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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528455/dyslipidemias-and-cardiovascular-prevention-tailoring-treatment-according-to-lipid-phenotype
#1
REVIEW
Veronika Sanin, Vanessa Pfetsch, Wolfgang Koenig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to present the current information on the genetic background of dyslipidemias and provide insights into the complex pathophysiological role of several plasma lipids/lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we aim to summarize established therapies and describe the scientific rationale for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from genetic studies suggests that besides lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, pharmacological reduction of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, or lipoprotein(a) will reduce risk for coronary heart disease...
July 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527947/embryonic-vascular-disruption-adverse-outcomes-linking-high-throughput-signaling-signatures-with-functional-consequences
#2
Robert G Ellis-Hutchings, Raja S Settivari, Alene T McCoy, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Jill Franzosa, Thomas B Knudsen, Edward W Carney
Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as chemical disruption of cardiovascular development induces broad prenatal defects. High throughput screening (HTS) assays aid AOP development although linking in vitro data to in vivo apical endpoints remains challenging. This study evaluated two anti-angiogenic agents, 5HPP-33 and TNP-470, across the ToxCastDB HTS assay platform and anchored the results to complex in vitro functional assays: the rat aortic explant assay (AEA), rat whole embryo culture (WEC), and the zebrafish embryotoxicity (ZET) assay...
May 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527931/predictors-of-surgical-site-infection-after-open-lower-extremity-revascularization
#3
Frank M Davis, Danielle C Sutzko, Scott F Grey, M Ashraf Mansour, Krishna M Jain, Timothy J Nypaver, Greg Gaborek, Peter K Henke
OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infection (SSI) after open lower extremity bypass (LEB) is a serious complication leading to an increased rate of graft failure, hospital readmission, and health care costs. This study sought to identify predictors of SSI after LEB for arterial occlusive disease and also potential modifiable factors to improve outcomes. METHODS: Data from a statewide cardiovascular consortium of 35 hospitals were used to obtain demographic, procedural, and hospital risk factors for patients undergoing elective or urgent open LEB between January 2012 and June 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527930/outcomes-of-open-and-endovascular-lower-extremity-revascularization-in-active-smokers-with-advanced-peripheral-arterial-disease
#4
Samuel L Chen, Matthew D Whealon, Nii-Kabu Kabutey, Isabella J Kuo, Michael D Sgroi, Roy M Fujitani
OBJECTIVE: Concern over perioperative and long-term durability of lower extremity revascularizations among active smokers is a frequent deterrent for vascular surgeons to perform elective lower extremity revascularization. In this study, we examined perioperative outcomes of lower extremity endovascular (LEE) revascularization and open lower extremity bypass (LEB) in active smokers with intermittent claudication (IC) and critical limb ischemia (CLI). METHODS: Active smokers undergoing LEE or LEB from 2011 to 2014 were identified in the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) targeted vascular data set...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527699/at1-receptor-signaling-pathways-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#5
REVIEW
Tatsuo Kawai, Steven J Forrester, Shannon O'Brien, Ariele Baggett, Victor Rizzo, Satoru Eguchi
The importance of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has been well described whereas the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor) is one of the key players in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The AT1 receptor promotes various intracellular signaling pathways resulting in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and end organ damage. Accumulating evidence shows the complex picture of AT1 receptor-mediated signaling; AT1 receptor-mediated heterotrimeric G protein-dependent signaling, transactivation of growth factor receptors, NADPH oxidase and ROS signaling, G protein-independent signaling, including the β-arrestin signals and interaction with several AT1 receptor interacting proteins...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526632/erythrocytosis-following-testosterone-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Samuel J Ohlander, Bibin Varghese, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: A rapid increase in awareness of androgen deficiency has led to substantial increases in prescribing of testosterone therapy (TTh), with benefits of improvements in mood, libido, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, energy, and cognition. However, TTh can be limited by its side effects, particularly erythrocytosis. This review examines the literature on testosterone-induced erythrocytosis and polycythemia. AIM: To review the available literature on testosterone-induced erythrocytosis, discuss possible mechanisms for pathophysiology, determine the significance of formulation, and elucidate potential thromboembolic risk...
