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Medical microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153063/-investigation-of-various-virulence-factors-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-nosocomial-infections
#1
Halit Kuş, Uğur Arslan, Hatice Türk Dağı, Duygu Fındık
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly affects immunosuppressed patients and causes nosocomial infections. K.pneumoniae has a variety of virulence factors, especially capsule polysaccharide, hypermucoviscosity (HV), fimbriae, toxins and determinants for iron acquisition. The aim of this study was to detect the virulence factors in K.pneumoniae strains isolated from nosocomial infections in two years. Fifty three K.pneumoniae strains isolated from the samples of patients with nosocomial infections in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Selcuk University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151995/the-molecular-study-of-antibiotic-resistance-to-quinolones-in-salmonella-enterica-strains-isolated-in-tehran-iran
#2
Shirin Malehmir, Reza Ranjbar, Naser Harzandi
Introduction: Salmonella is known as one of the most important causes of gastrointestinal disease in the world. Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are used successfully in the treatment of salmonellosis particularly for infections that have become resistant to several antibiotics. But non-susceptible isolates to quinolones have been reported in several countries. The data are limited about the prevalence of quinolone-resistant isolates in our country. Therefore, this study investigated the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Salmonella enterica isolated in Children's Medical Center in Tehran during 2014-2015...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151051/subclinical-propionibacterium-acnes-infection-estimation-in-the-intervertebral-disc-spine-id-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort
#3
Nelson Astur, Delio E Martins, Marcelo Wajchenberg, Mario Ferretti, Fernando G Menezes, Andre M Doi, Laercio A Rosemberg, Durval C B Santos, Alexandre S Iutaka, Luciano M R Rodrigues, Marines D V Martino, Jorge R Pagura, Eduardo N Kihara Filho, Mario Lenza
INTRODUCTION: Low back pain and vertebral endplate abnormalities are common conditions within the population. Subclinical infection caused by indolent pathogens can potentially lead to these findings, with differentiation between them notably challenging from a clinical perspective. Progressive infection of the intervertebral disc has been extensively associated with increasing low back pain, with Propionibacterium acnes specifically implicated with in relation to sciatica. The main purpose of this study is to identify if the presence of an infective pathogen within the intervertebral disc is primary or is a result of intraoperative contamination, and whether this correlates to low back pain...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150218/keratitis-secondary-to-fusarium-spp-in-spain-2012-2014
#4
M A Mosquera Gordillo, N Barón Cano, A Garralda Luquin, C López Gutiérrez, E Mengual Verdú, G Trujillo Cabrera, J M Garrido Fierro, J Lamarca Mateu, J C Sánchez España, P Marticorena Álvarez, R Feijoó Lera, S Martín Nalda, T Marti Huguet, V Gacía Conca
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of a case series of fungal keratitis associated with Fusarium spp.., in Spain during the years 2012 to 2014. METHODS: A retrospective study of a case series was conducted on a systematic random sample of 10% of patients identified in Health Centres of provincial capitals (n=250). The centres were asked whether they had been presented with cases of Fusarium spp. keratitis characterised by microbiological methods...
November 14, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146038/microbiological-monitoring-of-medical-devices-after-cleaning-disinfection-and-sterilisation
#5
Rosa María Blázquez-Garrido, Eva Cuchí-Burgos, Carmen Martín-Salas, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa
The use of reusable semi-critical devices has been extended in current medical practice for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, reuse of these instruments carries the risk of cross-transmission of microorganisms from one patient to another. The process of cleaning and disinfecting these devices is complex, long, expensive and very error-prone. This paper analyses the epidemiological aspects of infections associated with the reuse of semi-critical devices and the role of the Microbiology laboratory in monitoring the cleaning and disinfecting process through microbiological controls...
