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Medical microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346651/bipartite-network-analysis-of-gene-sharings-in-the-microbial-world
#1
Eduardo Corel, Raphaël Méheust, Andrew K Watson, James O McInerney, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
Extensive microbial gene flows affect how we understand virology, microbiology, medical sciences, genetic modification and evolutionary biology. Phylogenies only provide a narrow view of these gene flows: plasmids and viruses, lacking core genes, cannot be attached to cellular life on phylogenetic trees. Yet viruses and plasmids have a major impact on cellular evolution, affecting both the gene content and the dynamics of microbial communities. Using bipartite graphs that connect up to 149,000 clusters of homologous genes with 8217 related and unrelated genomes, we can in particular show patterns of gene sharing that do not map neatly with the organismal phylogeny...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346252/sarcoidosis-with-pleural-effusion-as-the-presenting-symptom
#2
Estefania Rivera, Yaron Gesthalter, Paul Vardelaan, Alex Chee, Adnan Majid
A 65-year-old woman, never smoker, with medical history of hypertension, nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and moderate pulmonary hypertension presented with symptomatic bilateral pleural effusions. Thoracentesis revealed a lymphocyte predominant transudate and was negative for malignancy, microbiologic cultures were negative for an infectious cause. Chest tomography showed mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, lymph node biopsy with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration showed non-necrotizing granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344458/case-based-learning-in-microbiology-observations-from-a-north-west-indian-medical-college
#3
Anita Singhal
Background: Microbiology is usually taught by conventional lectures, and its retention and application is observed to be poor among medical graduates/practitioners. Aim and Objectives: Introduction of case-based learning (CBL) in microbiology for second-year professional MBBS students. Materials and Methods: Students were divided into two groups of fifty each. Four clinical cases were used for CBL. One group had two CBL sessions whereas the other had didactic lectures (DLs) and then the groups were crossed over...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344356/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-bacteremia
#4
Swati Patolia, Getahun Abate, Nirav Patel, Setu Patolia, Sharon Frey
Background: The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms is increasing along with mortality. Identifying risk factors for the development of MDR Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteremia could greatly impact patient care and management. Methods: Data from the electronic health record of patients with GNB over 13-month period were collected at a single university medical center. Baseline demographic data, risk factor, microbiological data, recurrence of bacteremia, and mortality were recorded...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342469/the-2017-update-of-the-german-clinical-guideline-on-epidemiology-diagnostics-therapy-prevention-and-management-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-adult-patients-part%C3%A2-1
#5
Jennifer Kranz, Stefanie Schmidt, Cordula Lebert, Laila Schneidewind, Falitsa Mandraka, Mirjam Kunze, Sina Helbig, Winfried Vahlensieck, Kurt Naber, Guido Schmiemann, Florian M Wagenlehner
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, -EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to identify literature published in 2010-2015...
January 17, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340490/accuracy-of-closed-pleural-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-malignant-pleural-effusion
#6
Renata Báez-Saldaña, Uriel Rumbo-Nava, Araceli Escobar-Rojas, Patricia Castillo-González, Santiago León-Dueñas, Teresa Aguirre-Pérez, María Eugenia Vázquez-Manríquez
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that closed pleural biopsy (CPB) has a sensitivity of less than 60% for diagnosing malignancy. Therefore, controversy has recently emerged regarding the value of CPB as a diagnostic test. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of CPB in diagnosing malignancy in patients with pleural effusion. METHODS: This was a prospective 8-year study of individuals who underwent CPB to establish the etiology of pleural effusion...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339393/early-clinical-assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-finafloxacin-compared-to-ciprofloxacin-in-sub-sets-of-microbiologically-characterized-isolates
#7
Andreas Vente, Christine Bentley, Mark Lückermann, Paul Tambyah, Axel Dalhoff
INTRODUCTION: Two phase II studies were performed in patients with uncomplicated (uUTI) and complicated urinary tract infections or acute pyelonephritis (cUTI/PN) to compare finafloxacin (300 mg b.i.d, p.o. for uUTI 800 mg q.d., i.v. for cUTI/PN) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg b.i.d, p.o. for uUTI and 400 mg b.i.d., i.v. for cUTI/PN). The early response to the study medications was evaluated in the microbiological-intent-to treat population (mITT) at day 3. RESULTS: 21% of the isolates were ciprofloxacin-resistant, 13...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338140/primary-pyomyositis-in-north-india-a-clinical-microbiological-and-outcome-study
#8
Susheel Kumar, Ashish Bhalla, Rajveer Singh, Navneet Sharma, Aman Sharma, Vikas Gautam, Surjit Singh, Subhash Varma
Background/Aims: Pyomyositis is an infective condition with primary involvement of the skeletal muscles. There is sparse recent literature on patients with pyomyositis. Methods: This study was carried out at emergency services of a tertiary care center located in subtropical area of Indian subcontinent. Results: Sixty-two patients of primary pyomyositis formed the study cohort. Mean age of occurrence was 29.9 ± 14.8 years. There were 54 men...
