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Multi infarct dementia

Erin McKay, Scott E Counts
BACKGROUND: Multi-infarct dementia (MID), a prominent subtype of vascular dementia (VaD), has only achieved recognition in the last 4 decades. Since its original description, the characterization, etiological understanding, and therapeutic direction of MID and other VaD subtypes has progressed at an astounding rate. SUMMARY: This paper divides the landmark discoveries and emergence of new research strategies for MID into decade-defining patterns so that a condensed picture of the total history of MID and its eventual inclusion as a VaD subtype emerges...
January 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Maija Siitonen, Anne Börjesson-Hanson, Minna Pöyhönen, Ari Ora, Petra Pasanen, Jose Bras, Silke Kern, Jürgen Kern, Oluf Andersen, Horia Stanescu, Robert Kleta, Marc Baumann, Rajesh Kalaria, Hannu Kalimo, Andy Singleton, John Hardy, Matti Viitanen, Liisa Myllykangas, Rita Guerreiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Kenneth Hulse
BACKGROUND: Whilst the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis is a major stress axis, and is necessarily perturbed in opioid dependency, and stress is a major contributor to aging mechanisms, the HPA axis has not been studied in opioid dependency in an age-dependent manner. OBJECTIVE: Hypothesis - Differences in age dependent levels of HPA components. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of general medical and opioid dependent patients (ODP, GMP)...
September 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
W Reith, S Roumia, P Dietrich
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia...
November 2016: Der Radiologe
Jaroslav Pancak, Helena Wagnerova, Andrea Škultéty Szárazová, Andrej Blaho, Ondrej Durovsky, Judita Durovska
OBJECTIVES: Dementias are one of the most serious health and socioeconomic issues. Multi-infarct dementia (MID) and Alzheimer´s type dementia (AD) exhibit differences in cerebrovascular blood flow velocity profiles and in presence of microemboli, detected by transcranial Doppler sonography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 77 persons was divided into 4 subgroups: 1. subgroup of patients with MID (n=19; 10 male and 9 female, mean age was 74.32±8.30 years); 2. subgroup of patients with AD (n=19; 11 male and 8 female, mean age was 70...
2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Jennifer Gooch, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the most common etiology of dementia in the elderly. Both, vascular and Alzheimer's disease, pathologies work synergistically to create neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments. The main causes of VCID include hemorrhage/microbleed (i.e., hyperhomocysteinemia), cerebral small vessel disease, multi-infarct dementia, severe hypoperfusion (i.e., bilateral common carotid artery stenosis), strategic infarct, angiopathy (i.e., cerebral angiopathy), and hereditary vasculopathy (i...
March 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Olivier Beauchet, Cédric Annweiler, Michele L Callisaya, Anne-Marie De Cock, Jorunn L Helbostad, Reto W Kressig, Velandai Srikanth, Jean-Paul Steinmetz, Helena M Blumen, Joe Verghese, Gilles Allali
BACKGROUND: Poor gait performance predicts risk of developing dementia. No structured critical evaluation has been conducted to study this association yet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the association of poor gait performance with incidence of dementia. METHODS: An English and French Medline search was conducted in June 2015, with no limit of date, using the medical subject headings terms "Gait" OR "Gait Disorders, Neurologic" OR "Gait Apraxia" OR "Gait Ataxia" AND "Dementia" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia" OR "Dementia, Multi-Infarct" OR "Dementia, Vascular" OR "Alzheimer Disease" OR "Lewy Body Disease" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia With Motor Neuron Disease" (Supplementary Concept)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Emilio Pedditizi, Ruth Peters, Nigel Beckett
SCOPE: it has been suggested that overweight/obesity as a risk factor for incident dementia differs between mid-life and later life. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the up-to-date current literature to assess this. SEARCH METHODS: inclusion criteria included epidemiological longitudinal studies published up to September 2014, in participants without cognitive impairment based on evidence of cognitive assessment and aged 30 or over at baseline assessment with at least 2 years of follow-up...
January 2016: Age and Ageing
T Hawro, A Bogucki, M Krupińska-Kun, M Maurer, A Woźniacka
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychiatric (NP) lupus, a common manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is still insufficiently understood, in part, because of the lack of specific biomarkers. Neuron specific enolase (NSE), an important neuronal glycolytic enzyme, shows increased serum levels following acute brain injury, and decreased serum levels in several chronic disorders of the nervous system, including multi infarct dementia, multiple sclerosis and depression. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum NSE levels in SLE patients with and without nervous system involvement, and in healthy controls, and to assess the correlation of NSE serum levels of patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) with clinical parameters...
December 2015: Lupus
Tanju Surmeli, Emin Eralp, Ilhan Mustafazade, Hadi Kos, Gül Elif Özer, Orkun H Surmeli
Dementia is a debilitating degenerative disorder where the sufferer's cognitive abilities decline over time, depending on the type of dementia. The more common types of dementia include Alzheimer's disease and vascular or multi-infarct dementia. In this study, 20 subjects with dementia (9 of Alzheimer's type, and 11 with vascular dementia) were treated using qEEG-guided neurofeedback training. The Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used as the primary outcome measure. The results showed an increase of the MMSE scores for all subjects regardless of dementia type with an average MMSE score increase of 6 points, which was found to be significant...
