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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166655/how-well-do-you-know-your-mutation-complex-effects-of-genetic-background-on-expressivity-complementation-and-ordering-of-allelic-effects
#1
Christopher H Chandler, Sudarshan Chari, Alycia Kowalski, Lin Choi, David Tack, Michael DeNieu, William Pitchers, Anne Sonnenschein, Leslie Marvin, Kristen Hummel, Christian Marier, Andrew Victory, Cody Porter, Anna Mammel, Julie Holms, Gayatri Sivaratnam, Ian Dworkin
For a given gene, different mutations influence organismal phenotypes to varying degrees. However, the expressivity of these variants not only depends on the DNA lesion associated with the mutation, but also on factors including the genetic background and rearing environment. The degree to which these factors influence related alleles, genes, or pathways similarly, and whether similar developmental mechanisms underlie variation in the expressivity of a single allele across conditions and among alleles is poorly understood...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160842/environmental-exposure-to-dioxins-dibenzofurans-bisphenol-a-and-phthalates-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-living-near-the-gulf-of-mexico
#2
Mohammad H Rahbar, Hanes M Swingle, MacKinsey A Christian, Manouchehr Hessabi, MinJae Lee, Meagan R Pitcher, Sean Campbell, Amy Mitchell, Ryan Krone, Katherine A Loveland, Donald G Patterson
Environmental exposure to organic endocrine disrupting chemicals, including dioxins, dibenzofurans, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a pilot monitoring study of 30 ASD cases and 10 typically developing (TD) controls ages 2-8 years from communities along the Gulf of Mexico near Alabama, which houses 14 Superfund sites, to assess the concentrations of dioxins and dibenzofurans in serum, and BPA and phthalate ester metabolites in urine...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159169/salmonella-enteritis-a-rare-cause-of-adult-intussusception
#3
Toan Pham, Domenic La Paglia, Meron Pitcher
Intussusception is a relatively rare condition in the adult population and is commonly secondary to a malignant process. Eight to twenty percent of cases of adult intussusception are thought to be idiopathic. In children, infection has been proven to precipitate intussusception in the absence of any other cause. We present a rare case of intussusception in a healthy adult patient secondary to salmonella infection and discuss infection as a potential explanation for a proportion of the cases of adult intussusception that are thought to be idiopathic...
October 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153478/reliability-of-upper-limb-and-trunk-joint-angles-in-healthy-adults-during-activities-of-daily-living
#4
Susannah M Engdahl, Deanna H Gates
Assessments of upper limb performance should require participants to perform tasks that challenge the limits of their ability. In order to select appropriate tasks, it is important to know which joints are used to perform the movement and how reliably those movements can be measured. The purpose of this work was to quantify the reliability of upper limb and trunk joint angles in healthy adults during common activities of daily living (ADLs). Nineteen participants performed six ADLs with the right arm (applying deodorant, turning a doorknob, answering a desk telephone, placing a pushpin in a bulletin board, wiping a plate with a towel, and pouring water from a pitcher) during two separate sessions...
November 8, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146167/incidence-and-return-to-play-after-biceps-tenodesis-in-professional-baseball-players
#5
Peter N Chalmers, Brandon J Erickson, Nikhil N Verma, John D'Angelo, Anthony A Romeo
PURPOSE: To determine return to play (RTP) rates after biceps tenodesis (BT) in professional baseball players. METHODS: Major League Baseball has maintained a prospective database containing all major and minor league baseball players who have undergone shoulder surgery since 2010. All players who had undergone BT were included. Minimum follow-up was 24 months, and thus we included data from 2010 to 2013. Using this database we determined the incidence, demographics, prior surgery history, concomitant procedures, RTP rates, and time to RTP...
November 13, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140178/infraspinatus-cross-sectional-area-and-shoulder-range-of-motion-change-following-live-game-baseball-pitching
#6
Brett S Pexa, Eric D Ryan, Elizabeth E Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT: Following a baseball pitching bout, changes can occur to glenohumeral range of motion that could be linked to injury. These effects are in part due to the posterior shoulder's eccentric muscle activity, which can disrupt muscle contractile elements and lead to changes in muscle cross sectional area (CSA), as measured by ultrasound. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in muscle CSA, and range of motion immediately before and after pitching, and days 1-5 following pitching...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135964/the-killer-of-socrates-coniine-and-related-alkaloids-in-the-plant-kingdom
#7
REVIEW
Hannu Hotti, Heiko Rischer
Coniine, a polyketide-derived alkaloid, is poisonous to humans and animals. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, which leads to inhibition of the nervous system, eventually causing death by suffocation in mammals. Coniine's most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC. In chemistry, coniine holds two historical records: It is the first alkaloid the chemical structure of which was established (in 1881), and that was chemically synthesized (in 1886)...
