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Matthew J Farrell, Jehan B Yahya, Catherine Degnin, Yiyi Chen, John M Holland, Mark A Henderson, Jerry J Jaboin, Matthew M Harkenrider, Charles R Thomas, Timur Mitin
PURPOSE: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) is considered the standard of care. Meta-analysis of 7 clinical trials indicates a survival benefit to PCI, but all of these trials were conducted in the pre-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) era. Therefore, routine brain imaging with MRI before PCI-as recommended by National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines-is not directly supported by the evidence. Current US practice patterns for patients with LS-SCLC are unknown...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Maju Mathew Koola, Ajay K Parsaik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Wenguang Chang, Junfang Teng
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease which cannot be cured at present. The aim of this study was to assess whether the combined application of β-asarone and tenuigenin could improve the efficacy of memantine in treating moderate-to-severe AD. Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty-two patients with moderate-to-severe AD were recruited and assigned to two groups. Patients in the experiment group received β-asarone 10 mg/d, tenuigenin 10 mg/d, and memantine 5-20 mg/d...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Meysam Amidfar, Gislaine Z Réus, Joao Quevedo, Yong-Ku Kim
A developing body of evidence indicates that disturbed glutamate neurotransmission especially through N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) is central to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and NMDA receptor antagonists have shown therapeutic potential in the MDD treatment. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that in contrast to other NMDA receptor antagonists at therapeutic doses does not induce highly undesirable side effects...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Anna Rita Giovagnoli, Valentina Manfredi, Letizia Schifano, Chiara Paterlini, Annalisa Parente, Fabrizio Tagliavini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair language, but active music therapy (AMT) and memantine (M) can improve communication. This study aimed to clarify whether adding AMT to M may improve language in comparison with drugs alone in patients with moderate AD on stable therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEI). Forty-five AD patients treated with stable dose of AchEI were randomized to receive AMT plus M 20 mg/day or M 20 mg/day for 24 weeks. The Severe Impairment Battery-Language (SIB-l), SIB, Mini Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Lubben Social Network Scale, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks assessed language (primary variable) and overall cognitive, psycho-behavior, social, and functional aspects (secondary variables)...
March 17, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Jayashri Kulkarni, Natalie Thomas, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Emorfia Gavrilidis, Jasmin Grigg, Raelene Tan, Jacinta Cheng, Amelia Arnold, Caroline Gurvich
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex, severe and highly stigmatised psychiatric illness. Several lines of evidence highlight the causal link between chronic stress, glucocorticoid response to stress and glutamatergic overactivity as a key event in the pathophysiology of BPD. Therefore, molecular mechanisms capable of regulating glutamate excitotoxicity represent novel and potentially promising treatment targets. Memantine-HCl is a voltage-dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 'channel blocker' that selectively blocks pathological glutamate overactivity...
March 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Kyeongjun Lee, Chowee Park, Yeonsoo Oh, Heesoon Lee, Jungsook Cho
Excitotoxicity and oxidative stress play vital roles in the development of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we investigated the effect of N -((3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-yl)methyl)-4-methoxyaniline (BL-M) on excitotoxic neuronal cell damage in primary cultured rat cortical cells, and compared to that of memantine, a non-competitive N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist clinically used to treat AD. We found that BL-M inhibited glutamate- or N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxic cell damage...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yingying Liu, Yudiao Huang, Yueyue Xu, Peng Qu, Minghua Wang
Increased transendothelial permeability and subsequent blood-brain barrier damage play a key role in the pathological progression of human brain ischemia and secondary reperfusion. Memantine is a licensed drug providing clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, little information is known regarding its effects on brain endothelial permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine on endothelial permeability and the underlying mechanisms in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells...
March 15, 2018: IUBMB Life
Eva Mezeiova, Katarina Spilovska, Eugenie Nepovimova, Lukas Gorecki, Ondrej Soukup, Rafael Dolezal, David Malinak, Jana Janockova, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca, Jan Korabecny
Alzheimer's disease is debilitating neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. Current therapy relies on administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) -donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine. However, their therapeutic effect is only short-term and stabilizes cognitive functions for up to 2 years. Given this drawback together with other pathological hallmarks of the disease taken into consideration, novel approaches have recently emerged to better cope with AD onset or its progression...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Peter J Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish larvae have a high potential as model system to replace rodents, especially in screening and drug discovery applications. However, an experimental setup to deliver mild electrical stimuli with simultaneous high throughput behavioural tracking has not yet been described. NEW METHOD: A new tool was designed, making the delivery of electrical stimuli in a 96-well plate format possible. Using custom made electrode clips that can be slid over the walls of a square 96-well plate, 80 larvae could be tested simultaneously and behavioural responses recorded...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Jan Hoffmann, Andrew Charles
There is substantial evidence indicating a role for glutamate in migraine. Levels of glutamate are higher in the brain and possibly also in the peripheral circulation in migraine patients, particularly during attacks. Altered blood levels of kynurenines, endogenous modulators of glutamate receptors, have been reported in migraine patients. Population genetic studies implicate genes that are involved with glutamate signaling in migraine, and gene mutations responsible for familial hemiplegic migraine and other familial migraine syndromes may influence glutamate signaling...