November 13, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140439/bivalent-vaccine-effectiveness-against-type-specific-hpv-positivity-evidence-for-cross-protection-against-oncogenic-types-among-dutch-sti-clinic-visitors
#6
Petra J Woestenberg, Audrey J King, Birgit H B van Benthem, Robine Donken, Suzan Leussink, Fiona R M van der Klis, Hester E de Melker, Marianne A B van der Sande, Christian J P A Hoebe, Johannes A Bogaards
Background: Observational post-marketing studies are important to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE). We estimated VE from the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against HPV positivity of vaccine and non-vaccine types in a high-risk population. Methods: We included all vaccine-eligible women from the PASSYON study, a biennial cross-sectional survey in Dutch sexually transmitted infection clinics. Vaginal swabs were analyzed using a PCR-based assay (SPF10-LiPA25) able to detect the 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types 16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137578/predictive-value-of-quick-sepsis-related-organ-failure-scores-following-sepsis-related-medical-emergency-team-calls-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
D Boulos, Y Shehabi, J A Moghaddas, M Birrell, A Choy, V Giang, J Nguyen, T Hall, S Le
We conducted a cohort study of adult ward patients who had a Medical Emergency Team (MET) call triggered by confirmed or suspected sepsis in an Australian tertiary centre to assess the predictive utility of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and quick Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) scores for 28-day mortality over a 12-month period. Sepsis was the causative aetiology in 970 MET calls for 646 patients with a mean age of 68 years and median Charlson Comorbidity score (CCS) of 3.0...
November 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133630/non-contact-lens-related-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#8
REVIEW
Prashant Garg, Paavan Kalra, Joveeta Joseph
The purpose of the study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) with special focus on the disease in nonusers of contact lenses (CLs). This study was a perspective based on authors' experience and review of published literature. AK accounts for 2% of microbiology-proven cases of keratitis. Trauma and exposure to contaminated water are the main predisposing factors for the disease. Association with CLs is seen only in small fraction of cases. Contrary to classical description experience in India suggests that out of proportion pain, ring infiltrate, and radial keratoneuritis are seen in less than a third of cases...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128389/the-impact-of-initial-antibiotic-treatment-failure-real-world-insights-in-patients-with-complicated-urinary-tract-infection
#9
Sudeep Karve, Kellie Ryan, Pascale Peeters, Elisa Baelen, Sonia Rojas-Farreras, Danielle Potter, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
OBJECTIVES: RECOMMEND (NCT02364284; D4280R00005) assessed treatment patterns and outcomes associated with initial antibiotic therapy (IAT; antibiotics received <48 h post-initiation of antibiotic therapy) in healthcare-associated infections across five countries. METHODS: Data from medical records of hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years with healthcare-associated complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) are presented. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified potential risk factors associated with IAT failure...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122404/are-we-ready-for-the-global-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-candida-auris-in-taiwan
#10
REVIEW
Po-Liang Lu, Wei-Lun Liu, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Fu-Der Wang, Wen-Chien Ko, Po-Ren Hsueh, Mao-Wang Ho, Chun-Eng Liu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Yee-Chun Chen, Yin-Ching Chuang, Shan-Chwen Chang
Candida auris is a recently identified multi-resistant Candida species, first reported in Japan in 2009, and poses a serious global health threat. Lack of awareness of this new Candida species and difficulties with laboratory identification have impacted significantly on outbreak detection and management, and compromised patient outcome. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to raise awareness of healthcare personnel to this emerging pathogen and determine its prevalence, impact, and challenges to the Taiwan healthcare system...
November 6, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121361/valved-25-gauge-cannula-for-vitreous-tap-and-injection
#11
Theodore Leng, Darius M Moshfeghi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To describe a technique that reduces patient discomfort by using a valved 25-gauge trocar for vitreous tap and intravitreal injection of medications in previously vitrectomized eyes with suspected infectious endophthalmitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A commercially available 25-gauge valved entry system is used to enter the vitreous cavity. A 25-gauge needle attached to a syringe is used to obtain a vitreous specimen for microbiological access and administer intravitreal injections of antibiotics and steroids...
November 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119077/osteomyelitis-of-the-pelvic-bones-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-treatment
#12
Maria Dudareva, Jamie Ferguson, Nicholas Riley, David Stubbs, Bridget Atkins, Martin McNally
Background and Purpose: A case series review of chronic pelvic osteomyelitis treated with combined medical and surgical treatment by a multidisciplinary team. Methods: All patients treated with surgical excision of pelvic osteomyelitis at our tertiary referral centre between 2002 and 2014 were included. All received combined care from a clinical microbiologist, an orthopaedic surgeon and a plastic surgeon. The rate of recurrent infection, wound healing problems and post-operative mortality was determined in all...
