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neuropeptide y

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634208/ligand-and-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-differentially-regulate-the-mode-of-vesicular-neuropeptide-release-in-mammalian-sensory-neurons
#1
Yeshi Wang, Qihui Wu, Meiqin Hu, Bin Liu, Zuying Chai, Rong Huang, Yuan Wang, Huadong Xu, Li Zhou, Lianghong Zheng, Changhe Wang, Zhuan Zhou
Neuropeptides released from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons play essential roles in the neurotransmission of sensory inputs, including those underlying nociception and pathological pain. Neuropeptides are released from intracellular vesicles through two modes: a partial release mode called "kiss-and-run" (KAR) and a full release mode called "full fusion-like" (FFL). Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we traced the release of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein-tagged neuropeptide Y (pHluorin-NPY) from individual dense-core vesicles in the soma and axon of single DRG neurons after Ca(2+) influx through either voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) or ligand-gated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630099/kndy-neurone-activation-prior-to-the-lh-surge-of-the-ewe-is-disrupted-by-lps
#2
Chrysanthi Fergani, Jean Routly, David Jones, Lucy Pickavance, Robert Frank Smith, Hilary Dobson
In the ewe, steroid hormones act on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to initiate the GnRH/LH surge. Within the ARC, steroid signal transduction may be mediated by dopamine, β-endorphin or neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressing cells, as well as those co-localising kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (termed KNDy). We investigated the time during the follicular phase when these cells become activated (i.e., co-localise c-Fos) relative to the timing of the LH surge onset and may, therefore, be involved in the surge generating mechanism...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628036/arcuate-neuropeptide-y-inhibits-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-multiple-neuropathways
#3
Zhigang Shi, Christopher J Madden, Virginia L Brooks
Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627405/the-effects-of-dietary-leucine-on-the-growth-performances-body-composition-metabolic-abilities-and-innate-immune-responses-in-black-carp-mylopharyngodon-piceus
#4
Chenglong Wu, Lian Chen, Zhibin Lu, Jun'e Gao, Yudan Chu, Liang Li, Ming Wang, Geying Zhang, Miaotong Zhang, Jinyun Ye
The present study was focused on the growth, body composition, metabolic abilities and innate immune responses in juvenile black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus fed with six levels of dietary leucine (7.3, 12.4, 16.2, 21.9, 28.3 and 34.5 g kg(-1)) for 9 weeks. Results showed that the highest weight gain (WG) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was obtained at 23.5 and 23.9 g kg(-1) dietary leucine using second-order polynomial model, respectively. Adequate dietary leucine content (21.9 and 28.3 g kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin (GRL) in the brain of black carp juveniles...
June 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625910/a-high-fat-diet-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-chick-adipose-tissue-to-the-effects-of-centrally-injected-neuropeptide-y-on-gene-expression-of-adipogenesis-associated-factors
#5
Guoqing Wang, Carli A Williams, Betty R McConn, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later...
June 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623340/adenovirus-mediated-suppression-of-hypothalamic-glucokinase-affects-feeding-behavior
#6
Romina María Uranga, Carola Millán, María José Barahona, Antonia Recabal, Magdiel Salgado, Fernando Martinez, Patricio Ordenes, Roberto Elizondo-Vega, Fernando Sepúlveda, Elena Uribe, María de Los Ángeles García-Robles
Glucokinase (GK), the hexokinase involved in glucosensing in pancreatic β-cells, is also expressed in arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes, the cells that surround the basal third ventricle (3V). Several lines of evidence suggest that tanycytes may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Tanycytes have extended cell processes that contact the feeding-regulating neurons in the AN, particularly, agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623168/access-to-nicotine-in-drinking-water-reduces-weight-gain-without-changing-caloric-intake-on-high-fat-diet-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Cali A Calarco, Somin Lee, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine and tobacco use is associated with lower body weight, and many smokers report concerns about weight. In animal studies, nicotine reduces weight gain, reduces food consumption, and alters energy expenditure, but these effects vary with duration and route of nicotine administration. Previous studies have used standardized nicotine doses, however, in this study, male and female mice had free access to nicotine drinking water for 30 days while fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or chow, allowing animals to titrate their nicotine intake...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622065/leptin-gene-transfer-improves-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-by-regulating-leptin-signaling-pathway-and-insulin-resistance-of-peripheral-tissues
#8
Lan Xiang, Jing Li, Qian Wang, Ruiqi Tang, Jianhua Qi
The leptin gene was transferred into the liver of streptozocin- and high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice by hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. The food intake, water consumption, glucose concentration, and triglyceride, total cholesterol levels of T2D mice were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, plasma leptin was remarkably increased after gene transfer for 2, 3, 5, and 7 days, while plasma adiponectin was also significantly increased at day 2. To understand the mechanism of action of leptin on T2D mice, gene expressions related to glycometabolism and energy metabolism in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, hypothalamus, and muscle were measured...
