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Medical microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731005/preparing-medical-students-with-congenital-colour-vision-deficiency-for-safe-practice
#1
Rajat Dhingra, Jolly Rohatgi, Upreet Dhaliwal
BACKGROUND: Colour vision of candidates is tested in many medical colleges in India at the time of admission to undergraduate courses; however, there are no guidelines, and therefore no counselling, on how students with congenital colour vision deficiency (CCVD) should negotiate the medical course, and how best they can practise safely after graduation. Problems in interpreting coloured signs may lead to misdiagnosis. This study aimed to explore difficulties during clinical work that requires colour discrimination, and to offer suggestions on safe practice based on the findings and a review of the literature...
January 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729206/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital-a-six-year-study
#2
Shima Mahmoudi, Masoumeh Mahzari, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohsen Mohammadi, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children all over the world. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) isolated from bloodstream infections (BSIs) in children admitted to the Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data of the patients with positive blood cultures was collected from March 2011 to September 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714050/superiority-of-the-sonication-method-against-conventional-periprosthetic-tissue-cultures-for-diagnosis-of-prosthetic-joint-infections
#3
Sofia Tani, Panagiotis Lepetsos, Antonios Stylianakis, John Vlamis, Konstantinos Birbas, Ioannis Kaklamanos
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of periprosthetic infections is challenging. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional periprosthetic tissue culture and culture of sonication fluid of the explanted prostheses. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 114 patients undergoing revision hip or knee arthroplasty because of loosening of the prostheses, at our institution, between July 2012 and July 2016. Patients' medical history and demographic characteristics were recorded...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709439/enhanced-antimicrobial-de-escalation-for-pneumonia-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-cross-over-study
#4
Tracy Trupka, Kristen Fisher, Scott T Micek, Paul Juang, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are commonly administered to hospitalized patients with infiltrates for possible bacterial pneumonia, often leading to unnecessary treatment and increasing the risk for resistance emergence. Therefore, we performed a study to determine if an enhanced antibiotic de-escalation practice could improve antibiotic utilization in mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia cared for in an academic closed intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This was a prospective cross-over trial comparing routine antibiotic management (RAM) and enhanced antimicrobial de-escalation (EAD) performed within two medical ICUs (total 34 beds) at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, an academic referral center...
July 15, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708218/microbial-characteristics-of-posttraumatic-infective-keratitis
#5
Blanche X Lim, Victor T C Koh, Manotosh Ray
PURPOSE: To determine the demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcome of posttraumatic infective keratitis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with posttraumatic infective keratitis presenting to the Ophthalmology Department of a tertiary referral hospital in Singapore between March 2012 and March 2016 were prospectively identified. A standardized data collection form was used to document patient demographics, microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic sensitivity, and pretreatment and posttreatment ocular characteristics...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706959/sensitivity-specificity-and-predictive-values-of-anterior-chamber-tap-in-cases-of-bacterial-endophthalmitis
#6
Carl Sjoholm-Gomez de Liano, Vidal F Soberon-Ventura, Guillermo Salcedo-Villanueva, Abril Santos-Palacios, Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo, Jans Fromow-Guerra, Gerardo García-Aguirre, Virgilio Morales-Canton, Raul Velez-Montoya
BACKGROUND: To assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of anterior chamber tap for the diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis on a population with high prevalence. METHODS: Retrospective, single centre, case series study. We reviewed all medical records with clinical diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis in our hospital from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st 2014. From each record, we documented general demographic data, best corrected visual acuity and vitreous and aqueous tap microbiological results...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704470/mammary-candidiasis-a-medical-condition-without-scientific-evidence
#7
Esther Jiménez, Rebeca Arroyo, Nivia Cárdenas, María Marín, Pilar Serrano, Leonides Fernández, Juan M Rodríguez
Many physicians, midwives and lactation consultants still believe that yeasts (particularly Candida spp.) play an important role as an agent of nipple and breast pain despite the absolute absence of scientific proofs to establish such association. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the microorganisms involved in sore nipples and/or painful "shooting" breastfeeding by using a variety of microscopy techniques, as well as culture-dependent and-independent identification methods. Initially, 60 women (30 diagnosed as suffering "mammary candidiasis" and 30 with no painful breastfeeding) were recruited to elucidate the role of their pumps on the milk microbial profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693489/inducible-clindamycin-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-kathmandu-nepal
#8
R P Adhikari, S Shrestha, A Barakoti, R Amatya
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus, an important nosocomial pathogen, is frequently associated with infections in human. The management of the infections by it especially methicillin resistant ones is often difficult because methicillin resistant S. aureus is usually resistant to multiple antibiotics. Macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B family of antibiotics is commonly used to treat such infections as an alternative to vancomycin. METHODS: This study was conducted over the period of one and half year from November 2013-April 2015 in Microbiology laboratory of Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal to find the incidence of different phenotypes of MLSB resistance among S...
