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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592680/chimpanzees-bonobos-and-children-successfully-coordinate-in-conflict-situations
#1
Alejandro Sánchez-Amaro, Shona Duguid, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
Social animals need to coordinate with others to reap the benefits of group-living even when individuals' interests are misaligned. We compare how chimpanzees, bonobos and children coordinate their actions with a conspecific in a Snowdrift game, which provides a model for understanding how organisms coordinate and make decisions under conflict. In study 1, we presented pairs of chimpanzees, bonobos and children with an unequal reward distribution. In the critical condition, the preferred reward could only be obtained by waiting for the partner to act, with the risk that if no one acted, both would lose the rewards...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457406/comparison-of-the-results-of-living-donor-liver-transplantation-due-to-acute-liver-failure-and-biliary-atresia-in-a-quaternary-center
#2
L Éboli, A C Tannuri, N Gibelli, T Silva, P Braga, U Tannuri
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the complications, outcomes, and survival prevalence in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation due to biliary atresia (BA) or acute liver failure (ALF). RESULTS: In the period of June 1998-July 2016, 199 children underwent living transplantation due to BA or ALF. Of these 199, 184 were included in the analysis. The average age, weight, and body mass index of BA patients were lower than those of ALF (P < ...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453244/a-cap-on-medicaid-how-block-grants-per-capita-caps-and-capped-allotments-might-fundamentally-change-the-safety-net
#3
Haleigh Mager-Mardeusz, Cosima Lenz, Gerald F Kominski
Changing the Medicaid program is a top priority for the Republican party. Common themes from GOP proposals include converting Medicaid from a jointly financed entitlement benefit to a form of capped federal financing. While proponents of this reform argue that it would provide greater flexibility and a more predictable budget for state governments, serious consequences would likely result for Medicaid enrollees and state governments. Under all three scenarios promoted by Republicans--block grants, capped allotments, and per capita caps—most states would face increased costs...
April 2017: Policy Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343554/prioritization-of-patients-for-publicly-funded-ivf-in-ontario-a-survey-of-fertility-centres
#4
Tamas Gotz, Claire Jones
OBJECTIVE: On December 21, 2015, Ontario began funding one cycle of IVF for any Ontarian under age 43, with a program cap of 5000 cycles per year, which is below expected demand. Our objective was to determine how fertility clinics are prioritizing patients for limited-funded IVF cycles. METHODS: An electronic survey was emailed to medical directors of all 25 fertility clinics providing funded IVF in Ontario. RESULTS: From January to March 2016, 22 (88%) of the clinics responded...
March 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260448/pathology-results-at-autopsy-in-brain-dead-patients-with-brain-tumors
#5
Farahnaz Sadegh Beigee, Shagin Shahryari, Meysam Mojtabaee, Mihan Pourabdollah Toutkaboni
OBJECTIVES: Brain tumors are the most challenging causes of brain deaths due to the lack of pathology results in many cases. It is not uncommon to find a brain tumor in a brain-dead patient with no pathology results or neuroradiology reports available; this would exclude the deceased from organ donation. The mortality that occurs while patients are on transplant wait lists motivated us to find a solution to prevent losing brain-dead patients as potential donors. We present our experiences in autopsy examinations of brain tumors and the results of frozen-section pathology...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122320/revisional-bariatric-surgery-in-a-transplant-patient
#6
Salman Al Sabah, Eliana Al Haddad
INTRODUCTION: A BMI of over 35-45kg/m2 is deemed the upper limit for considering a patient for a renal transplant. Voluntary weight loss attempts are a major concern for patients while on hemodialysis, however, bariatric surgeries have opened up a new door to notable weight loss results, even demonstrating significant improvements of patients' diabetic profile and hypertension. CASE REPORT: Case of a 52-year-old male with a BMI of 42 in end-stage renal disease, that needed a kidney transplant but was ineligible to be placed on the waiting list due to his weight...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883321/body-size-and-outcomes-in-dialysis-and-transplant-patients-does-it-matter
#7
Mehmet Sukru Sever
The terminologies of "body size", "body mass index (BMI)", "body weight", "large BMI" and "obesity" are controversial for defining the effects of "adiposity" or "fat excess" on the outcomes of dialysis and transplant patients. However, probably these terminologies will be continued to be used in the future as well, because of being older and simpler terminologies. In the general population obesity is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, while, it conferred a survival advantage to dialysis patients...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808099/hydrogenated-vacancies-lock-dislocations-in-aluminium
#8
Degang Xie, Suzhi Li, Meng Li, Zhangjie Wang, Peter Gumbsch, Jun Sun, Evan Ma, Ju Li, Zhiwei Shan
Due to its high diffusivity, hydrogen is often considered a weak inhibitor or even a promoter of dislocation movements in metals and alloys. By quantitative mechanical tests in an environmental transmission electron microscope, here we demonstrate that after exposing aluminium to hydrogen, mobile dislocations can lose mobility, with activating stress more than doubled. On degassing, the locked dislocations can be reactivated under cyclic loading to move in a stick-slip manner. However, relocking the dislocations thereafter requires a surprisingly long waiting time of ∼10(3) s, much longer than that expected from hydrogen interstitial diffusion...