November 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131340/convergent-and-divergent-evolution-in-carnivorous-pitcher-plant-traps
#8
REVIEW
Chris J Thorogood, Ulrike Bauer, Simon J Hiscock
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: The pitcher trap is a striking example of convergent evolution across unrelated carnivorous plant lineages. Convergent traits that have evolved across pitcher plant lineages are essential for trap function, suggesting that key selective pressures are in action. Recent studies have also revealed patterns of divergent evolution in functional pitcher morphology within genera. Adaptations to differences in local prey assemblages may drive such divergence and, ultimately, speciation...
November 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127102/algorithms-to-guide-ambulance-clinicians-in-the-management-of-emergencies-in-patients-with-implanted-rotary-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#9
REVIEW
Christopher T Bowles, Rachel Hards, Neil Wrightson, Paul Lincoln, Shishir Kore, Laura Marley, Jonathan R Dalzell, Binu Raj, Tracey A Baker, Diane Goodwin, Petra Carroll, Jane Pateman, John J M Black, Paul Kattenhorn, Mark Faulkner, Jayan Parameshwar, Charles Butcher, Mark Mason, Alexander Rosenberg, Ian McGovern, Alexander Weymann, Carl Gwinnutt, Nicholas R Banner, Stephan Schueler, Andre R Simon, David W Pitcher
Advances in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy have resulted in increasing numbers of adult LVAD recipients in the community. However, device failure, stroke, bleeding, LVAD thrombosis and systemic infection can be life-threatening emergencies. Currently, four LVAD systems are implanted in six UK transplant centres, each of which provides device-specific information to local emergency services. This has resulted in inconsistent availability and content of information with the risks of delayed or inappropriate decision-making...
November 10, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126192/effects-of-exyra-ridingsii-lepidoptera-noctuidae-on-sarracenia-flava-nepenthales-sarraceniaceae
#10
Christine A Ricci, Albert J Meier, Ouida W Meier, T Keith Philips
Exyra ridingsii (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a moth whose obligate host is the pitcher plant Sarracenia flava (L.) (Nepenthales: Sarraceniaceae). The entire life cycle of the moth is completed in the trumpets of this fire-dependent plant that is found throughout the southeastern United States in bogs, long-leaf pine savannas, and pocosins. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of E. ridingsii on S. flava, including the effect of herbivory on trumpet height in the year subsequent to feeding and whether moths select trumpets for oviposition based on height...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099895/radial-shaft-stress-fracture-in-a-major-league-pitcher
#11
Karim A Meijer, Matthew S Fury, Hayley Ennis, Luis Grau, Michael Baraga, Jean Jose, James R Andrews, Lee Kaplan
Upper extremity injuries are associated with significant morbidity in throwing athletes, and prevention and diagnosis of overuse injuries in these athletes are increasingly being emphasized. Although stress fractures are common overuse injuries, stress fractures of the upper extremity are relatively rare. To our knowledge, a stress fracture of the radial shaft has not been reported in a throwing athlete. In this article, we describe the case of a Major League Baseball pitcher who presented with a stress fracture of the lateral cortex of the radius, likely caused by contractile forces of the supinator muscle, arising after his attempt to develop a new pitch...
September 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093175/the-role-of-visual-cues-in-mother-pup-reunions-in-a-colonially-breeding-mammal
#12
Kaja Wierucka, Benjamin J Pitcher, Robert Harcourt, Isabelle Charrier
Parental care is an important factor influencing offspring survival and adult reproductive success in many vertebrates. Parent-offspring recognition ensures care is only directed to filial young, avoiding the costs of misallocated resource transfer. It is essential in colonial mammal species, such as otariids (fur seals and sea lions), in which repeated mother-offspring separations increase the risk of misdirecting maternal effort. Identification of otariid pups by mothers is known to be multi-modal, yet the role of visual cues in this process remains uncertain...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090988/youth-baseball-pitching-mechanics-a-systematic-review
#13
Samuel F Thompson, Trent M Guess, Andreas C Plackis, Seth L Sherman, Aaron D Gray
CONTEXT: Pitching injuries in youth baseball are increasing in incidence. Poor pitching mechanics in young throwers have not been sufficiently evaluated due to the lack of a basic biomechanical understanding of the "normal" youth pitching motion. OBJECTIVE: To provide a greater understanding of the kinetics and kinematics of the youth baseball pitching motion. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from database inception through February 2017...