May 16, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526381/medium-term-effect-of-sublingual-l-glutathione-supplementation-on-flow-mediated-dilation-in-subjects-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#7
Jonica Campolo, Stefano Bernardi, Lorena Cozzi, Silvia Rocchiccioli, Cinzia Dellanoce, Antonella Cecchettini, Annamaria Tonini, Marina Parolini, Benedetta De Chiara, Gianpaolo Micheloni, Gualtiero Pelosi, Claudio Passino, Cristina Giannattasio, Oberdan Parodi
OBJECTIVE: Supplementation of glutathione (GSH) may be a positive strategy to improve the endogenous antioxidant defense required to counteract many acute and chronic diseases. However, the efficacy of GSH treatment seems to be closely related to type of administration, degree of absorption, and increase of its concentrations. The aim of this study was to test a new sublingual formulation of L-GSH, which enters directly the systemic circulation, to assess its efficacy on circulating biochemical markers of hepatic metabolism, lipid profile, and oxidative stress and on peripheral vascular function compared with placebo in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF)...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526186/cardiovascular-protection-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-clinical-trial-results-across-drug-classes
#8
Francesco Paneni, Thomas F Lüscher
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-namely myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Despite clear advances in the prevention and treatment of CVD, the impact of T2DM on CVD outcome remains high and continues to escalate. Available evidence indicates that the risk of macrovascular complications increases with the severity of hyperglycemia, thus suggesting that the relation between metabolic disturbances and vascular damage is approximately linear...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525946/ghrelin-attenuates-vascular-calcification-in-diabetic-patients-with-amputation
#9
Suining Xu, Fei Ye, Lihua Li, Jinchuan Yan, Zhengyang Bao, Zhen Sun, Liangjie Xu, Jie Zhu, Zhongqun Wang
Vascular calcification is established to be a critical factor in diabetes mellitus, which causes cardiovascular and amputation complication of diabetic patients. OPG/RANKL/RANK axis serves as a regulatory role in vascular calcification. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has been reported to exhibit potent cardiovascular protective effects. However, the role of ghrelin in the regulation of diabetic vascular calcification is still elusive. Here, we reported the role of ghrelin and its relationship with OPG/RANKL/RANK system in patients with diabetic foot amputation...
May 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524645/c1q-tnf-related-protein-9-inhibits-the-cholesterol-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-switch-and-cell-dysfunction-by-activating-amp-dependent-kinase
#10
Qi Liu, Hui Zhang, Jiale Lin, Ruoxi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Wei Liu, Meng Sun, Wenjuan Du, Jingbo Hou, Bo Yu
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) switch to macrophage-like cells after cholesterol loading, and this change may play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is a recently discovered adipokine that has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and vascular function, particularly in regard to cardiovascular disease. The question of whether CTRP9 can protect VSMCs from cholesterol damage has not been addressed. In this study, the impact of CTRP9 on cholesterol-damaged VSMCs was observed...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523847/sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-risk-profiles-of-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-diabetes-in-the-greater-cincinnati-northern-kentucky-stroke-study
#11
Tracy E Madsen, Jane C Khoury, Kathleen A Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Stacie L Demel, Matthew L Flaherty, Daniel Woo, Jason Mackey, Felipe De Los Rios La Rosa, Sharyl Martini, Simona Ferioli, Opeolu Adeoye, Pooja Khatri, Brett M Kissela, Dawn Kleindorfer
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare sex-specific associations between cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study (GCNKSS). METHODS: The GCNKSS ascertained AIS cases in 2005 and 2010 among adult (age ≥20 years) residents of a biracial population of 1.3 million. Past and current stroke risk factors were compared between those with and without DM using chi-square and multiple logistic regression to examine sex-specific profiles...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523594/the-relationship-between-coronary-artery-calcium-scores-and-left-atrium-size-in-hemodialysis-patients
#12
Ismail Baloglu, Kultigin Turkmen, H Zeki Tonbul, N Yılmaz Selcuk
PURPOSE: Hemodialysis patients have extremely increased cardiovascular mortality. The coronary artery calcification score (CACS) in uremic patients receiving hemodialysis reflects the severity of atherosclerotic vascular disease and predicts the cardiovascular events. In cardiac conditions, left atrial (LA) size has a prognostic importance. In this study, relationship between coronary artery calcification and left atrial size was investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 32 hemodialysis patients (16 females, 16 males; mean age, 52...