November 3, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756351/hockey-fans-in-training-hockey-fit-pilot-study-protocol-a-gender-sensitized-weight-loss-and-healthy-lifestyle-program-for-overweight-and-obese-male-hockey-fans
#9
Dawn P Gill, Wendy Blunt, Ashleigh De Cruz, Brendan Riggin, Kate Hunt, Guangyong Zou, Shannon Sibbald, Karen Danylchuk, Merrick Zwarenstein, Cindy M Gray, Sally Wyke, Christopher Bunn, Robert J Petrella
BACKGROUND: Effective approaches that engage men in weight loss and lifestyle change are important because of worldwide increases, including in Canada, in obesity and chronic diseases. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), developed in Scotland, successfully tackled these problems by engaging overweight/obese male football fans in sustained weight loss and positive health behaviours, through program deliveries at professional football stadia. METHODS: Aims: 1) Adapt FFIT to hockey within the Canadian context and integrate with HealtheSteps™ (evidence-based lifestyle program) to develop Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT); 2) Explore potential for Hockey FIT to help overweight/obese men lose weight and improve other outcomes by 12 weeks, and retain these improvements to 12 months; 3) Evaluate feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight/obese men; 4) Evaluate acceptability of Hockey FIT; and 5) Conduct program optimization via a process evaluation...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729475/primary-seed-dormancy-a-temporally-multilayered-riddle-waiting-to-be-unlocked
#10
Hicham Chahtane, Woohyun Kim, Luis Lopez-Molina
Primary seed dormancy is an important adaptive plant trait whereby seed germination is blocked under conditions that would otherwise be favorable for germination. This trait is found in newly produced mature seeds of many species, but not all. Once produced, dry seeds undergo an aging time period, called dry after-ripening, during which they lose primary dormancy and gradually acquire the capacity to germinate when exposed to favorable germination conditions. Primary seed dormancy has been extensively studied not only for its scientific interest but also for its ecological, phenological, and agricultural importance...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619231/ready-set-go-a-cross-sectional-survey-to-understand-priorities-and-preferences-for-multiple-health-behaviour-change-in-a-highly-disadvantaged-group
#11
Natasha Noble, Christine Paul, Robert Sanson-Fisher, Heidi Turon, Nicole Turner, Katherine Conigrave
BACKGROUND: Socially disadvantaged groups, such as Aboriginal Australians, tend to have a high prevalence of multiple lifestyle risk factors, increasing the risk of disease and underscoring the need for services to address multiple health behaviours. The aims of this study were to explore, among a socially disadvantaged group of people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS): a) readiness to change health behaviours; b) acceptability of addressing multiple risk factors sequentially or simultaneously; and c) preferred types of support services...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534874/from-chronic-kidney-disease-to-kidney-transplantation-the-impact-of-obesity-and-its-treatment-modalities
#12
REVIEW
Brian Camilleri, Julie M Bridson, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
Obesity is associated with worse short-term outcomes after kidney transplantation but the effect on long-term outcomes is unknown. Although some studies have reported worse outcomes for obese recipients when compared to recipients with a BMI in the normal range, obese recipients who receive a transplant have better outcomes than those who remain wait-listed. Whether transplant candidates should be advised to lose weight before or after transplant has been debated and this is mainly due to the gap in the literature linking pre-transplant weight loss with better outcomes post-transplantation...