November 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073840/a-novel-apparatus-measuring-knee-flexor-strength-during-various-hamstring-exercises-a-reliability-and-retrospective-study
#14
Jack T Hickey, Peter F Hickey, Nirav Maniar, Ryan G Timmins, Morgan D Williams, Christian A Pitcher, David A Opar
Study Design Reliability and case-control injury study. Background Knee flexor strength is a key variable when dealing with hamstring strain injury (HSI) and methodologies of objective measurement are often limited to single exercises. Objectives To establish test re-test reliability of a novel apparatus measuring knee flexor strength during various hamstring exercises; to investigate whether these measures detect between-leg differences in males with and without history of unilateral HSI. Methods Twenty males without and ten males with previous unilateral HSI participated...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068752/an-epidemiological-comparison-of-elbow-injuries-among-united-states-high-school-baseball-and-softball-players-2005-2006-through-2014-2015
#15
Andrew V Pytiak, Matthew J Kraeutler, Dustin W Currie, Eric C McCarty, R Dawn Comstock
BACKGROUND: Pitching is a common mechanism of injury in baseball, with known risk factors for elbow injuries among adolescent pitchers. HYPOTHESIS: Elbow injury rates and mechanisms will differ between high school baseball and softball players. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Baseball- and softball-related injury data from the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 academic years were collected from the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) Internet-based data collection tool...
October 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066848/stable-and-ordered-amide-frameworks-synthesised-under-reversible-conditions-which-facilitate-error-checking
#16
David Stewart, Dmytro Antypov, Matthew S Dyer, Michael J Pitcher, Alexandros P Katsoulidis, Philip A Chater, Frédéric Blanc, Matthew J Rosseinsky
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are network polymers with long-range positional order whose properties can be tuned using the isoreticular chemistry approach. Making COFs from strong bonds is challenging because irreversible rapid formation of the network produces amorphous materials with locked-in disorder. Reversibility in bond formation is essential to generate ordered networks, as it allows the error-checking that permits the network to crystallise, and so candidate network-forming chemistries such as amide that are irreversible under conventional low temperature bond-forming conditions have been underexplored...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055057/sperm-competition-but-not-major-histocompatibility-divergence-drive-differential-fertilization-success-between-alternative-reproductive-tactics-in-chinook-salmon
#17
S J Lehnert, L Helou, T E Pitcher, J W Heath, D D Heath
Post-copulatory sexual selection processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can operate based on major histocompatibility (MH) genes. We investigated sperm competition between male alternative reproductive tactics (jack (sneaker) and hooknose (guard)) of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Using a full factorial design, we examined in vitro competitive fertilization success of paired jack and hooknose males at three time points after sperm activation (0, 15 and 60 seconds) to test for male competition, CFC and time effects on male fertilization success...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048928/epidemiology-of-shoulder-and-elbow-injuries-among-united-states-high-school-baseball-players-school-years-2005-2006-through-2014-2015
#18
Michael G Saper, Lauren A Pierpoint, Wei Liu, R Dawn Comstock, John D Polousky, James R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Shoulder and elbow injuries are common in young athletes, especially high school baseball players. Understanding the risk factors associated with baseball injuries is an essential first step in the development of injury prevention strategies. PURPOSE: To provide a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology of shoulder and elbow injuries among high school baseball players in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiological study...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044780/-hot-vs-cold-behavioural-cognitive-styles-motivationaldopaminergic-vs-cognitive-cholinergic-processing-of-a-pavlovian-cocaine-cue-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-rats
#19
Kyle K Pitchers, Louisa F Kane, Youngsoo Kim, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Discrete Pavlovian reward cues acquire more potent incentive motivational properties (incentive salience) in some animals (sign-trackers; STs) compared to others (goal-trackers; GTs). Conversely, GTs appear to be better than STs in processing more complex contextual cues, perhaps reflecting their relatively greater bias for goal-directed cue processing. Here, we investigated the activity of two major prefrontal neuromodulatory input systems, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), in response to a discrete Pavlovian cue that was previously paired with cocaine administration in STs and GTs...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037045/bi4o4cu1-7se2-7cl0-3-intergrowth-of-biocuse-and-bi2o2se-stabilized-by-the-addition-of-a-third-anion
#20
Quinn D Gibson, Matthew S Dyer, George F S Whitehead, Jonathan Alaria, Michael J Pitcher, Holly J Edwards, John B Claridge, Marco Zanella, Karl Dawson, Troy D Manning, Vin R Dhanak, Matthew J Rosseinsky
Layered two-anion compounds are of interest for their diverse electronic properties. The modular nature of their layered structures offers opportunities for the construction of complex stackings used to introduce or tune functionality, but the accessible layer combinations are limited by the crystal chemistries of the available anions. We present a layered three-anion material, Bi4O4Cu1.7Se2.7Cl0.3, which adopts a new structure type composed of alternately stacked BiOCuSe and Bi2O2Se-like units. This structure is accessed by inclusion of three chemically distinct anions, which are accommodated by aliovalently substituted Bi2O2Se0...
October 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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