May 18, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523109/discovery-of-gsk2193874-an-orally-active-potent-and-selective-blocker-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4
#13
Mui Cheung, Weike Bao, David J Behm, Carl A Brooks, Michael J Bury, Sarah E Dowdell, Hilary S Eidam, Ryan M Fox, Krista B Goodman, Dennis A Holt, Dennis Lee, Theresa J Roethke, Robert N Willette, Xiaoping Xu, Guosen Ye, Kevin S Thorneloe
Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a member of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels. TRPV4 is expressed in the vascular endothelium in the lung and regulates the integrity of the alveolar septal barrier. Increased pulmonary vascular pressure evokes TRPV4-dependent pulmonary edema, and therefore, inhibition of TRPV4 represents a novel approach for the treatment of pulmonary edema associated with conditions such as congestive heart failure. Herein we report the discovery of an orally active, potent, and selective TRPV4 blocker, 3-(1,4'-bipiperidin-1'-ylmethyl)-7-bromo-N-(1-phenylcyclopropyl)-2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-quinolinecarboxamide (GSK2193874, 28) after addressing an unexpected off-target cardiovascular liability observed from in vivo studies...
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522759/effect-of-cyclooxygenase-inhibition-on-the-inspiratory-muscle-metaboreflex-induced-cardiovascular-consequences-in-men
#14
Joshua R Smith, Kaylin D Didier, Shane M Hammer, Andrew M Alexander, Stephanie P Kurti, Steven W Copp, Thomas J Barstow, Craig A Harms
Inspiratory muscle metaboreflex activation increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and limb vascular resistance (LVR) and decreases limb blood flow (Q̇L). Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition has been found to attenuate limb skeletal muscle metaboreflex-induced increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity. We hypothesized that compared to placebo (PLA), COX inhibition would attenuate inspiratory muscle metaboreflex-induced 1) increases in MAP and LVR and 2) decreases in Q̇L Seven men (22±1 years) were recruited and orally consumed ibuprofen (IB, 10mg/kg) or PLA 90 min prior to performing the cold pressor test (CPT) for 2 min and inspiratory resistive breathing task (IRBT) for 14...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522698/oligogalacturonic-acid-inhibits-vascular-calcification-by-two-mechanisms-inhibition-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-osteogenic-conversion-and-interaction-with-collagen
#15
Ahmed Hodroge, Eric Trécherel, Marjorie Cornu, Walaa Darwiche, Ali Mansour, Katia Ait-Mohand, Thomas Verissimo, Cathy Gomila, Carole Schembri, Sophie Da Nascimento, Redouan Elboutachfaiti, Agnès Boullier, Emmanuel Lorne, Josiane Courtois, Emmanuel Petit, Sylvestre Toumieux, José Kovensky, Pascal Sonnet, Ziad A Massy, Saïd Kamel, Claire Rossi, Jérôme Ausseil
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases constitute the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Calcification of the vessel wall is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients having many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and chronic kidney disease. Vascular calcification is actively regulated by inductive and inhibitory mechanisms (including vascular smooth muscle cell adaptation) and results from an active osteogenic process. During the calcification process, extracellular vesicles (also known as matrix vesicles) released by vascular smooth muscle cells interact with type I collagen and then act as nucleating foci for calcium crystallization...