April 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
M S Bhatia, Priyanka Gautam, Jaswinder Kaur
Ekbom Syndrome is characterized by delusion that small living being infests skin. The clinical profile of this disorder has shown it to be associated with organic conditions. Neuroimaging studies implicate putamen as the brain structure involved in the pathophysiology. These are also known as organic delusional disorder and provide an opportunity to study biological causation of delusional disorder. We report a patient presented with a complaint of insects crawling on her body for last two years. She collected the peeled skin in a jar and claimed that these are insects...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Fang Li, Chao-Qun Yan, Li-Ting Lin, Hui Li, Xiang-Hong Zeng, Yi Liu, Si-Qi Du, Wen Zhu, Cun-Zhi Liu
BACKGROUND: Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity. METHODS: Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension. Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Antje Schmidt, Kai Diederich, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Birgit Geng, Maike Hoppen, Thomas Duning, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz, Jens Minnerup
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In spite of its high disease burden, there is no specific treatment for multi-infarct dementia. The preclinical evaluation of candidate drugs is limited because an appropriate animal model is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether a mouse model of recurrent photothrombotic stroke is suitable for the preclinical investigation of multi-infarct dementia. METHODS: Recurrent photothrombotic cortical infarcts were induced in 25 adult C57BL/6 mice...
April 2015: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Kurt A Jellinger
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) defines a continuum of disorders ranging from mild cognitive impairment to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Major morphological types - multi-infarct encephalopathy, strategic infarct type, subcortical arteriosclerotic leukoencephalopathy, multilacunar state, postischemic encephalopathy - result from systemic, cardiac and local large or small vessel disease. Cognitive decline is commonly caused by widespread small cerebrovascular lesions (CVLs) affecting regions/networks essential for cognition, memory and behavior...
2014: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Qian-Qian Li, Guang-Xia Shi, Jing-Wen Yang, Zhao-Xin Li, Zhen-Hua Zhang, Tian He, Jing Wang, Li-Ying Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu
Acupuncture has beneficial effects in vascular dementia (VaD) patients. The underlying mechanism, however, remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate whether the cAMP/PKA/CREB cascade is involved in the mechanism of acupuncture in cerebral multi-infarction rats. In this study, cerebral multi-infarction was modeled in adult Wistar rats by homologous blood clot emboli. After a two-week acupuncture treatment at Zusanli (ST36), hippocampal-dependent memory was tested by employing a radial arm maze test...
February 2015: Physiology & Behavior
Xiude Qin, Yu Liu, Yanqing Wu, Shuo Wang, Dandan Wang, Jinqiang Zhu, Qiaofeng Ye, Wei Mou, Liyuan Kang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of patients with vascular dementia. DATA RETRIEVAL: We retrieved publications from Cochrane Library (2004 to July 2011), PubMed (1966 to July 2011), the Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1977 to July 2011), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 to July 2011), Google Scholar (July 2011), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1977 to July 2011) using the key words "Chinese medicine OR Chinese herbal medicine" and "vascular dementia OR mild cognition impair OR multi-infarct dementia OR small-vessel dementia OR strategic infarct dementia OR hypoperfusion dementia OR hemorrhagic dementia OR hereditary vascular dementia"...
June 25, 2013: Neural Regeneration Research
Samir Al-Adawi, Nady Braidy, Musthafa Essa, Faisal Al-Azri, Samir Hussain, Nasser Al-Sibani, Jabar Al-Khabouri, Abdullah Al-Asmi, Ali Al-Mashani
BACKGROUND: Studies on neurocognitive impairment among patients presenting with multi-infarct dementia (MID) have received little attention from non-Western societies, and the Arab world is no exception. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize neurocognitive, affective and vegetative functioning in patients with MID in Oman. METHODS: In this study, we recruited 20 Omani patients presenting with MID and age- and gender-matched controls at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Behavioral Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman...
May 2014: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Meena Gupta, Abhijit Dasgupta, Geeta Anjum Khwaja, Debashish Chowdhury, Yogesh Patidar, Amit Batra
BACKGROUND: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) cause significant patient and caregiver morbidity in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Objectives. To study and compare the occurrence and severity of BPSD between multi-infarct dementia (MID), subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD), and strategic infarct subtypes of poststroke VCI and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms with the severity of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Sixty patients with poststroke VCI were classified into MID, SIVD, and strategic infarct subtypes...
2014: Behavioural Neurology
B K Puri, S W Lewis
Cranial single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT or SPET) can now give regional cerebral blood flow images with a resolution approaching that of positron emission tomography (PET). In this paper, the use of high resolution SPECT neuroimaging in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Korsakoff's psychosis, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, HIV infection and AIDS is reviewed...
1992: Behavioural Neurology
John K Maesaka, Bali Sodam, Thomas Palaia, Louis Ragolia, Vecihi Batuman, Nobuyuki Miyawaki, Shubha Shastry, Steven Youmans, Marwan El-Sabban
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines have all been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVES: The present study identifies the apoptotic factor that was responsible for the fourfold increase in apoptotic rates that we previously noted when pig proximal tubule, LLC-PK1, cells were exposed to AD plasma as compared to plasma from normal controls and multi-infarct dementia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The apoptotic factor was isolated from AD urine and identified as lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS)...
July 2013: Journal of Nephropathology
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