January 18, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329922/a-multistate-investigation-of-health-care-associated-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-related-to-liquid-docusate-sodium-contamination-january-october-2016
#9
Janet Glowicz, Matthew Crist, Carolyn Gould, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Judith Noble-Wang, Tom J B de Man, K Allison Perry, Zachary Miller, William C Yang, Stephen Langille, Jessica Ross, Bobbiejean Garcia, Janice Kim, Erin Epson, Stephanie Black, Massimo Pacilli, John J LiPuma, Ryan Fagan
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have been associated with medical devices and water-based products. Water is the most common raw ingredient in nonsterile liquid drugs, and the significance of organisms recovered from microbiologic testing during manufacturing is assessed using a risk-based approach. This incident demonstrates that lapses in manufacturing practices and quality control of nonsterile liquid drugs can have serious unintended consequences...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327781/treatment-with-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-patients-with-pyogenic-liver-abscess
#10
D Bettinger, D Martin, S Rieg, M Schultheiss, N Buettner, R Thimme, T Boettler
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are often used in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux and peptic ulcer disease. A higher risk for infectious diseases and for pyogenic liver abscess has been reported in patients with prolonged PPI intake. Although many patients have ongoing PPI treatment after diagnosis of liver abscess, there are no data available that focus on the prognostic impact of PPI treatment in these patients. AIM: To analyse the effect of PPI treatment on mortality in patients with pyogenic liver abscesses...
January 12, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326340/rare-cause-of-pulmonary-cavitation-in-a-75-year-old-man
#11
Jaffar Al-Sheikhli, Hussein Taqi, John Drake, Ayaaz Habib
A 75-year-old man of Asian descent presented to the acute medical unit with signs and symptoms suggestive of a community-acquired pneumonia. He had multiple comorbidities and was relatively immunocompromised as a result. Initial investigations supported the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia complicated by a cavitating lung lesion, and the patient was treated as per hospital guidelines. He continued to deteriorate despite appropriate therapy and developed a hydropneumothorax, requiring the insertion of a chest drain...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325198/-hygienic-inspections-of-ventilation-systems-under-resting-conditions-according-to-din-1946-4-1999-03-a-retrospective-assessment
#12
Lena Friedrich, Irina Boeckelmann
BACKGROUND: Hygienic and microbiologically sterile air quality is essential for successful guideline-based work in operating theatres. To ensure clean air and to reduce contamination during surgery, ventilation systems are indispensable. Ventilation systems should be especially designed to keep the number of particles and germs under statutory limits. Therefore, they must be operated to recognised standards of good practice and be periodically inspected and maintained. The objective of this study was to prove, through the analysis of observation outside surgery time (rest condition), the effects of ventilation systems on air quality in a medical facility...
