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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786861/temporally-feathered-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-a-planning-technique-to-reduce-normal-tissue-toxicity
#1
Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786106/efficient-delivery-of-hbv-nls-sirnas-into-hepg2-2-15-cells-for-hbv-inhibition-through-novel-recombinant-pres1%C3%A2-tp-proteins
#2
Yanli Zeng, Zixi Li, Jia Shang, Yi Kang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and related liver complications remain severe public health problems worldwide. Previous investigations have shown that small interfering (si)RNAs can offer an effective strategy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The present study aimed to develop a novel siRNA‑delivering system of therapeutic HBV nuclear localization sequence (NLS) siRNAs using the recombinant preS1‑truncated protamine (tP) proteins. The preS1 region of the LHB was used in place of scFv to construct the recombinant preS1‑tP proteins, which were applied to deliver siRNAs targeting the HBV NLS to inhibit HBV replication and infection in HepG2...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785877/hepatitis-b-virus-lymphotropism-emerging-details-and-challenges
#3
Shivali S Joshi, Carla S Coffin
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly a hepatotropic virus but also infects cells of the lymphatic system. HBV genomes (DNA, messenger (m)RNA, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA) and proteins have been found in extrahepatic sites such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. HBV entry into hepatocytes occurs by binding of the HBV preS1 surface protein to its specific receptor, the bile acid transporter, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)...
May 22, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779957/de-novo-macrocyclic-peptide-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-cellular-entry
#4
Toby Passioura, Koichi Watashi, Kento Fukano, Satomi Shimura, Wakana Saso, Ryo Morishita, Yuki Ogasawara, Yasuhito Tanaka, Masashi Mizokami, Camille Sureau, Hiroaki Suga, Takaji Wakita
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) constitutes a significant public health burden, and currently available treatment options are not generally curative, necessitating the development of new therapeutics. Here we have applied random non-standard peptide integrated discovery (RaPID) screening to identify small macrocyclic peptide inhibitors of HBV entry that target the cell-surface receptor for HBV, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). In addition to their anti-HBV activity, these molecules also inhibit cellular entry by the related hepatitis D virus (HDV), and are active against diverse strains of HBV (including clinically relevant nucleos(t)ide analog-resistant and vaccine escaping strains)...
May 2, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779919/radiation-dose-constraints-for-organs-at-risk-in-neuro-oncology-the-european-particle-therapy-network-consensus
#5
REVIEW
Maarten Lambrecht, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Claire Alapetite, Neil G Burnet, Valentin Calugaru, Ida E M Coremans, Piero Fossati, Morten Høyer, Johannes A Langendijk, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Frank Paulsen, Ana Perpar, Laurette Renard, Dirk de Ruysscher, Beate Timmermann, Pavel Vitek, Damien C Weber, Hiske L van der Weide, Gillian A Whitfield, Ruud Wiggenraad, Erik Roelofs, Petra Witt Nyström, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: For unbiased comparison of different radiation modalities and techniques, consensus on delineation of radiation sensitive organs at risk (OARs) and on their dose constraints is warranted. Following the publication of a digital, online atlas for OAR delineation in neuro-oncology by the same group, we assessed the brain OAR-dose constraints in a follow-up study. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search to identify the current papers on OAR dose constraints for normofractionated photon and particle therapy in PubMed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science...
May 17, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776390/development-of-a-normal-tissue-complication-probability-ntcp-model-for-radiation-induced-hypothyroidism-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#6
Ren Luo, Vincent W C Wu, Binghui He, Xiaoying Gao, Zhenxi Xu, Dandan Wang, Zhining Yang, Mei Li, Zhixiong Lin
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to build a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RHT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients and to compare it with other four published NTCP models to evaluate its efficacy. METHODS: Medical notes of 174 NPC patients after radiotherapy were reviewed. Biochemical hypothyroidism was defined as an elevated level of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) value with a normal or decreased level of serum free thyroxine (fT4) after radiotherapy...
May 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769103/the-alfa-and-beta-of-tumours-a-review-of-parameters-of-the-linear-quadratic-model-derived-from-clinical-radiotherapy-studies
#7
REVIEW
C M van Leeuwen, A L Oei, J Crezee, A Bel, N A P Franken, L J A Stalpers, H P Kok
BACKGROUND: Prediction of radiobiological response is a major challenge in radiotherapy. Of several radiobiological models, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been best validated by experimental and clinical data. Clinically, the LQ model is mainly used to estimate equivalent radiotherapy schedules (e.g. calculate the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions, EQD2 ), but increasingly also to predict tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) using logistic models...