July 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691467/bidirectional-flux-of-fluids-and-microbiota-at-implant-abutment-connection-of-fmd-storm-implant-system-an-in-vitro-stud-y-using-rt-pcr
#9
A Baj, M Romano, E Segna, A Palmieri, F Cura, A Scarano, L Ottria, A B Giannì
The purpose of the present microbiological study was to evaluate bacterial leakage at implant-abutment connection level of a new type of implant (Storm implant (FMD, Falappa Medical Devices®, Rome, Italy) using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). This implant presents a polygonal external implantabutment connection with a geometry that provides a hex on which engage complementary abutments. To identify the capability of the implant to protect the internal space from the external environment, the passage of genetically modified Escherichia coli across implant-abutment interface was evaluated...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690730/septic-arthritis-of-the-pubis-symphysis-clinical-and-therapeutic-features
#10
Zeineb Alaya, Houneida Zaghouani, Walid Osman, Lassad Hassini, Nader Naouar, Mohamed Laziz Ben Ayèche, Elyès Bouajina
Septic arthritis of the pubis symphysis is rare and difficult to diagnose. The objective of our study was to describe the biological, clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspects of this disease. This is a retrospective study of 4 cases of septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis collected in the Department of Rheumatology and Orthopaedics in Sousse in Tunisia over a period of 16 years (2000-2016). Our population consists of 3 women and one men. The mean age was 47 years (18-83). Clinical signs of appeal were inflammatory groin pain, pubic pain and fever...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687186/evaluation-of-a-new-packaging-process-for-non-autoclavable-endoscopes-results-for-the-first-100-microbiological-samples
#11
C Minebois, P Saviuc, J Shum, P Tuvignon, I Pelloux, M-P Brenier-Pinchart, C Landelle, M-R Mallaret
BACKGROUND: A new process for packaging endoscopes (SureStore(®), Medical Innovations Group) immediately after they exit from washing and disinfection in an automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) allows for endoscopes to be stored for up to 15 days. AIM: To describe the microbiological quality of samples from gastrointestinal endoscopes following this process. METHODS: Three-month prospective study using microbiological sampling from a stock of 38 gastrointestinal endoscopes carried out in a French University Hospital...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681804/statistical-analysis-of-microbiological-diagnostic-tests
#12
REVIEW
C P Baveja, Prabhav Aggarwal
No study in medical science is complete without application of the statistical principles. Incorrect application of statistical tests causes incorrect interpretation of the study results obtained through hard work. Yet statistics remains one of the most neglected and loathed areas, probably due to the lack of understanding of the basic principles. In microbiology, rapid progress is being made in the field of diagnostic test, and a huge number of studies being conducted are related to the evaluation of these tests...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680588/incidence-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-nosocomial-enterococcus-spp-bloodstream-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-beijing-china-a-four-year-retrospective-study
#13
Yangyang Zhang, Mingmei Du, Yan Chang, Liang-An Chen, Qing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus spp. are the common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical and microbiological features, and mortality of nosocomial enterococcal BSIs at a large Chinese tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study on adult patients with nosocomial BSIs due to Enterococcus spp. was performed between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015 at the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678609/randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-multi-strain-probiotic-on-the-mucosal-microbiota-in-canine-idiopathic-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Robin White, Todd Atherly, Blake Guard, Giacomo Rossi, Chong Wang, Curtis Mosher, Craig Webb, Steve Hill, Mark Ackermann, Peter Sciabarra, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski, Albert E Jergens
The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. While studies have reported alterations in fecal (luminal) microbial populations, only limited information is available about the mucosal microbiota of IBD dogs at diagnosis and following medical therapy. Our aim was to characterize the mucosal microbiota and determine the clinical, microbiological, and mucosal homeostatic effects of probiotic treatment in dogs with IBD. Thirty four IBD dogs were randomized to receive standard therapy (ST = diet + prednisone) with or without probiotic...