January 11, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319521/polish-physicians-attitudes-towards-antibiotic-prescription-and-antimicrobial-resistance
#13
Beata Mazińska, Waleria Hryniewicz
Antimicrobial resistance has been one of the biggest global current issues in medicine and public health. Overuse and imprudent use of antimicrobial agents are recognized as one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes of Polish physicians practicing at the community level towards antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of physicians taking part in the survey believed that Polish people overuse antibiotics (98%). Most physicians (91%) considered that antimicrobial resistance is a major problem at present...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319029/clinical-and-pulmonary-functions-profiling-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-experiencing-frequent-acute-exacerbations
#14
Prem Parkash Gupta, Manjunath B Govidagoudar, Rohtas Yadav, Dipti Agarwal
PURPOSE: The present study aimed at clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to anticipate future exacerbations. METHODS: The study included 80 COPD patients; 40 patients had ≥2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (frequent exacerbation [FECOPD] group) and 40 patients had <2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (infrequent exacerbation [I-FECOPD] group). Clinical profile, sputum microbiology, blood gas analysis, spirometric indices, and diffusion capacity (transfer test) variables were assessed...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318136/pleural-tuberculosis-medical-thoracoscopy-greatly-increases-the-diagnostic-accuracy
#15
Angelo Gianni Casalini, Pier Anselmo Mori, Maria Majori, Miriam Anghinolfi, Enrico Maria Silini, Letizia Gnetti, Federica Motta, Sandra Larini, Sara Montecchini, Roberta Pisi, Adriana Calderaro
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a standardised work-up in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) that included fibreoptic bronchoscopy and medical thoracoscopy. A consecutive series of 52 pleural TB patients observed during the period 2001-2015 was evaluated retrospectively. 20 females, mean (range) age 39.7 (18-74) years, and 32 males, mean (range) age 45.75 (21-83) years, were included (28 non-EU citizens (53.8%)). The diagnosis of TB infections was established by identification (using stains, culture or molecular tests) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the pleura, sputum and/or bronchial specimens, or by evidence of caseous granulomas on pleural biopsies...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313312/influence-of-single-dose-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-early-onset-pneumonia-in-high-risk-intubated-patients
#16
Timothy D Lewis, Kelly A Dehne, Kathryn Morbitzer, Denise H Rhoney, Casey Olm-Shipman, J Dedrick Jordan
BACKGROUND: Early-onset pneumonia (EOP) after endotracheal intubation is common among critically ill patients with a neurologic injury and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study observed outcomes pre- and post-implementation of an EOP prophylaxis protocol which involved the administration of a single dose of ceftriaxone 2 g around the time of intubation. The study included patients ≥ 18 years who were admitted to the University of North Carolina Medical Center (UNCMC) neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) between April 1, 2014, and October 26, 2016, and intubated for ≥ 72 h...
January 8, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313096/editorship-for-medical-microbiology-and-immunology-the-baton-has-been-passed-on
#17
EDITORIAL
H W Doerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312739/the-role-of-bacterial-culture-by-bronchoscopy-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-a-prospective-study
#18
Matthew Koslow, Gali Epstein Shochet, Alona Matveychuk, Lilach Israeli-Shani, Alexander Guber, David Shitrit
Background: Patients with lung cancer undergoing surgical and medical treatment are at increased risk for pulmonary complications. The importance of routine bronchoscopy procedure in populations with lung cancer has rarely been defined. We aimed to determine the growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPM) among patients evaluated by bronchoscopy for lung cancer. Methods: This prospective study included 155 consecutive patients with lung mass or radiologic findings suspicious for malignancy...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312659/healthcare-associated-infection-and-its-risk-factors-among-patients-admitted-to-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia-longitudinal-study
#19
Solomon Ali, Melkamu Birhane, Sisay Bekele, Gebre Kibru, Lule Teshager, Yonas Yilma, Yesuf Ahmed, Netsanet Fentahun, Henok Assefa, Mulatu Gashaw, Esayas Kebede Gudina
Background: Healthcare associated infection (HAI) is alarmingly increasing in low income settings. In Ethiopia, the burden of HAI is still not well described. Methods: Longitudinal study was conducted from May to September, 2016. All wards of Jimma University Medical Centre were included. The incidence, prevalence and risk factors of healthcare associated infection were determined. A total of 1015 admitted patients were followed throughout their hospital stay. Biological specimens were collected from all patients suspected to have hospital aquired infection...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309172/sanitary-conditions-in-the-austrohungarian-war-harbour-pola-pula-croatia-in-1916-17-foundation-of-the-hygienic-institute
#20
Ana Alebić-Juretić
Since 1850 the town of Pola (today Pula, Croatia) underwent big changes and growth due to its transformation into the principal military port of Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Besides the Admiralty that governed the naval actions, the harbor was supported by different organizations needed for normal functioning of the harbor. One of this organizations was Naval Technical Committee (Marine Technisches Komitee), founded in 1874 with the purpose of solving the technical and technological issues related to the navy...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
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