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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454290/ligand-based-computer-aided-drug-design-reveals-new-tropomycin-receptor-kinase-a-trka-inhibitors
#1
Rand Shahin, Iman Mansi, Lubna Swellmeen, Tahani Alwidyan, Nabil Al-Hashimi, Yaser Al-Qarar'h, Omar Shaheen
Targeting tropomycin kinase A (TrkA) by small molecule inhibitors is considered as a promising strategy for treating several human cancers. To achieve this goal, a ligand based QSAR model was applied using the Discovery studio 4.5 (DS 4.5). Hence, a total list of 161 TrkA inhibitors was investigated. The TrkA inhibitors were extensively explored to detect their optimal physicochemical properties and pharmacophoric binding modes, which were converted into numeric descriptors and allowed to compete within the context of the Genetic Function Algorithm (GFA) approximations to find the subset of terms that correlates best with the activity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454283/investigating-antibiotics-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-microbial-contaminants-in-groundwater-in-relation-to-the-proximity-of-urban-areas
#2
Edina Szekeres, Cecilia Maria Chiriac, Andreea Baricz, Tiberiu Szőke-Nagy, Ildiko Lung, Maria-Loredana Soran, Knut Rudi, Nicolae Dragos, Cristian Coman
Groundwater is an essential public and drinking water supply and its protection is a goal for global policies. Here, we investigated the presence and prevalence of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and microbial contamination in groundwater environments at various distances from urban areas. Antibiotic concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 917 ng/L, being trimethoprim, macrolide, and sulfonamide the most abundant antibiotic classes. A total of eleven ARGs (aminoglycoside, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B - MLSB, sulfonamide, and tetracycline), one antiseptic resistance gene, and two MGEs were detected by qPCR with relative abundances ranging from 6...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454168/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-pubertal-hormones-in-human-hair-across-development
#3
Andrew D Grotzinger, Daniel A Briley, Laura E Engelhardt, Frank D Mann, Megan W Patterson, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Puberty is a complex biopsychosocial process that can affect an array of psychiatric and medical disorders emerging in adolescence. Although the pubertal process is driven by neuroendocrine changes, few quantitative genetic studies have directly measured puberty-relevant hormones. Hair samples can now be assayed for accumulation of hormones over several months. In contrast to more conventional salivary measures, hair measures are not confounded by diurnal variation or hormonal reactivity. In an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 1286 child and adolescent twins and multiples from 672 unique families, we estimated genetic and environmental influences on hair concentrations of testosterone, DHEA, and progesterone across the period of 8-18 years of age...
February 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454092/analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-16-e6-e7-genes-and-long-control-region-in-cervical-samples-from-uruguayan-women
#4
Viviana Ramas, Santiago Mirazo, Sylvia Bonilla, Dora Ruchansky, Juan Arbiza
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the HPV16 variant distribution by sequence analyses of E6, E7 oncogenes and the Long Control Region (LCR), from cervical cells collected from Uruguayan women, and to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among variants. METHODS: Forty-seven HPV16 variants, obtained from women with HSIL, LSIL, ASCUS and NILM cytological classes were analyzed for LCR and 12 were further studied for E6 and E7. Detailed sequence comparison, genetic heterogeneity analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction were performed...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#5
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454018/co-circulation-of-classic-and-novel-astrovirus-strains-in-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-germany
#6
Sonja Jacobsen, Marina Höhne, Andreas Mas Marques, Klara Beslmüller, C-Thomas Bock, Sandra Niendorf
OBJECTIVES: In order to analyze the molecular epidemiology of human astroviruses (HAstV) in Germany, a retrospective long term study was performed to characterize circulating human astrovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Germany. METHODS: A total of 2877 stool samples, collected between January 2010 and December 2015 from sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis were retrospectively analyzed for astrovirus. A two step PCR algorithm was developed and used to identify and characterize human astrovirus infections...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453862/insights-into-transcriptional-silencing-and-anti-silencing-in-shigella-flexneri-a-detailed-molecular-analysis-of-the-icsp-virulence-locus
#7
Natasha Weatherspoon-Griffin, Michael A Picker, Krystle L Pew, Hiromichi S Park, Daren Ginete, Monika M Karney, Pashtana Usufzy, Maria I Castellanos, Juan Carlos Duhart, Dustin J Harrison, Jillian N Socea, Alexander D Karabachev, Christopher T Hensley, Amber J Howerton, Rosa Ojeda-Daulo, Joy A Immak, Helen J Wing
Transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing mechanisms modulate bacterial physiology and virulence in many human pathogens. In Shigella species, many virulence plasmid genes are silenced by the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS and anti-silenced by the virulence gene regulator VirB. Despite the key role that these regulatory proteins play in Shigella virulence, their mechanisms of transcriptional control remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the regulatory elements and their relative spacing requirements needed for the transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing of icsP, a locus that requires remotely located regulatory elements for both types of transcriptional control...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453856/defective-rna-sensing-by-rig-i-in-severe-influenza-virus-infection
#8
Sofie Eg Jørgensen, Mette Christiansen, Laura Barrett Ryø, Hans Henrik Gad, Jakob Gjedsted, Peter Staeheli, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Merete Storgaard, Rune Hartmann, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
Influenza virus infection causes worldwide seasonal epidemics. Although influenza usually is a mild disease, a minority of patients experience very severe fulminating disease courses. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for type I interferon (IFN) in antiviral responses during influenza. However, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7 deficiency is so far the only genetic cause of severe influenza described in humans. In this study we present a patient with severe influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infection during the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic...