May 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749075/evaluation-of-a-mixed-beam-therapy-for-post-mastectomy-breast-cancer-patients-bolus-electron-conformal-therapy-combined-with-intensity-modulated-photon-radiotherapy-and-volumetric-modulated-photon-arc-therapy
#8
Rui Zhang, David Heins, Mary Sanders, Beibei Guo, Kenneth Hogstrom
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential benefits and limitations of a mixed beam therapy, which combined bolus electron conformal therapy (BECT) with intensity modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated photon arc therapy (VMAT), for left-sided post-mastectomy breast cancer patients. METHODS: Mixed beam treatment plans were produced for nine post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) patients previously treated at our clinic with VMAT alone...
May 10, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730285/a-new-strategy-to-identify-hepatitis-b-virus-entry-inhibitors-by-alphascreen-technology-targeting-the-envelope-receptor-interaction
#9
Wakana Saso, Senko Tsukuda, Hirofumi Ohashi, Kento Fukano, Ryo Morishita, Satoko Matsunaga, Mio Ohki, Akihide Ryo, Sam-Yong Park, Ryosuke Suzuki, Hideki Aizaki, Masamichi Muramatsu, Camille Sureau, Takaji Wakita, Tetsuro Matano, Koichi Watashi
Current anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) agents have limited effect in curing HBV infection, and thus novel anti-HBV agents with different modes of action are in demand. In this study, we applied AlphaScreen assay to high-throughput screening of small molecules inhibiting the interaction between HBV large surface antigen (LHBs) and the HBV entry receptor, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). From the chemical screening, we identified that rapamycin, an immunosuppressant, strongly inhibited the LHBs-NTCP interaction...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723527/inhibitory-effect-of-fasiglifam-on-hepatitis-b-virus-infections-through-suppression-of-the-sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide
#10
Yasunori Nio, Yuichi Akahori, Hitomi Okamura, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Makoto Hijikata
Fasiglifam is a selective partial agonist of G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), which was developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the clinical development of fasiglifam was voluntarily terminated during phase III clinical trials due to adverse liver effects. Fasiglifam showed an inhibitory effect on sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) in human and rat hepatocytes. Recently, NTCP was reported to be a functional receptor for human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections...
April 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722445/review-article-the-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
C-L Lin, J-H Kao
BACKGROUND: Ample evidence indicates an aetiological association of persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral, host and external risk factors for the development of HBV-related HCC have been documented. AIMS: To summarise and discuss the risk stratification and the preventive strategies of HBV-related HCC. METHODS: Recent published studies identified from PubMed were comprehensively reviewed...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721568/hepatoprotection-of-auraptene-from-peels-of-citrus-fruits-against-thioacetamide-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-mice-by-activating-farnesoid-x-receptor
#12
Xiaoguang Gao, Changyuan Wang, Chenqing Ning, Kexin Liu, Xinyuan Wang, Zhihao Liu, Huijun Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Pengyuan Sun, Qiang Meng
Hepatic fibrosis is a pathological process that eventually leads to the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer by various types of chronic liver disease. To date, there is no standard treatment for the progression of liver fibrosis. This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotection of auraptene (AUR), a simple coumarin contained in the peels of citrus fruits such as grapefruit, against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. The involvement of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the anti-fibrotic effect of AUR was further elucidated using in vivo and in vitro experiments...
May 3, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719454/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-predictions-of-intestinal-bcrp-mediated-drug-interactions-of-rosuvastatin-in-koreans
#13
Soo Hyeon Bae, Wan-Su Park, Seunghoon Han, Gab-Jin Park, Jongtae Lee, Taegon Hong, Sangil Jeon, Dong-Seok Yim
It was recently reported that the Cmax and AUC of rosuvastatin increases when it is coadministered with telmisartan and cyclosporine. Rosuvastatin is known to be a substrate of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, NTCP, and BCRP transporters. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of the interactions between rosuvastatin and two perpetrators, telmisartan and cyclosporine. Published (cyclosporine) or newly developed (telmisartan) PBPK models were used to this end. The rosuvastatin model in Simcyp (version 15)'s drug library was modified to reflect racial differences in rosuvastatin exposure...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716617/focal-dose-escalation-for-prostate-cancer-using-68-ga-hbed-cc-psma-pet-ct-and-mri-a-planning-study-based-on-histology-reference
#14
Constantinos Zamboglou, Benedikt Thomann, Khodor Koubar, Peter Bronsert, Tobias Krauss, Hans C Rischke, Ilias Sachpazidis, Vanessa Drendel, Nasr Salman, Kathrin Reichel, Cordula A Jilg, Martin Werner, Philipp T Meyer, Michael Bock, Dimos Baltas, Anca L Grosu
BACKGROUND: Focal radiation therapy has gained of interest in treatment of patients with primary prostate cancer (PCa). The question of how to define the intraprostatic boost volume is still open. Previous studies showed that multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) or PSMA PET alone could be used for boost volume definition. However, other studies proposed that the combined usage of both has the highest sensitivity in detection of intraprostatic lesions. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and to evaluate the tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of radiation therapy dose painting using 68 Ga-HBED-CC PSMA PET/CT, mpMRI or the combination of both in primary PCa...