July 5, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675248/quick-bacteriophage-mediated-bioluminescence-assay-for-detecting-staphylococcus-spp-in-sonicate-fluid-of-orthopaedic-artificial-joints
#15
Katja Šuster, Aleš Podgornik, Andrej Cör
Staphylococcus spp. accounts for up to two thirds of all microorganisms causing prosthetic joint infections, with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis being the major cause. The present study describes a diagnostic model to detect staphylococci using a specific bacteriophage and bioluminescence detection, exploring the possibility of its use on sonicate fluid of orthopaedic artificial joints. Intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate release by bacteriophage mediated lysis of staphylococci was assessed to determine optimal parameters for detection...
July 4, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674056/clinical-features-of-breakthrough-acinetobacter-bacteremia-during-carbapenem-therapy-a-multicenter-study
#16
Yi-Tzu Lee, Yung-Chih Wang, Shu-Chen Kuo, Chung-Ting Chen, Chang-Pan Liu, Yuag-Meng Liu, Te-Li Chen, Ya-Sung Yang
Breakthrough Acinetobacter bacteremia during carbapenem therapy is not uncommon and creates therapeutic dilemmas for clinicians. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of breakthrough Acinetobacter bacteremia during carbapenem therapy and to assess the efficacy of various antimicrobial therapies. We analyzed 100 adults who developed breakthrough Acinetobacter bacteremia during carbapenem therapy at 4 medical centers over a 6-year period. Their 30-day mortality rate was 57...
July 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665797/surveillance-of-bacterial-colonisation-on-contact-surfaces-in-different-medical-wards
#17
Karmen Godič Torkar, Sanja Ivić
This study was conducted to determine the bacterial colonization of some bacterial groups, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) producers and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), on surfaces of the equipment and instruments in patient rooms and other workspaces in three different medical wards. The number of microorganisms on swabs was determined with the colony count method on selective microbiological mediums. The aerobic mesophylic microorganisms were found in 73.5 % out of 102 samples, with the average and maximum values of 2...
June 27, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665245/prophylactic-use-of-intraoperative-vancomycin-powder-and-postoperative-infection-an-analysis-of-microbiological-patterns-in-1200-consecutive-surgical-cases
#18
Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Amanda Sergesketter, Victoria D Vuong, Ankit I Mehta, Raul A Vasquez, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A Bagley, Isaac O Karikari
OBJECTIVE Wound infections following spinal surgery for deformity place a high toll on patients, providers, and the health care system. The prophylactic application of intraoperative vancomycin powder has been shown to lower the infection risk after thoracolumbar decompression and fusion for deformity correction. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological patterns of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) after prophylactic use of vancomycin powder in adult patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663673/spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-by-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-a-rare-difficult-to-treat-infection-in-decompensated-cirrhotic-patients
#19
Sunil Taneja, Pramod Kumar, Vikas Gautam, Ajay Duseja, Virendra Singh, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
INTRODUCTION: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is non-fermenting Gram-negative bacillus and has been rarely reported to cause spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in decompensated cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: This study was done to evaluate the clinical presentation of cirrhotic patients with SBP due to Bcc and to determine its impact on clinical outcome. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational study conducted during the period from 1st January 2013 through 31st March 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663048/evaluation-of-continuous-irrigation-and-drainage-with-double-cavity-sleeve-tube-in-the-treatment-of-brain-abscess-46-patients-report
#20
Zhenxing Yang, Li Du, Renzhong Liu, Zhihong Jian, Yu Wan
BACKGROUND: Brain abscesses carries a high morbidity and mortality despite medical advances, it continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in the world. Traditional two surgical methods (burr hole aspiration and craniotomy) used as treatment for brain abscess both have its advantage and disadvantage and remain controversial. Today we present a single institution's experience with the improvement surgical treatment of brain abscess. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 46 cases of intracranial abscess who underwent continuous irrigation and drainage with double cavity sleeve tube surgical treatment and conjunction with 4 weeks of intravenous cefotaxime and metronidazole in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan university between January 2008 and December 2016...
June 26, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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