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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113016/cryptococcal-dissemination-to-the-central-nervous-system-requires-the-vacuolar-calcium-transporter-pmc1
#1
Eamim D Squizani, Natália K Oliveira, Júlia C V Reuwsaat, Bárbara M Marques, William Lopes, Alexandra L Gerber, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Sophie Lev, Julianne T Djordjevic, Augusto Schrank, Marilene H Vainstein, Charley C Staats, Lívia Kmetzsch
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast and the cause of cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. The most severe form of the disease is meningoencephalitis, which is one of the leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to access the central nervous system (CNS), C. neoformans relies on the activity of certain virulence factors such as urease, which allows transmigration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we demonstrate that the calcium transporter Pmc1 enables C...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968020/-molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-from-hiv-patients-guayaquil-ecuador
#2
Sunny Sánchez, Dolores Zambrano, Maylen García, César Bedoya, Carlos Fernández, María Teresa Illnait-Zaragozí
INTRODUCTION: Neurocryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that represents a high cost in human lives and for the economy of countries. Its causative agent, the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex, has a sexual and an asexual phase, four major serotypes and seven molecular varieties with phenotypic, clinical-epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility differences. OBJECTIVE: To characterize by molecular methods clinical isolates of C...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959073/subcutaneous-basidiobolomycosis-a-case-report
#3
Adziri Sackey, Nenyin Ghartey, Richard Gyasi
Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon chronic deep fungal infection in which gradually enlarging granulomas form, usually in the subcutaneous fat tissues of the limbs, chest or trunk of immunocompetent hosts, primarily children and young adults. It is caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Definitive diagnosis is by microscopy and histopathology. Effective treatments include ketoconazole, itraconazole, potassium iodide and co-trimoxazole. A 3 year old girl presented with ulcerations on the right thigh for one month, and painful swelling of the right leg and right buttock for six months...
March 2017: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954600/disseminated-histoplasmosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Séverine Evrard, Philippe Caprasse, Pierre Gavage, Myriam Vasbien, Jean Radermacher, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Rosalie Sacheli, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Lieselotte Cnops, Eric Firre, Laurent Médart, Filip Moerman, Jean-Marc Minon
Case report We report the case of a young Cameroonian woman who presented with cough, hyperthermia, weight loss, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. A positive HIV serology was discovered and a chest radiography revealed a 'miliary pattern'. Bone marrow aspiration pointed out yeast inclusions within macrophages. Given the morphological aspect, the clinical presentation and immunosuppression, histoplasmosis was retained as a working hypothesis. Antiretroviral and amphotericin B treatments were promptly initiated...
September 28, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931690/conformational-changes-in-the-5-end-of-the-hiv-1-genome-dependent-on-the-debranching-enzyme-dbr1-during-early-stages-of-infection
#5
Alvaro E Galvis, Hugh E Fisher, Hung Fan, David Camerini
Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the RNA debranching enzyme (DBR1) is not required for early steps in HIV cDNA formation, but is necessary for synthesis of intermediate and late cDNA products. To further characterize this effect, we evaluated the topology of the 5' end of the HIV-1 RNA genome during early infection with and without inhibition of DBR1 synthesis. Cells were transfected with DBR1 shRNA followed 48 hours later by infection with an HIV-1 derived vector containing an RNase H deficient reverse transcriptase...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882006/update-in-infectious-diseases-2017
#6
REVIEW
F J Candel, M Peñuelas, C Lejárraga, T Emilov, C Rico, I Díaz, C Lázaro, J M Viñuela-Prieto, M Matesanz
Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830348/evaluation-of-trypan-blue-stain-in-a-haemocytometer-for-rapid-detection-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-sterility-in-hiv-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis
#7
Richard Kwizera, Andrew Akampurira, Tadeo K Kandole, Kirsten Nielsen, Andrew Kambugu, David B Meya, David R Boulware, Joshua Rhein
BACKGROUND: Quantitative culture is the most common method to determine the fungal burden and sterility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) among persons with cryptococcal meningitis. A major drawback of cultures is a long turnaround-time. Recent evidence demonstrates that live and dead Cryptococcus yeasts can be distinguished using trypan blue staining. We hypothesized that trypan blue staining combined with haemocytometer counting may provide a rapid estimation of quantitative culture count and detection of CSF sterility...
