanth Sonnathi, Bharat B Chattoo, Harsha Gowda, Raju Ravikumar, T S Keshava Prasad
The frequency of Candida infections is currently rising, and thus adversely impacting global health. The situation is exacerbated by azole resistance developed by fungal pathogens. Candida tropicalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis, for example, in immune-compromised individuals, cancer patients, and those who undergo organ transplantation. It is a member of the non-albicans group of Candida that are known to be azole-resistant, and is frequently seen in individuals being treated for cancers, HIV-infection, and those who underwent bone marrow transplantation...
April 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindós
Invasive candidiasis is the most common invasive fungal disease causing an unacceptably high mortality. Candida albicans remains the predominant origin, but an epidemiological shift has been described in the last decades. Some species of Candida have emerged as an important cause of severe candidaemia and can exhibit reduced susceptibility to the current antifungal agents. Candida parapsilosis has been associated with candidaemia in neonates and young adults, whereas Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei are most frequently isolated in blood cultures from older patients (>65 years)...
July 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Ratna Mohd Tap, Nur Yasmin Ramli, Parameswari Sabaratnam, Rohaidah Hashim, Ahmed Rafezzan Ahmed Bakri, Lim Bee Bee, Stephanie Jane Ginsapu, Rahimah Ahmad, Mohd Fuat Abd Razak, Norazah Ahmad
The number of new fungal pathogens is increasing due to growing population of immunocompromised patients and advanced identification techniques. Fereydounia khargensis is a yeast and was first described in 2014 from environmental samples. As far as we know, this is the first report of human infections associated with F. khargensis. The yeasts were isolated from blood of a HIV-positive patient and pleural fluid of chronic renal failure patient. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer and the large subunit regions confirmed the identity of the isolates...
August 2016: Mycopathologia
Zsigmond Benko, Robert T Elder, Ge Li, Dong Liang, Richard Y Zhao
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 protease (PR) is an essential viral enzyme. Its primary function is to proteolyze the viral Gag-Pol polyprotein for production of viral enzymes and structural proteins and for maturation of infectious viral particles. Increasing evidence suggests that PR cleaves host cellular proteins. However, the nature of PR-host cellular protein interactions is elusive. This study aimed to develop a fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model system and to examine the possible interaction of HIV-1 PR with cellular proteins and its potential impact on cell proliferation and viability...
2016: PloS One
H Rachadi, K Senouci, M Lyagoubi, A Benzekri, S Mansouri, I Ramli, N Ismaili, B Hassam, L Benzekri
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is a potentially severe infection that usually occurs in a setting of immunosuppression. Its occurrence outside of this context is rare. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcosis revealed by a spectacular skin disease in an immunocompetent patient. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 40-year-old male patient had been presenting multiple nodules and tumors on his face for one month in a context of asthenia and intermittent fever. Histological examination of a skin biopsy revealed encapsulated yeasts strongly suggestive of Cryptococcus neoformans...
April 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Susanna K P Lau, Clare S K Lam, Antonio H Y Ngan, Wang-Ngai Chow, Alan K L Wu, Dominic N C Tsang, Cindy W S Tse, Tak-Lun Que, Bone S F Tang, Patrick C Y Woo
BACKGROUND: Penicillium marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in HIV-infected and other immunocompromised patients in Southeast Asia. However, laboratory diagnosis of penicilliosis, which relies on microscopic morphology and mycelial-to-yeast conversion, is time-consuming and expertise-dependent, thus delaying diagnosis and treatment. Although matrix -assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is useful for identification of various medically important fungi, its performance for identification of P...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Marcellin Musabende, Constance Mukabatsinda, Elisabeth D Riviello, Onyema Ogbuagu
A 61-year-old man living in rural Rwanda presented with a 2-month history of fevers, headaches, dry cough, weight loss and confusion. A cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed neutrophilic pleocytosis, yeast and a positive cryptococcal antigen (CrAg). An HIV antibody test was negative. The patient's cough worsened while on antifungal induction therapy with intravenous conventional amphotericin B and high-dose oral fluconazole. Computerised tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed extensive miliary infiltrates...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
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