May 18, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522312/intravascular-imaging-in-cardiovascular-ageing
#16
REVIEW
Christos V Bourantas, Tom Crake, Yao-Jun Zhang, Mick Ozkor, Javed Ahmed, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Patrick W Serruys
Ageing is related to complex molecular, inflammatory and biochemical changes that affect coronary pathology and often lead to coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events. Intravascular imaging is considered as the ideal technique to study coronary plaque morphology and assess its burden. Over the recent years several studies have been performed that investigated the association between pathophysiological mechanisms that promote vascular ageing and plaque morphology. In addition, several reports have compared plaque pathology in different age groups and a few studies included serial intravascular imaging to assess changes in the atheroma burden and compositional characteristics of the plaque...
May 15, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522147/cardiovascular-risk-in-advanced-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-patients-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-comparison-of-three-different-regimens-prevaleat-ii-cohort
#17
Paolo Maggi, Chiara Bellacosa, Armando Leone, Anna Volpe, Elena Delfina Ricci, Nicoletta Ladisa, Stefania Cicalini, Elisabetta Grilli, Rosaria Viglietti, Antonio Chirianni, Lara Ines Bellazzi, Renato Maserati, Canio Martinelli, Paola Corsi, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Federica Sozio, Gioacchino Angarano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: PREVALEAT (PREmature VAscular LEsions and Antiretroviral Therapy) II is a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study aimed at the evaluation of cardiovascular risk among advanced HIV-positive, treatment-naïve patients starting their first therapy. We hypothesized that these patients, present a higher cardiovascular (CV) risk. METHODS: The study included all consecutive naïve patients with less than 200 CD4 cells/ml starting antiretroviral therapy...
May 5, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522072/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-in-systemic-sclerosis-pearls-and-pitfalls
#18
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Juerg Schwitter, Luna Gargani, Alessia Pepe, Lorenzo Monti, Yannick Allanore, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by vascular dysfunction and excessive fibrosis, involving internal organs including the heart. The estimated prevalence of cardiac involvement in SSc is high and remains subclinical until the late stages. It is either primary, related to myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, or secondary, due to pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) or systemic hypertension, in those patients with renal involvement. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a useful tool for the early assessment of cardiac involvement in SSc...
March 31, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521969/natriuretic-peptide-receptor-a-is-related-to-the-expression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-a-and-c-and-is-associated-with-the-invasion-potential-of-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Y Nakao, S Yamada, S Yanamoto, T Tomioka, T Naruse, T Ikeda, H Kurita, M Umeda
Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) is one of the natriuretic peptide receptors. NPRA has been reported to play a role in the carcinogenesis of various tumours, as well as functional roles in renal, cardiovascular, endocrine, and skeletal homeostasis. The clinicopathological significance of NPRA in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) was examined in this study. The overexpression of NPRA was more frequent in TSCC (21/58, 36.2%) than in the normal oral epithelium (0/10, 0%) (P<0.05). It was also more frequently observed in cancers with higher grades according to the pattern of invasion (grades 1-2 vs...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521919/intravascular-ultrasound-analysis-of-intraplaque-versus-subintimal-tracking-in-percutaneous-intervention-for-coronary-chronic-total-occlusions-and-association-with-procedural-outcomes
#20
Lei Song, Akiko Maehara, Matthew T Finn, Sanjog Kalra, Jeffrey W Moses, Manish A Parikh, Ajay J Kirtane, Michael B Collins, Tamim M Nazif, Khady N Fall, Raja Hatem, Ming Liao, Tiffany Kim, Philip Green, Ziad A Ali, Candido Batres, Martin B Leon, Gary S Mintz, Dimitri Karmpaliotis
OBJECTIVES: Using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), the authors compared outcomes by observed wire position (intraplaque vs. subintimal) achieved during successful chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesion treatment. BACKGROUND: Recent successes in CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have used both intraluminal and subintimal wire tracking to improve procedural success. IVUS may be used to determine the course of wire tracking after crossing a CTO. METHODS: From March 2014 to March 2016, data were collected into a single-center database from 219 patients undergoing CTO PCI with concomitant IVUS imaging...
May 22, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
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