February 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453510/next-generation-metabolic-screening-targeted-and-untargeted-metabolomics-for-the-diagnosis-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-in-individual-patients
#9
Karlien L M Coene, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Ed van der Heeft, Udo F H Engelke, Siebolt de Boer, Brechtje Hoegen, Hanneke J T Kwast, Maartje van de Vorst, Marleen C D G Huigen, Irene M L W Keularts, Michiel F Schreuder, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Saskia B Wortmann, Maaike C de Vries, Mirian C H Janssen, Christian Gilissen, Jasper Engel, Ron A Wevers
The implementation of whole-exome sequencing in clinical diagnostics has generated a need for functional evaluation of genetic variants. In the field of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), a diverse spectrum of targeted biochemical assays is employed to analyze a limited amount of metabolites. We now present a single-platform, high-resolution liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) method that can be applied for holistic metabolic profiling in plasma of individual IEM-suspected patients. This method, which we termed "next-generation metabolic screening" (NGMS), can detect >10,000 features in each sample...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453444/positive-regulation-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-by-serotonin-2b-receptors
#10
Arnauld Belmer, Emily Quentin, Silvina L Diaz, Bruno P Guiard, Sebastian P Fernandez, Stéphane Doly, Sophie M Banas, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Imane Moutkine, Aude Muzerelle, Anna Tchenio, Anne Roumier, Manuel Mameli, Luc Maroteaux
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453416/homozygous-deletion-in-myl9-expands-the-molecular-basis-of-megacystis-microcolon-intestinal-hypoperistalsis-syndrome
#11
Carolina Araujo Moreno, Nara Sobreira, Elizabeth Pugh, Peng Zhang, Gary Steel, Fábio Rossi Torres, Denise Pontes Cavalcanti
Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a severe disease characterized by functional obstruction in the urinary and gastrointestinal tract. The molecular basis of this condition started to be defined recently, and the genes related to the syndrome (ACTG2-heterozygous variant in sporadic cases; and MYH11 (myosin heavy chain 11), LMOD1 (leiomodin 1) and MYLK (myosin light chain (MLC) kinase)-autosomal recessive inheritance), encode proteins involved in the smooth muscle contraction, supporting a myopathic basis for the disease...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453314/ar-expression-in-breast-cancer-ctcs-associates-with-bone-metastases
#12
Nicola Aceto, Aditya Bardia, Ben S Wittner, Maria C Donaldson, Ryan O'Keefe, Amanda Engstrom, Francesca Bersani, Yu Zheng, Valentine Comaills, Kira Niederhoffer, Huili Zhu, Olivia MacKenzie, Toshi Shioda, Dennis Sgroi, Ravi Kapur, David T Ting, Beverly Moy, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Mehmet Toner, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
Molecular drivers underlying bone metastases in human cancer are not well understood, in part due to constraints in bone tissue sampling. Here, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from blood samples of women with metastatic estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancer, comparing cases with progression in bone versus visceral organs. Among the activated cellular pathways in CTCs from bone-predominant breast cancer is androgen receptor (AR) signaling. AR gene expression is evident, as is its constitutively active splice variant AR-v7...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453277/editing-out-five-serpina1-paralogs-to-create-a-mouse-model-of-genetic-emphysema
#13
Florie Borel, Huaming Sun, Marina Zieger, Andrew Cox, Brynn Cardozo, Weiying Li, Gabriella Oliveira, Airiel Davis, Alisha Gruntman, Terence R Flotte, Michael H Brodsky, Andrew M Hoffman, Mai K Elmallah, Christian Mueller
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 10% of the worldwide population, and the leading genetic cause is α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Due to the complexity of the murine locus, which includes up to six Serpina1 paralogs, no genetic animal model of the disease has been successfully generated until now. Here we create a quintuple Serpina1a-e knockout using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. The phenotype recapitulates the human disease phenotype, i.e., absence of hepatic and circulating AAT translates functionally to a reduced capacity to inhibit neutrophil elastase...