June 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614797/neuropeptide-y-expression-marks-partially-differentiated-%C3%AE-cells-in-mice-and-humans
#9
Pope Rodnoi, Mohan Rajkumar, Abu Saleh Md Moin, Senta K Georgia, Alexandra E Butler, Sangeeta Dhawan
β Cells are formed in embryonic life by differentiation of endocrine progenitors and expand by replication during neonatal life, followed by transition into functional maturity. In this study, we addressed the potential contribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in pancreatic β cell development and maturation. We show that NPY expression is restricted from the progenitor populations during pancreatic development and marks functionally immature β cells in fetal and neonatal mice and humans. NPY expression is epigenetically downregulated in β cells upon maturation...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610651/increased-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-but-decreased-total-adiponectin-and-kisspeptin-in-central-precocious-puberty-compared-with-aged-matched-prepubertal-girls
#10
Chantacha Sitticharoon, Maynart Sukharomana, Supawadee Likitmaskul, Malika Churintaraphan, Pailin Maikaew
The aim of the present study was to compare serum leptin, kisspeptin, total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels between girls with central precocious puberty (CPP; n=26, 7-9.5 years old) and age-matched controls (n=29) including or excluding obese girls. Leptin and NPY levels were comparable between CPP and control girls. Kisspeptin levels were lower in the CPP than control group, and were positively correlated with oestrogen in the control group and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the CPP group...
June 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606559/adiponectin-at-physiological-level-glucose-independently-enhances-inhibitory-postsynaptic-current-onto-npy-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#11
Shigetomo Suyama, Wang Lei, Naoto Kubota, Takashi Kadowaki, Toshihiko Yada
Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Accumulating evidences suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARC). The ARC contains orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti related peptide (AgRP) neurons and anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, the first order neurons for feeding regulation. We recently reported that intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin at low glucose level suppressed food intake, while at elevated glucose level it promoted food intake, exhibiting glucose-dependent reciprocal effects...
March 22, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604688/differential-processing-of-thalamic-information-via-distinct-striatal-interneuron-circuits
#12
Maxime Assous, Jaime Kaminer, Fulva Shah, Arpan Garg, Tibor Koós, James M Tepper
Recent discoveries of striatal GABAergic interneurons require a new conceptualization of the organization of intrastriatal circuitry and their cortical and thalamic inputs. We investigated thalamic inputs to the two populations of striatal neuropeptide Y (NPY) interneurons, plateau low threshold spike (PLTS) and NPY-neurogliaform (NGF) cells. Optogenetic activation of parafascicular inputs evokes suprathreshold monosynaptic glutamatergic excitation in NGF interneurons and a disynaptic, nicotinic excitation through cholinergic interneurons...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604684/sensory-integration-and-neuromodulatory-feedback-facilitate-drosophila-mechanonociceptive-behavior
#13
Chun Hu, Meike Petersen, Nina Hoyer, Bettina Spitzweck, Federico Tenedini, Denan Wang, Alisa Gruschka, Lara S Burchardt, Emanuela Szpotowicz, Michaela Schweizer, Ananya R Guntur, Chung-Hui Yang, Peter Soba
Nociception is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to encode and process harmful environmental stimuli. Like most animals, Drosophila melanogaster larvae respond to a variety of nociceptive stimuli, including noxious touch and temperature, with stereotyped escape responses through activation of multimodal nociceptors. How behavioral responses to these different modalities are processed and integrated by the downstream network remains poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic labeling, ultrastructural analysis, calcium imaging, optogenetics and behavioral analyses, we uncovered a circuit specific for mechanonociception but not thermonociception...
June 12, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599876/effects-of-different-musical-frequencies-on-npy-and-ghrelin-secretion-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#14
Cristina Russo, Antonella Russo, Rosario Gulino, Rosalia Pellitteri, Stefania Stanzani
It is known that exists a relationship between listening to music and food intake. Hypothalamus appears to integrate the orexigenic properties of a novel peptide, ghrelin (Ghre) that induces food intake through neuropeptide Y (NPY). Ghre stimulates appetite by acting on the ventral hypothalamus, which controls food intake. Ghre is secreted from the stomach and circulates in the bloodstream under fasting conditions, sending a hunger signal from the periphery to the Central Nervous System. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the rat, the effects of different musical frequencies (432 and 440Hz) on the Ghre and NPY expression in the hypothalamic neurons through immunohistochemistry; in addition, we investigated on the different production of Ghre in the serum through Western blot assay (Wb), in relation to the body weight of animals...