August 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804654/histoplasmosis-by-histoplasma-capsulatum-var-duboisii-observed-at-the-laboratory-of-pathological-anatomy-of-lom%C3%A3-in-togo
#8
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Touré, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, Gado Napo-Koura
Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793015/virulence-factors-and-genetic-variability-of-vaginal-candida-albicans-isolates-from-hiv-infected-women-in-the-post-highly-active-antiretroviral-era
#9
Pâmela Cristina Mastellaro Delvas Zanni, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Melyssa Negri, Sandra Sayuri Nakamura, Lucélia Donatti, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in HIV-infected (HIV+) women is a serious public health problem. However, little is known about the virulence mechanisms of vaginal Candida albicans from HIV+ women in the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the expression of key virulence factors and genetic variability of 26 vaginal C. albicans strains isolated from HIV+ women undergoing HAART and 18 from HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women. In general, we observed that C...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750078/acridine-orange-fluorescent-microscopy-is-more-sensitive-than-india-ink-light-microscopy-in-the-rapid-detection-of-cryptococcosis-among-crag-positive-hiv-patients
#10
Richard Kwizera, Andrew Akampurira, Darlisha Williams, David R Boulware, David B Meya
BACKGROUND: India ink microscopy on cerebrospinal fluid is still utilized in resource limited settings for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis despite its poor sensitivity. We hypothesized that staining fungal nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes instead of the capsule with India ink might improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. METHODS: We enrolled 96 HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis who provided 194 CSF specimens at serial time points in Kampala, Uganda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706389/current-mycological-profile-of-onychomycosis-in-kashmir-valley-a-hospital-based-study
#11
Nazir Asifa, Kanth Farhath
INTRODUCTION: Onychomycosis is a common nail ailment associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. It is caused by dermatophytes, nondermatophytic molds, and yeasts. Increased prevalence in the recent years is attributed to enhanced longevity, comorbid conditions such as diabetes, avid sports participation, and emergence of HIV. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to identify the mycological profile and etiological agents associated with this infection...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677260/correlation-of-cd4-counts-with-clinical-and-histopathological-findings-in-disseminated-histoplasmosis-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#12
Sondang P Sirait, Kusmarinah Bramono, Nathalia Hermanto
BACKGROUND: Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis (DCH) is one of the manifestations of systemic histoplasmosis infection in HIV-positive patients. Interaction between host immune status and histoplasmosis infection is still poorly understood. It is thought that immune status, represented by CD4 counts, may be correlated with clinical and histopathological findings. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the CD4 counts with the different clinical and histopathological findings in cutaneous histoplasmosis...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651892/construction-of-a-recombinant-full-length-membrane-associated-igg-library
#13
Zehua Sun, Shiqiang Lu, Zheng Yang, Jingjing Li, Mei-Yun Zhang
HIV/AIDS has become a global pandemic. Development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine eliciting broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAbs) remains a big challenge. Before an effective vaccine comes out, passive treatment for prevention and protection of HIV-1 infection may alleviate the burden caused by the pandemic. Numerous bnmAbs have been isolated against different epitopes in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein via phage/yeast display, EBV-immortalization, single cell sorting and micro neutralization. Recombinant antibody library with extended diversity and enlarged size of units are applicable by phage/yeast display and mammalian cell display for monoclonal antibody isolation...
June 24, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608842/talaromyces-marneffei-genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-studies-reveal-mechanisms-for-environmental-adaptations-and-virulence
#14
REVIEW
Susanna K P Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromycesmarneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576330/first-report-of-two-cases-of-cryptococcosis-in-tripoli-libya-infected-with-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-present-in-the-urban-area
#15
M S Ellabib, Z A Krema, A A Allafi, M Cogliati
Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by the basidiomycetes yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii with high predilection to invade the central nervous system mainly in immunocompromised hosts. Skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation with contaminated materials. We report the first two Libyan cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients, in which one of them presented a secondary cutaneous involvement due to systemic dissemination...