February 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453250/retinal-chitosan-conjugates-effectively-deliver-active-chromophores-to-retinal-photoreceptor-cells-in-blind-mice-and-dogs
#14
Songqi Gao, Shirin Kahremany, Jianye Zhang, Beata Jastrzebska, Janice Querubin, Simon M Petersen-Jones, Krzysztof Palczewski
The retinoid (visual) cycle consists of a series of biochemical reactions needed to regenerate the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal and sustain vision. Genetic or environmental factors affecting chromophore production can lead to blindness. Using animal models that mimic human retinal diseases, we previously demonstrated that mechanism-based pharmacological interventions can maintain vision in otherwise incurable genetic diseases of the retina. Here, we report that after 9-cis-retinal administration to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-deficient (Lrat-/-) mice, the drug was rapidly absorbed and then cleared within 1-2 h...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453226/modeling-the-human-bone-marrow-niche-in-mice-from-host-bone-marrow-engraftment-to-bioengineering-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Ander Abarrategi, Syed A Mian, Diana Passaro, Kevin Rouault-Pierre, William Grey, Dominique Bonnet
Xenotransplantation of patient-derived samples in mouse models has been instrumental in depicting the role of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the establishment as well as progression of hematological malignancies. The foundations for this field of research have been based on the development of immunodeficient mouse models, which provide normal and malignant human hematopoietic cells with a supportive microenvironment. Immunosuppressed and genetically modified mice expressing human growth factors were key milestones in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, highlighting the importance of developing humanized microenvironments...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453196/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-erbb4-on-2q34-as-a-novel-locus-associated-with-sperm-motility-in-japanese-men
#16
Youichi Sato, Atsushi Tajima, Takehiro Sato, Shiari Nozawa, Miki Yoshiike, Issei Imoto, Aiko Yamauchi, Teruaki Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: The decrease in sperm motility has a potent influence on fertilisation. Sperm motility, represented as the percentage of motile sperm in ejaculated sperms, is influenced by lifestyle habits or environmental factors and by inherited factors. However, genetic factors contributing to individual differences in sperm motility remain unclear. To identify genetic factors that influence human sperm motility, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of sperm motility. METHODS: A two-stage GWAS was conducted using 811 Japanese men in a discovery stage, followed by a replication study using an additional 779 Japanese men...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453058/antigenic-and-genetic-evolution-of-contemporary-swine-h1-influenza-viruses-in-the-united-states
#17
Daniela S Rajao, Tavis K Anderson, Pravina Kitikoon, Jered Stratton, Nicola S Lewis, Amy L Vincent
Several lineages of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulate in North American pigs. Genetic diversity is further increased by transmission of IAV between swine and humans and subsequent evolution. Here, we characterized the genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary swine H1N1 and H1N2 viruses representing clusters H1-α (1A.1), H1-β (1A.2), H1pdm (1A.3.3.2), H1-γ (1A.3.3.3), H1-δ1 (1B.2.2), and H1-δ2 (1B.2.1) currently circulating in pigs in the United States. The δ1-viruses diversified into two new genetic clades, H1-δ1a (1B...
February 13, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453043/understanding-of-human-atp-binding-cassette-superfamily-and-novel-multidrug-resistance-modulators-to-overcome-mdr
#18
REVIEW
Imran Shair Mohammad, Wei He, Lifang Yin
Indeed, multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a significant obstacle to effective chemotherapy. The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters is a principal cause of enhanced cytotoxic drug efflux and treatment failure in various types of cancers. At cellular level, the pumps of ABC family regulate the transportation of numerous substances including drugs in and out of the cells. In past, the overexpression of ABC pumps suggested a well-known mechanism of drug resistance in cancers as well as infectious diseases...
February 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452862/protective-effect-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-allele-drb1-13-02-on-age-related-brain-gray-matter-volume-reduction-in-healthy-women
#19
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Scott M Lewis, Brian E Engdahl, Angeliki Georgopoulos, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy) during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017). METHODS: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32-69years old) underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter...
February 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452791/untapped-reserves-controlling-primordial-follicle-growth-activation
#20
REVIEW
Amanda Kallen, Alex J Polotsky, Joshua Johnson
Even with the benefit of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), many women are unable to conceive and deliver healthy offspring. One common cause of infertility is the inability to produce eggs capable of contributing to live birth. This can occur despite standard-of-care treatment to maximize the recovery of eggs from growing ovarian follicles. Dormant primordial follicles in the human ovary are a 'reserve ' that can be exploited clinically to overcome this problem. We discuss how controlling primordial follicle growth activation (PFGA) can produce increased numbers of high-quality eggs available for fertility treatment(s)...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
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