March 5, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Silvia Duong, Daniela Bravo, Keith J Todd, Roderick J Finlayson, De Q Tran
PURPOSE: Although multiple treatments have been advocated for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the levels of supportive evidence are variable and sometimes limited. The purpose of this updated review is to provide a critical analysis of the evidence pertaining to the treatment of CRPS derived from recent randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). SOURCE: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psychinfo, and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant RCTs conducted on human subjects and published in English between 1 May 2009 and 24 August 2017...
February 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Po-Heng Tsai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to discuss therapeutic options available for the treatment of memory difficulties in dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: Because of the lack of progress in the availability of new medications, there has been an increased interest in focusing on non-pharmacological means to management cognitive symptoms related to dementia. The clinical management of memory loss should focus both on pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches...
February 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Basem A Dahshan, Malcolm D Mattes, Sanjay Bhatia, Mary Susan Palek, Christopher P Cifarelli, Joshua D Hack, John A Vargo
The role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the treatment of multiple brain metastases is controversial. While whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has historically been the mainstay of treatment, its value is increasingly being questioned as emerging data supports that SRS alone can provide comparable therapeutic outcomes for limited (one to three) intracranial metastases with fewer adverse effects, including neurocognitive decline. Multiple recent studies have also demonstrated that patients with multiple (> 3) intracranial metastases with a low overall tumor volume have a favorable therapeutic response to SRS, with no significant difference compared to patients with limited metastases...
December 19, 2017: Curēus
Rita Khoury, Jayashree Rajamanickam, George T Grossberg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of major neurocognitive disorders worldwide. Despite all research efforts, therapeutic options for AD are still limited to two drug classes: cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and the NMDA-receptor antagonist memantine. Donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine are the three ChEIs FDA-approved as first-line treatment for AD. Although they share the same mode of action, they differ in terms of their pharmacologic characteristics and route of administration, which can impact their safety and tolerability profile...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Nicole Eady, Rory Sheehan, Khadija Rantell, Amanda Sinai, Jane Bernal, Ingrid Bohnen, Simon Bonell, Ken Courtenay, Karen Dodd, Dina Gazizova, Angela Hassiotis, Richard Hillier, Judith McBrien, Kamalika Mukherji, Asim Naeem, Natalia Perez-Achiaga, Vijaya Sharma, David Thomas, Zuzana Walker, Jane McCarthy, André Strydom
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence to guide pharmacological treatment in adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. Aims To investigate the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine on survival and function in adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: This was a naturalistic longitudinal follow-up of a clinical cohort of 310 people with Down syndrome diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease collected from specialist community services in England...
March 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Brooke Ellard, John A Galdo
OBJECTIVE: The primary endpoint of the study is to determine the variations in the use of medications to treat dementia in patients concomitantly or not prescribed anticholinergics. DESIGN: The study is a case series of patients at a single community pharmacy over one year based on prescription claims data. SETTING: The setting is an independent community pharmacy in the South. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The main outcome is the variations associated in treatment plans for patients either receiving anticholinergics or not receiving medications with anticholinergic properties...
December 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Nikolaos Pitsikas, Petros A Tarantilis
Crocus sativus L., is a plant cultivated in many countries of the world. Crocins are among the active constituents of C. sativus and their implication in cognition has been proposed. The present study was designed to investigate in the rat the effects of crocins on distinct recognition memory components (encoding, storage and retrieval). Subsequently, the potential use of crocins as adjunctive agents for the treatment of memory disorders was examined. Thus, the effects exerted by a combination of subthreshold doses of crocins and memantine on recognition memory were evaluated...
February 16, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
A I Fedin
AIM: To study the dynamics of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) treated with cortexin and memantinol (memantine). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors present the results of the multicenter observational program 'KORMEN' that studied the efficacy of cortexin and memantinol in the treatment of cognitive impairment in patients with CCI. The study included 495 patients, 204 (41.2%) men and 291 (58.8%) women. Patients were stratified into two groups: cortexin group (n=388 (78...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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