May 2, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715081/estimation-of-risk-of-normal-tissue-toxicity-following-gastric-cancer-radiotherapy-with-photon-or-scanned-proton-beams
#15
Gracinda Mondlane, Ana Ureba, Michael Gubanski, Pehr A Lind, Albert Siegbahn
BACKGROUND/AIM: Gastric cancer (GC) radiotherapy involves irradiation of large tumour volumes located in the proximities of critical structures. The advantageous dose distributions produced by scanned-proton beams could reduce the irradiated volumes of the organs at risk (OARs). However, treatment-induced side-effects may still appear. The aim of this study was to estimate the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) following proton therapy of GC, compared to photon radiotherapy...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703705/integration-of-radiobiological-modeling-and-indices-in-comparative-plan-evaluation-a-study-comparing-vmat-and-3d-crt-in-patients-with-nsclc
#16
Soumyajit Roy, Iulian Badragan, Sheikh Nisar Ahmed, Michael Sia, Jorawur Singh, Gaurav Bahl
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to generate an algorithm to calculate radiobiological endpoints and composite indices and use them to compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) techniques in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 25 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with 3D-CRT at our center between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014...
March 1, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700954/influence-of-respiratory-motion-management-technique-on-radiation-pneumonitis-risk-with-robotic-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#17
Christopher H Chapman, Christopher McGuinness, Alexander R Gottschalk, Sue S Yom, Adam A Garsa, Mekhail Anwar, Steve E Braunstein, Atchar Sudhyadhom, Paul Keall, Martina Descovich
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: For lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), real-time tumor tracking (RTT) allows for less radiation to normal lung compared to the internal target volume (ITV) method of respiratory motion management. To quantify the advantage of RTT, we examined the difference in radiation pneumonitis risk between these two techniques using a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. MATERIALS/METHOD: 20 lung SBRT treatment plans using RTT were replanned with the ITV method using respiratory motion information from a 4D-CT image acquired at the original simulation...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685166/automated-vmat-planning-for-postoperative-adjuvant-treatment-of-advanced-gastric-cancer
#18
Abdul Wahab M Sharfo, Florian Stieler, Oskar Kupfer, Ben J M Heijmen, Maarten L P Dirkx, Sebastiaan Breedveld, Frederik Wenz, Frank Lohr, Judit Boda-Heggemann, Daniel Buergy
BACKGROUND: Postoperative/adjuvant radiotherapy of advanced gastric cancer involves a large planning target volume (PTV) with multi-concave shapes which presents a challenge for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning. This study investigates the advantages of automated VMAT planning for this site compared to manual VMAT planning by expert planners. METHODS: For 20 gastric cancer patients in the postoperative/adjuvant setting, dual-arc VMAT plans were generated using fully automated multi-criterial treatment planning (autoVMAT), and compared to manually generated VMAT plans (manVMAT)...
April 23, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684782/evaluation-of-normal-lung-tissue-complication-probability-in-gated-and-conventional-radiotherapy-using-the-4d-xcat-digital-phantom
#19
Sara Shahzadeh, Somayeh Gholami, Seyed Mahmood Reza Aghamiri, Hojjat Mahani, Mansoure Nabavi, Faraz Kalantari
PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to investigate normal lung tissue complication probability in gated and conventional radiotherapy (RT) as a function of diaphragm motion, lesion size, and its location using 4D-XCAT digital phantom in a simulation study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different time series of 3D-CT images were generated using the 4D-XCAT digital phantom. The binary data obtained from this phantom were then converted to the digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) format using an in-house MATLAB-based program to be compatible with our treatment planning system (TPS)...
April 12, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681482/method-for-automatic-selection-of-parameters-in-normal-tissue-complication-probability-modeling
#20
Damianos Christophides, Ane L Appelt, Arief Gusnanto, John Lilley, David Sebag-Montefiore
PURPOSE: To present a fully automatic method to generate multiparameter normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models and compare its results with those of a published model, using the same patient cohort. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data were analyzed from 345 rectal cancer patients treated with external radiation therapy to predict the risk of patients developing grade 1 or ≥2 cystitis. In total, 23 clinical factors were included in the analysis as candidate predictors of cystitis...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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