May 30, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551495/capsular-specific-igm-enhances-complement-mediated-phagocytosis-and-killing-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-methamphetamine-treated-j774-16-macrophage-like-cells
#16
Lilit Aslanyan, Vaibhav V Ekhar, Carlos M DeLeon-Rodriguez, Luis R Martinez
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system of users in the United States and worldwide, and its consumption is associated to the acquisition of HIV and AIDS-related infections. METH enhances cryptococcosis in mice, an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Due to its ability to survive within macrophages, C. neoformans is an ideal model to study pathogen-macrophage interactions. METH abrogates normal macrophage function, which might contribute to the higher rate and more rapid progression of infections in drug abusers...
August 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446609/glycosylation-of-the-core-of-the-hiv-1-envelope-subunit-protein-gp120-is-not-required-for-native-trimer-formation-or-viral-infectivity
#17
Ujjwal Rathore, Piyali Saha, Sannula Kesavardhana, Aditya Arun Kumar, Rohini Datta, Sivasankar Devanarayanan, Raksha Das, John R Mascola, Raghavan Varadarajan
The gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein is heavily glycosylated at ∼25 glycosylation sites, of which ∼7-8 are located in the V1/V2 and V3 variable loops and the others in the remaining core gp120 region. Glycans partially shield Env from recognition by the host immune system and also are believed to be indispensable for proper folding of gp120 and for viral infectivity. Previous attempts to alter glycosylation sites in Env typically involved mutating the glycosylated asparagine residues to structurally similar glutamines or alanines...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446137/progressive-cutaneous-cryptococcosis-complicated-with-meningitis-in-a-myasthenia-gravis-patient-on-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy-a-case-report
#18
Nguyen Thi Cam Huong, Ahmed M A Altibi, Nguyen My Hoa, Le Anh Tuan, Samar Salman, Sara Morsy, Nguyen Thi Bich Lien, Nguyen Thanh Truong, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Pham Thi Le Hoa, Nguyen Ba Thang, Van The Trung
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans and most remarkably manifests in HIV-infected individuals, especially in the settings of very low CD4 count. Development of cryptococcosis in HIV-uninfected individuals is exceedingly rare and usually signifies a marked immunodeficiency. Cryptococcosis in association with myasthenia gravis or thymoma has been previously documented in only very few cases in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a complicated case of severe cutaneous cryptococcosis in a 39-year-old Vietnamese male patient with myasthenia gravis on long-term immunosuppressive therapy...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366604/single-n277a-substitution-in-c2-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-influences-vaccine-elicited-cd4i-neutralizing-and-anti-v2-antibody-responses
#19
Xian Tang, Jia Guo, Lin Cheng, Caijun Sun, Li Liu, Teng Zuo, Hui Wang, Ling Chen, Linqi Zhang, Zhiwei Chen
An effective HIV vaccine remains elusive, and immunogens capable of eliciting protective host humoral immunity have not yet been identified. Although HIV/SIV infections result in the abundant production of CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies (Abs), these Abs are not protective due to steric restrictions following gp120 binding to CD4 on target cells. Here we report that both DNA- and vaccinia-based vaccines encoding SIVmac239 gp160 readily elicited high levels of CD4i Abs in experimental animals. We identified a highly conserved N-linked glycosylation site N277 in the C2 region which strongly affected the immunogenicity of the CD4i Ab domain...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356416/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-of-yeast-and-mold-phases-of-isolates-of-dimorphic-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-formerly-emmonsia-sp-from-hiv-infected-south-african-patients
#20
Tsidiso G Maphanga, Erika Britz, Thokozile G Zulu, Ruth S Mpembe, Serisha D Naicker, Ilan S Schwartz, Nelesh P Govender
Disseminated emmonsiosis is an important AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa that is caused by Emergomycesafricanus, a newly described and renamed dimorphic fungal pathogen. In vitro antifungal susceptibility data can guide management. Identification of invasive clinical isolates was confirmed phenotypically and by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Yeast and mold phase MICs of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, micafungin, and flucytosine were determined with custom-made frozen broth microdilution (BMD) panels in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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