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neuropeptide y

Viktoria Hasselhof, Anastasia Sperling, Kerstin Buttler, Philipp Ströbel, Jürgen Becker, Thiha Aung, Gunther Felmerer, Jörg Wilting
Millions of patients suffer from lymphedema worldwide. Supporting the contractility of lymphatic collectors is an attractive target for pharmacological therapy of lymphedema. However, lymphatics have mostly been studied in animals, while the cellular and molecular characteristics of human lymphatic collectors are largely unknown. We studied epifascial lymphatic collectors of the thigh, which were isolated for autologous transplantations. Our immunohistological studies identify additional markers for LECs (vimentin, CCBE1)...
2016: PloS One
R Lin, Q Wang, B Qi, Y Huang, G Yang
Neuromedin S (NMS), a 36-amino acid neuropeptide, has been found to be involved in the regulation of the endocrine activity. It has been also detected in immune tissues in mammals, what suggests that NMS may play an important role in the regulation of immune response. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of NMS receptor 1 (NMU1R) and effect of NMS in pig splenic lymphocytes (SPLs) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The presence of NMU1R in pig SPLs and PAMs was respectively confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunocytochemical methods...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Joon Kyungjoon Lim, Benjie Barzel, Sandra Burke
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects one third of the population around the world and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence that the main cause of hypertension is increases sympathetic nerve activity to specific organs. Plasma leptin levels correlate with blood pressure (BP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The central effects of leptin are mediated primarily through the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus. Both neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) containing neurons ascend from the ARC and terminate in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which are the key centres of energy homeostasis, hemodynamics and sympathetic tone to renal vasculature...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Naiyan Chen, Hiroki Sugihara, Jinah Kim, Zhanyan Fu, Boaz Barak, Mriganka Sur, Guoping Feng, Weiping Han
Multiple hypothalamic neuronal populations that regulate energy balance have been identified. Although hypothalamic glia exist in abundance and form intimate structural connections with neurons, their roles in energy homeostasis are less known. Here we show that selective Ca(2+) activation of glia in the mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) reversibly induces increased food intake while disruption of Ca(2+) signaling pathway in ARC glia reduces food intake. The specific activation of ARC glia enhances the activity of agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY)-expressing neurons but induces no net response in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons...
October 18, 2016: ELife
Roma Patel, Mitesh Dwivedi, Mohmmad Shoab Mansuri, Ansarullah, Naresh C Laddha, Ami Thakker, A V Ramachandran, Rasheedunnisa Begum
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is known to play a role in the regulation of satiety, energy balance, body weight, and insulin release. Interleukin-1beta (IL1B) has been associated with loss of beta-cell mass in type-II diabetes (TIID). OBJECTIVES: The present study attempts to investigate the association of NPY exon2 +1128 T/C (Leu7Pro; rs16139), NPY promoter -399 T/C (rs16147) and IL1B -511 C/T (rs16944) polymorphisms with TIID and their correlation with plasma lipid levels, BMI, and IL1B transcript levels...
2016: PloS One
Susana Galli, Arlene Naranjo, Collin Van Ryn, Jason U Tilan, Emily Trinh, Chao Yang, Jessica Tsuei, Sung-Hyeok Hong, Hongkun Wang, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Yi-Chien Lee, Olga C Rodriguez, Chris Albanese, Joanna Kitlinska
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric malignant neoplasm of sympathoadrenal origin. Challenges in its management include stratification of this heterogeneous disease and a lack of both adequate treatments for high-risk patients and noninvasive biomarkers of disease progression. Our previous studies have identified neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic neurotransmitter expressed in NB, as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors by virtue of its Y5 receptor (Y5R)-mediated chemoresistance and Y2 receptor (Y2R)-mediated proliferative and angiogenic activities...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Ermelinda Lomazzo, Florian König, Leila Abassi, Ruth Jelinek, Beat Lutz
Persistent stress triggers a variety of mechanisms, which may ultimately lead to the occurrence of anxiety- and depression-related disorders. Epigenetic modifications represent a mechanism by which chronic stress mediates long-term effects. Here, we analyzed brain tissue from mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which induced impaired emotional and nociceptive behaviors. As endocannabinoid (eCB) and neuropeptide-Y (Npy) systems modulate emotional processes, we hypothesized that CUS may affect these systems through epigenetic mechanisms...
October 10, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Helena Domin, Natalia Piergies, Dominika Święch, Ewa Pięta, Edyta Proniewicz
It has been suggested that the family of neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptides is a promising target for the neuroprotective therapy; therefore, knowledge of the structure of these biologically active compounds and their behavior at solid/liquid interface is important in order to design new analogues. Because there is still a lack of detailed information on the behavior of NPY and its mutated analogues at the solid/liquid interfaces, in this work surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis was used to investigate NPY and its native NPY(3-36), NPY(13-36), and NPY(22-36) and mutated acetyl-(Leu(28,31))-NPY(24-36)C-terminal fragments, acting on Y2 receptors (Y2R), in order to determine their possible metal surface/molecule interactions...