October 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426708/problems-faced-by-antiretroviral-arv-drug-users-in-kathmandu
#13
J Karki, S Shakya
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) offers an opportunity to improve the prognosis and quality of life of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). However, inability to achieve adherence even after drug introduction in Nepal is a matter of concern. Some efforts are to be applied in order to lend a hand to identify and minimize these problems. This study aims to assess the problems faced by antiretroviral drug users attending ART centers of Kathmandu. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Control Hospital, Teku and Bir Hospital in 2071...
January 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986141/impact-of-obliterative-portal-venopathy-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#14
Clémence Hollande, Vincent Mallet, Stéphane Darbeda, Anaïs Vallet-Pichard, Hélène Fontaine, Virginie Verkarre, Philippe Sogni, Benoit Terris, Hervé Gouya, Stanislas Pol
HIV-associated obstructive portopathy (HIVOP) is an obstruction of the hepatic microvasculature of unknown origin. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and paraclinical presentation of the disease and its impact in terms of morbidity. Twenty-nine HIV1-infected patients (average 12 years of infection, nadir of CD4 210/mm, including 7 patients with a history of opportunistic infection) with a biopsy-proven or likely HIVOP have been followed up for an average of 6.1 years. Modes of revelation of the HIVOP were: cytolysis and/or cholestasis (60%), occult (14%) or symptomatic (37%) portal hypertension (esophageal varices 17%, ascites 10%, cytopenia 10%), or fortuitous (8%)...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26543688/wait-times-experienced-by-lung-cancer-patients-in-the-bc-southern-interior-to-obtain-oncologic-care-exploration-of-the-intervals-from-first-abnormal-imaging-to-oncologic-treatment
#15
David Van de Vosse, Rezwan Chowdhury, Andrew Boyce, Ross Halperin
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is associated with rapid disease progression, which can significantly progress over a duration of four to eight weeks. This study examines the time interval lung cancer patients from the interior of British Columbia (BC) experience while undergoing diagnostic evaluation, biopsy, staging, and preparation for treatment. METHODS: A chart review of lung cancer patients (n=231) referred to the BC Cancer Agency Centre for the Southern Interior between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 was performed...
2015: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26507402/current-perspectives-on-long-term-obesity-pharmacotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Sean Wharton
Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy...
April 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468070/the-staying-power-of-adhesion-associated-antioxidant-activity-in-mytilus-californianus
#17
Dusty R Miller, Jamie E Spahn, J Herbert Waite
The California mussel, Mytilus californianus, adheres in the highly oxidizing intertidal zone with a fibrous holdfast called the byssus using 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (DOPA)-containing adhesive proteins. DOPA is susceptible to oxidation in seawater and, upon oxidation, loses adhesion. Successful mussel adhesion thus depends critically on controlling oxidation and reduction. To explore how mussels regulate redox during their functional adhesive lifetime, we tracked extractable protein concentration, DOPA content and antioxidant activity in byssal plaques over time...
October 6, 2015: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377411/deferral-of-surgery-for-epiretinal-membranes-is-it-safe-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mads Kofod, Ulrik C Christensen, Morten la Cour
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To compare the visual outcome in early versus deferred surgery in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) and good presenting visual acuity and mild symptoms. METHODS: This study is a randomised clinical trial. 53 eyes of 53 patients with symptomatic ERM and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ≥65 early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) letters were randomised to immediate surgery (20 eyes) or to watchful waiting (33 eyes) for 1 year...
May 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236496/the-impact-and-treatment-of-obesity-in-kidney-transplant-candidates-and-recipients
#19
Gabriel Chan, Pierre Garneau, Roy Hajjar
The prevalence of obesity in patients with chronic kidney failure and renal transplant candidates has paralleled the epidemic in the general population. The associated risks of surgical complications and long-term cardiovascular death are significant: most transplant centers consider obesity a relative contra-indication for transplant. Few studies have focused on conservative weight loss strategies in transplant patients. Studies using administrative databases have found that only a minority of wait-listed patients lose weight and with no apparent benefit to transplant outcomes...
2015: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26177094/calling-where-it-counts-subordinate-pied-babblers-target-the-audience-of-their-vocal-advertisements
#20
David J Humphries, Fiona M Finch, Matthew B V Bell, Amanda R Ridley
For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups...
2015: PloS One
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