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neuropeptide y

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738162/neuropeptide-y-and-its-receptors-in-ventricular-endocardial-endothelial-cells
#1
Danielle Jacques, Pedro D'Orleans-Juste, Sheldon Magder, Ghassan Bkaily
Endocardial endothelial cells (EECs) constitute an important component of the heart. These cells form a monolayer that covers the cavities of the right (EECRs) and left (EECLs) ventricles. They play an important role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling via their secretion of cardioactive factors such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). They also contribute to cardiac pathology such as arrhythmia, hypertrophy and heart failure. Differences between EECRs and EECLs contribute to tuning of circulating factors at the entry and exit of the ventricles...
July 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737807/npy-binds-with-heme-to-form-a-npy-heme-complex-enhancing-peroxidase-activity-in-free-heme-and-promoting-npy-nitration-and-inactivation
#2
Huixian Ye, Zhen Yang, Hailing Li, Zhonghong Gao
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a member of the pancreatic peptide family of neuropeptides that play a crucial role in numerous central and peripheral nervous system responses. Recently, it has been shown that NPY protects cells against neurotoxic damage from β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Heme is a common factor linking several metabolic perturbations in AD and altered heme metabolism has been shown to be related to the pathologies of AD. Thus, heme may have a chance to act on NPY and potentially counteract its function...
July 24, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#3
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720509/the-neuropeptide-galanin-promotes-an-anti-thrombotic-phenotype-on-endocardial-endothelial-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#4
Christina Tyrrell, Amanda Toyooka, Faiza Khan, Kent L Thornburg, James O Mudd, Wohaib Hasan
Thromboembolic complications are a significant cause of mortality and re-hospitalization in heart failure (HF) patients. One source of thrombi is the ventricular endocardial surface that becomes increasingly pro-thrombotic as HF progresses. Anticoagulation comes with bleeding risks so identifying therapeutic agents for improving cardiac endothelial health are of critical clinical importance. Endocardial endothelial cells are closely apposed to cardiac sympathetic nerves. In HF, cardiac sympathetic nerves are dysregulated and promote disease progression...
July 12, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717967/orexin-a-hypocretin-modulates-leptin-receptor-mediated-signaling-by-allosteric-modulations-mediated-by-the-ghrelin-ghs-r1a-receptor-in-hypothalamic-neurons
#5
Mireia Medrano, David Aguinaga, Irene Reyes-Resina, Enric I Canela, Josefa Mallol, Gemma Navarro, Rafael Franco
The hypothalamus is a key integrator of nutrient-seeking signals in the form of hormones and metabolites originated in both the central nervous system and the periphery. The main autocrine and paracrine target of orexinergic-related hormones such as leptin, orexin/hypocretin, and ghrelin are neuropeptide Y neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the molecular and functional relationships between leptin, orexin/hypocretin and ghrelin receptors...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712386/neuropeptide-y-improves-cisplatin-induced-bone-marrow-dysfunction-without-blocking-chemotherapeutic-efficacy-in-a-cancer-mouse-model
#6
Min Hee Park, In Kyung Jung, Woo-Kie Min, Jin Ho Choi, Gyu Man Kim, Hee Kyung Jin, Jae-Sung Bae
Cisplatin is the most effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agent for many types of cancer. Unfortunately, its clinical use is limited by its adverse effects, notably bone marrow suppression leading to abnormal hematopoiesis. We previously revealed that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is responsible for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function by protecting the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) fibers survival from chemotherapy-induced bone marrow impairment. Here, we show the NPY-mediated protective effect against bone marrow dysfunction due to cisplatin in an ovarian cancer mouse model...