June 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598785/pain-modulation-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-undergoing-acupuncture-treatment-is-associated-with-fluctuations-in-serum-neuropeptide-y-levels
#15
Cristina Iannuccelli, Maria Paola Guzzo, Fabiola Atzeni, Franca Mannocci, Cristiano Alessandri, Maria Chiara Gerardi, Guido Valesini, Manuela Di Franco
OBJECTIVES: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter released by sympathetic neurons, which is probably involved in pain modulation. Acupuncture is increasingly used as an alternative or complementary means of controlling pain in rheumatic diseases such as fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic widespread pain syndrome accompanied by allodynia and hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of an acupuncture cycle on serum NPY levels in patients with FM, and identify possible correlations between its serum levels and clinical and clinimetric parameters...
May 31, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595953/inhalation-of-a-racemic-mixture-r-s-linalool-by-rats-experiencing-restraint-stress-alters-neuropeptide-and-mhc-class-i-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamus
#16
Kazushi Yoshida, Naoto Yamamoto, Satoshi Fujiwara, Asuka Kamei, Keiko Abe, Akio Nakamura
Some odorants have physiological and psychological effects on organisms. However, little is known about the effects of inhaling them, particularly on the central nervous system. Using DNA microarray analysis, we obtained gene expression profiles of the hypothalamus from restraint stressed rats exposed to racemic (R,S)-linalool. Hierarchical clustering across all probe sets showed that this inhalation of (R,S)-linalool influenced the expression levels of a wide range of genes in the hypothalamus. A comparison of transcription levels revealed that the inhalation of (R,S)-linalool restored the expression of 560 stress-induced probe sets to a normal status...
June 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582442/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-in-nandrolone-decanoate-induced-attenuation-of-antidepressant-effect-of-exercise
#17
Jovana Joksimovic, Dragica Selakovic, Milovan Matovic, Ivan Zaletel, Nela Puskas, Gvozden Rosic
Since the increased prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse in last few decades is usually accompanied by various exercise protocols, the scope of our study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nandrolone decanoate administration in supraphysiological dose and a prolonged swimming protocol (alone and simultaneously with nandrolone decanoate) on depressive state in male rats. Simultaneously, we investigated the possible alterations in neuropeptide Y (NPY) content in blood and the hippocampus, in order to determine the role of NPY in the modulation of depressive-like behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576646/increase-in-hypothalamic-ampk-phosphorylation-induced-by-prolonged-exposure-to-lps-involves-ghrelin-and-cb1r-signaling
#18
Priscila M S Rivas, Fernanda M V Vechiato, Beatriz C Borges, Rodrigo Rorato, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Lucila L K Elias
Acute administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria induces hypophagia. However, the repeated administration of LPS leads to desensitization of hypophagia, which is associated with increased hypothalamic p-AMPK expression. Because ghrelin and endocannabinoids modulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that these neuromodulators play a role in the reversal of tolerance to hypophagia in rats under long-term exposure to LPS. Male Wistar rats were treated with single (1 LPS, 100μg/kg body weight, ip) or repeated injections of LPS over 6days (6 LPS)...
June 8, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575455/adolescent-alcohol-exposure-induced-changes-in-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-and-neuropeptide-y-pathways-via-histone-acetylation-in-the-brain-during-adulthood
#19
Dadasaheb M Kokare, Evan J Kyzar, Huaibo Zhang, Amul J Sakharkar, Subhash C Pandey
Background: Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure causes long-lasting alterations in brain epigenetic mechanisms. Melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling interact and are affected by ethanol exposure in the brain. Here, the persistent effects of AIE on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and NPY expression and their regulation by histone acetylation mechanisms were investigated in adulthood. Methods: Male rats were exposed to AIE (2 g/kg, i...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575002/effects-of-early-postnatal-environment-on-hypothalamic-gene-expression-in-oletf-rats
#20
Yonwook J Kim, Mariana Schroeder, Nu-Chu Liang, Timothy H Moran, Aron Weller, Sheng Bi
Previous reports have shown that the early postnatal environment has the ability to modify the obesity phenotype of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. To determine whether this early postnatal environment affects hypothalamic signaling systems involved in energy balance, OLETF pups and lean Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) pups were cross-fostered to same or opposite strain Dams (designated as LdLp: LETO pups with LETO dams; LdOp: OLETF pups with LETO dams; OdLp: LETO pups with OLETF dams; and OdOp: OLETF pups with OLETF dams)...
2017: PloS One
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