2017: Journal of bone and joint infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117324/intrapartum-antibiotic-chemoprophylaxis-policies-for-the-prevention-of-group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-systematic-review
#13
Kirsty Le Doare, Megan O'Driscoll, Kim Turner, Farah Seedat, Neal J Russell, Anna C Seale, Paul T Heath, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Margaret Ip, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Beate Kampmann
Background: Intrapartum antibiotic chemoprophylaxis (IAP) prevents most early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. However, there is no description of how IAP is used around the world. This article is the sixth in a series estimating the burden of GBS disease. Here we aimed to review GBS screening policies and IAP implementation worldwide. Methods: We identified data through (1) systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean [LILACS], World Health Organization library database [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and unpublished data from professional societies and (2) an online survey and searches of policies from medical societies and professionals...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116494/clinical-and-microbiological-effectiveness-of-photodynamic-therapy-on-primary-endodontic-infections-a-6-month-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Rachel Garcia de Miranda, Ana Paula Vieira Colombo
INTRODUCTION: This short-term randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on clinical success (periapical healing) and on the microbiota of primary endodontic infections. METHODS: Thirty-two patients presenting mandibular molars with apical periodontitis (one tooth/patient) were selected and randomly allocated into two therapeutic groups: control (chemo-mechanical debridement [CMD]; n = 16) and PDT (CMD + PDT; n = 16)...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114432/eye-related-trauma-and-infection-in-dentistry
#15
REVIEW
Hasan Ekmekcioglu, Meral Unur
Despite numerous technological and medical developments achieved in recent years, a significant amount of occupational health problems still exist in modern dentistry. The risk of eye injury is mostly attributed to the use of high-speed hand pieces and ultrasonic devices. A dental clinic may be the source of eye-related infection and injury because of mechanical, chemical, microbiological and electromagnetic irritants. Accidents may cause facial injuries that involve eyes of the clinicians, patients as well as dental assistants...
2017: J Istanb Univ Fac Dent
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112080/%C3%AE-lactam-therapeutic-drug-management-in-the-picu
#16
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Adela Enache, Arun Chopra
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether contemporary β-lactam anti-infective dosing recommendations in critically ill children achieve concentrations associated with maximal anti-infective activity. The secondary objective was to describe the microbiological and clinical outcomes associated with β-lactam therapeutic drug management. DESIGN: Electronic Medical Record Review. SETTING: A 189-bed, freestanding children's tertiary care teaching hospital in Philadelphia, PA...
November 3, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111996/microbial-keratitis-after-accelerated-corneal-collagen-cross-linking-in-keratoconus
#17
Prafulla K Maharana, Pranita Sahay, M Sujeeth, Deepali Singhal, Anubha Rathi, Jeewan S Titiyal, Namrata Sharma
PURPOSE: To assess the pattern of microbial keratitis after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linkage (aCXL) in patients with keratoconus. METHOD: The medical records of cases of keratoconus that underwent aCXL from June 2014 to May 2017 were reviewed. Cases that developed microbial keratitis after aCXL were included in the study. The clinical, microbiological profile and the treatment outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 532 eyes that underwent aCXL, 7 cases developed microbial keratitis during the study period...
November 2, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111622/medical-devices-immunology-and-microbiology-devices-classification-of-the-genetic-health-risk-assessment-system-final-order
#18
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is classifying the genetic health risk assessment system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the genetic health risk assessment system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device...
November 7, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110797/pre-anaesthetic-evaluation-of-the-patient-with-end-stage-lung-disease
#19
REVIEW
Mahesh Prabhu, Kamen Valchanov
Lung transplantation is a viable alternative for end-stage lung diseases, which offers good quality of life and survival outcomes for recipients. The aims of pre-assessment for potential lung transplant recipients are to assess fitness for surgery, optimise co-morbidities, commence interventions or investigations, weigh risk-benefit ratio, plan appropriate analgesia and obtain informed consent. The assessment information is gathered from the medical record, patient interview, physical examination and pre-operative tests...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108709/update-on-actinomucor-elegans-a-mucormycete-infrequently-detected-in-human-specimens-how-combined-microbiological-tools-contribute-efficiently-to-a-more-accurate-medical-care
#20
J Dorin, M D'Aveni, A Debourgogne, M Cuenin, M Guillaso, A Rivier, P Gallet, G Lecoanet, M Machouart
Actinomucor elegans is a fungus belonging to mucormycetes and is still probably underdiagnosed due to misidentification. Based on a recent first case of Actinomucor elegans sinusitis in Europe, in an immunocompromised patient under voriconazole treatment, this paper aims to summarize knowledge about A. elegans mucormycoses. Even if the diagnosis of mucormycosis was made using traditional mycology techniques, precise identification of the fungus could only be achieved using molecular tools. In this observation, the galactomannan dosage was positive until the introduction of treatment and surgical debridement...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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