July 17, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709906/effects-of-feeding-time-on-daily-rhythms-of-neuropeptide-and-clock-gene-expression-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#7
Dawei Wang, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Jane Reznick, Nigel Turner, Yan Su, Gregory J Cooney, Andries Kalsbeek
Shiftworkers are exposed to several adverse health conditions, one being eating at night. Food consumption at an unnatural time-of-day is thought to be one of the main factors responsible for the increased risk of developing metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The underlying mechanism is considered to include disruption of the circadian organization of physiology, leading to disruption of metabolism. When food is consumed at night, the hypothalamus, a brain region central to homeostasis, receives contradicting input from the central clock and the systemic circulation...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701322/functional-and-neurochemical-characterization-of-angiotensin-type-1a-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-of-the-mouse
#8
David A Carter, Yan-Ting Choong, Angela A Connelly, Jaspreet K Bassi, Nicole O Hunter, Nattaya Thongsepee, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Angelina Y Fong, Stuart James McDougall, Andrew Mark Allen
Angiotensin II acts via two main receptors within the CNS, with the type 1A receptor (AT1AR) most widely expressed in adult neurons. Activation of the AT1R in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the principal nucleus receiving central synapses of viscerosensory afferents, modulates cardiovascular reflexes. Expression of the AT1R occurs in high density within the NTS of most mammals, including humans, but the fundamental electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics of the AT1AR-expressing NTS neurons are not known...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696286/intranasal-oxytocin-treatment-for-social-deficits-and-biomarkers-of-response-in-children-with-autism
#9
Karen J Parker, Ozge Oztan, Robin A Libove, Raena D Sumiyoshi, Lisa P Jackson, Debra S Karhson, Jacqueline E Summers, Kyle E Hinman, Kara S Motonaga, Jennifer M Phillips, Dean S Carson, Joseph P Garner, Antonio Y Hardan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by core social deficits. Prognosis is poor, in part, because existing medications target only associated ASD features. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may be a blood-based biomarker of social functioning and a possible treatment for ASD. However, prior OXT treatment trials have produced equivocal results, perhaps because of variability in patients' underlying neuropeptide biology, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of 4-wk intranasal OXT treatment (24 International Units, twice daily) in 32 children with ASD, aged 6-12 y...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696162/physiological-and-brain-alterations-produced-by-high-fat-diet-in-male-and-female-rats-can-be-modulated-by-increased-levels-of-estradiol-during-critical-periods-of-development
#10
Beatriz Carrillo, Paloma Collado, Francisca Díaz, Julie A Chowen, Mª Ángeles Pérez-Izquierdo, Helena Pinos
BACKGROUND: Overnutrition due to a high-fat diet (HFD) can increase the vulnerability of the metabolic system to maladjustments. Estradiol has an inhibitory role on food intake and this hormone has demonstrated to be a crucial organizer during brain development. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether increased levels of estradiol in the early postnatal period modulate the alterations in metabolism and brain metabolic circuits produced by overnutrition. METHODS: Twenty-four male and 24 female Wistar rats were submitted to a HFD (34...
July 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694769/hypothalamic-integration-of-metabolic-endocrine-and-circadian-signals-in-fish-involvement-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#11
REVIEW
María J Delgado, José M Cerdá-Reverter, José L Soengas
The regulation of food intake in fish is a complex process carried out through several different mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) with hypothalamus being the main regulatory center. As in mammals, a complex hypothalamic circuit including two populations of neurons: one co-expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and the second one population co-expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is involved in the integration of information relating to food intake control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690493/emerging-signaling-pathway-in-arcuate-feeding-related-neurons-role-of-the-acbd7
#12
REVIEW
Damien Lanfray, Denis Richard
The understanding of the mechanisms whereby energy balance is regulated is essential to the unraveling of the pathophysiology of obesity. In the last three decades, focus was put on the metabolic role played by the hypothalamic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and the neurons co-localizing agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These neurons are part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway, whose role is key in energy balance regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686209/detailed-characterization-of-sympathetic-chain-ganglia-schg-neurons-supplying-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#13
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
It is generally known that in the skin sympathetic fibers innervate various dermal structures, including sweat glands, blood vessels, arrectores pilorum muscles and hair follicles. However, there is a lack of data about the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the skin of the pig, a model that is physiologically and anatomically very representative for humans. Thus, the present study was designed to establish the origin of the sympathetic fibers supplying the porcine skin of the hind leg, and the pattern(s) of putative co-incidence of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leu5-enkephalin and galanin (GAL) using combined retrograde tracing and double-labeling immunohistochemistry...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676307/new-immunomodulatory-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-salmo-salar-leucocytes
#14
Roxana González-Stegmaier, Franz Villarroel-Espíndola, René Manríquez, Mauricio López, Mónica Monrás, Jaime Figueroa, Ricardo Enríquez, Alex Romero
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays different roles in mammals such as: regulate food intake, memory retention, cardiovascular functions, and anxiety. It has also been shown in the modulation of chemotaxis, T lymphocyte differentiation, and leukocyte migration. In fish, NPY expression and functions have been studied but its immunomodulatory role remains undescribed. This study confirmed the expression and synthesis of NPY in S. salar under inflammation, and validated a commercial antibody for NPY detection in teleost...