October 5, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
S Cohen, G Ifergane, E Vainer, M A Matar, Z Kaplan, J Zohar, A A Mathé, H Cohen
Pharmacotherapeutic intervention during traumatic memory consolidation has been suggested to alleviate or even prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We recently reported that, in a controlled, prospective animal model, depriving rats of sleep following stress exposure prevents the development of a PTSD-like phenotype. Here, we report that administering the wake-promoting drug modafinil to rats in the aftermath of a stressogenic experience has a similar prophylactic effect, as it significantly reduces the prevalence of PTSD-like phenotype...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Sedigheh Babaei, Alberto Sáez, Albert Caballero-Solares, Felipe Fernández, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Endocrine factors released from the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral organs mediate the regulation of food intake. Although many studies have evaluated the effect of fed-to-starved transition on the expression of appetite-related genes, little is known about how the expression of appetite-regulating peptides is regulated by the macronutrient composition of the diet. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of diet composition and nutritional status on the expression of four peptides involved in food intake control in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): neuropeptide Y (NPY), ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin...
October 7, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Barbara Jana, Karolina A Meller, Michał Bulc, Jarosław Całka
BACKGROUND: Intraovarian distribution and density of nerve fibres immunoreactive (IR) to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and containing dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL) were determined. METHODS: From day 4 of the first oestrous cycle to day 20 of the second studied cycle, experimental gilts (n = 3) were injected with testosterone (T), while control gilts (n = 3) received corn oil. RESULTS: After T administration the numbers of fibres IR to PGP 9...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
Xiao-Chuan Gu, Xiao-Bin Zhang, Bing Hu, Ying Zi, Ming Li
Fracture repair is a complex yet well orchestrated regenerative process involving numerous signaling and cell types including osteoblasts. Here we showed that NPY, a neurotransmitter with regulatory functions in bone homeostasis, may contribute to the post-fracture bone healing in patients with traumatic brain injury-fracture combined injuries. Our results suggested NPY levels were increased in patients with the combined injuries, accomplished by arising of bone healing markers, such as ALP, OC, PICP and ICTP, than in those with simple fractures, and NPY have direct actions on MSCs to promote their osteogenic differentiation...
October 2, 2016: Neuropeptides
Jia Sun, Yong Gao, Ting Yao, Yiru Huang, Zhenyan He, Xingxing Kong, Kai-Jiang Yu, Rui-Tao Wang, Hongbo Guo, Jianqun Yan, Yongsheng Chang, Hong Chen, Philipp E Scherer, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) are located on neurons of the hypothalamus involved in metabolic regulation - including arcuate proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) and Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons. AdipoRs play a critical role in regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism by initiating several signaling cascades overlapping with Leptin receptors (LepRs). However, the mechanism by which adiponectin regulates cellular activity in the brain remains undefined...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Betty R McConn, Justin Matias, Guoqing Wang, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effects of high-protein and high-fat diets, and fasting and refeeding, on appetite regulation in chicks. METHODS: Day of hatch chicks were fed one of four diets: basal, high protein (25% crude protein), and 15 and 30% high fat (15 and 30% metabolizable energy derived from soybean oil, respectively), and assigned to one of three treatments at 4 days: (1) access to feed, (2) 3 hours of fasting, or (3) fasting followed by 1 hour of refeeding...
August 16, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Xiaoxue Xu, Feng Guo, Xinze Cai, Jun Yang, Jiuhan Zhao, Dongyu Min, Qianhui Wang, Liying Hao, Jiqun Cai
Excessive excitation or loss of inhibitory neurotransmission has been closely related to epileptic activity. Somatostatin (SST) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are members of endogenous neuropeptides which are recognized as important modulator of classical neurotransmitter, distributed abundantly in mammalian central nervous system. Abnormal expression of these two neuropeptides evidenced in some epileptic models highlights the relevance of SST or NPY in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The tremor rat (TRM) is a genetic epileptic animal model which can manifest tonic convulsions without any external stimuli...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Laura H Vähätalo, Liisa Ailanen, Sami Pietilä, Asta Laiho, Arno Hänninen, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Eveliina Munukka, Anniina Rintala, Eriika Savontaus, Ullamari Pesonen, Markku Koulu
BACKGROUND: Prenatal metformin exposure has been shown to improve the metabolic outcome in the offspring of high fat diet fed dams. However, if this is evident also in a genetic model of obesity and whether gut microbiota has a role, is not known. METHODS: The metabolic effects of prenatal metformin exposure were investigated in a genetic model of obesity, mice overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the sympathetic nervous system and in brain noradrenergic neurons (OE-NPYDβH)...
2016: PloS One
Jelle Caers, Matthias B Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Sven Zels, Liesbeth Van Rompay, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
Neuropeptides related to mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) and insect neuropeptide F (NPF) are conserved throughout Metazoa and intimately involved in a wide range of biological processes. In insects NPF is involved in regulating feeding, learning, stress and reproductive behavior. Here we identified and characterized an NPF receptor of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, the sole transmitter of Trypanosoma parasites causing sleeping sickness. We isolated cDNA sequences encoding tsetse NPF (Glomo-NPF) and its receptor (Glomo-NPFR), and examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns using quantitative PCR...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Chengcheng Zhang, Jinhe Pan, Kuo-Shyan Lin, Iulia Dude, Joseph Lau, Jutta Zeisler, Helen Merkens, Silvia Jenni, Brigitte Guérin, François Bénard
The neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1R) is overexpressed in many human cancers, particularly breast cancer. Due to stability issues, limited success has been achieved for Y1R imaging agents, including full length and truncated neuropeptide Y (NPY) analogues. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiolabeled truncated NPY analogues to visualize Y1R expression in a preclinical model of Y1R-positive tumor. Four truncated NPY analogues were synthesized based on the sequence of [Pro(30), Tyr(32), Leu(34)]NPY(28-36), also known as BVD15...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Wei-Hui Liu, Yan Chen, Xue-Wei Bai, Hui-Min Yao, Xu-Guang Zhang, Xiu-Wen Yan, Ren Lai
The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H...
September 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
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