July 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662030/chemosensory-and-hyperoxia-circuits-in-c-elegans-males-influence-sperm-navigational-capacity
#15
Hieu D Hoang, Michael A Miller
The sperm's crucial function is to locate and fuse with a mature oocyte. Under laboratory conditions, Caenorhabditis elegans sperm are very efficient at navigating the hermaphrodite reproductive tract and locating oocytes. Here, we identify chemosensory and oxygen-sensing circuits that affect the sperm's navigational capacity. Multiple Serpentine Receptor B (SRB) chemosensory receptors regulate Gα pathways in gustatory sensory neurons that extend cilia through the male nose. SRB signaling is necessary and sufficient in these sensory neurons to influence sperm motility parameters...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659833/neuropeptide-y-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-comorbid-depression-versus-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Per Svenningsson, Sven Pålhagen, Aleksander A Mathé
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. The diagnosis of PD is based on movement dysfunctions. Many patients also suffer from comorbid depression in spite of adequate treatment with dopamine replacement, indicating that also other non-dopaminergic mechanisms are involved. Indeed, neuropeptides are critically implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). To increase our understanding of the biochemical basis of depression in PD patients, we examined the levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from PD patients, with or without comorbid depression, and compared them to the levels in patients with MDD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656295/inhibition-of-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-induces-osteoblast-differentiation-in-mc3t3%C3%A2-e1-cells
#17
Motoki Yahara, Kanchu Tei, Masato Tamura
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a major neural signaling molecule. NPY is produced by peripheral tissues, such as osteoblasts, and binds to the corresponding Y1 receptor that belongs to the G‑protein‑coupled receptor family. Osteoblast‑specific Y1 receptor knockout mice exhibit high bone mass, indicating a role of the NPY‑Y1 receptor axis in the regulation of bone homeostasis. In the bone microenvironment, peripheral nerve fibers and osteoblasts produce NPY. However, the effects of the Y1 receptor on osteoblasts remain unexplored...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654917/hypertriglyceridemia-in-female-rats-during-pregnancy-induces-obesity-in-male-offspring-via-altering-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#18
Tanzil Ur Rahman, Kamran Ullah, Zhang-Hong Ke, Meng-Xi Guo, Lu-Yang Jin, Jun Ren, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Yi Cheng, Xin-Yan Dong, Hai-Yan Pang, Ting-Ting Wang, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Maternal obesity influence the child's long-term development and health. Though, the mechanism concerned in this process is still uncertain. In the present study, we explored whether overfeeding of a high-fat diet during pregnancy in female rats altered metabolic phenotypes in an F1 generation and authenticated the contribution of hypothalamic leptin signaling. Leptin responsiveness and the number of immunopositive neurons for phosphorylated signal transducer and activator transcription 3 (pSTAT3) were analyzed...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653356/arcuate-nucleus-homeostatic-systems-reflect-blood-leptin-concentration-but-not-feeding-behaviour-during-scheduled-feeding-on-a-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#19
T Bake, J Baron, J S Duncan, D G A Morgan, J G Mercer
Hypothalamic homeostatic and forebrain reward-related genes were examined in the context of scheduled meal feeding without caloric restriction in C57BL/6 mice. Mice fed ad libitum but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet for 2 h a day rapidly adapted their feeding behaviour and consumed approximately 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h scheduled feed. Gene expression levels were examined during either the first or second hour of scheduled feeding vs. 24 h ad libitum feeding on the same high fat diet...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649723/distribution-and-female-reproductive-state-differences-in-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#20
Danielle T Porter, David A Roberts, Karen P Maruska
Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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