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Skill acquisition sport

Sara Santos, Nuno Mateus, Jaime Sampaio, Nuno Leite
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an enrichment programme in motor, technical and tactical basketball skills, when accounting for the age of youth sport specialisation. Seventy-six college students (age: M = 20.4, SD = 1.9) were allocated according to three different paths: (i) non-structured (n = 14), (ii) early specialisation (n = 34), and (iii) late specialisation (n = 28), according to information previously provided by the participants about the quantity and type of sporting activities performed throughout their sporting careers...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Tim Buszard, Machar Reid, Rich S W Masters, Damian Farrow
PURPOSE: Research supporting the skill acquisition benefits of scaling sports equipment for children in a real-world setting where child-to-coach ratios are high is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of scaling the tennis racquet on children's skill acquisition in a primary school setting. METHOD: Children aged 6 to 7 years old practiced for 5 weeks during physical education classes using either a small racquet (SR group; n = 23) or a large racquet (LR group; n = 23)...
September 1, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Alfred O Effenberg, Ursula Fehse, Gerd Schmitz, Bjoern Krueger, Heinz Mechling
Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jadeera P G Cheong, Brendan Lay, Rizal Razman
This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule...
March 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
John W O'Kane
BACKGROUND: Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. METHODS: Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion...
2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Tim Buszard, Machar Reid, Rich Masters, Damian Farrow
BACKGROUND: This review investigated the influence of scaling sports equipment and play area (e.g., field size) on children's motor skill acquisition. METHODS: Peer-reviewed studies published prior to February 2015 were searched using SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE. Studies were included if the research (a) was empirical, (b) involved participants younger than 18 years, (c) assessed the efficacy of scaling in relation to one or more factors affecting skill learning (psychological factors, skill performance and skill acquisition factors, biomechanical factors, cognitive processing factors), and (d) had a sport or movement skills context...
June 2016: Sports Medicine
Martin Sattelmayer, Simone Elsig, Roger Hilfiker, Gillian Baer
BACKGROUND: Learning of procedural skills is an essential component in the education of future health professionals. There is little evidence on how procedural skills are best learnt and practiced in education. There is a need for educators to know what specific interventions could be used to increase learning of these skills. However, there is growing evidence from rehabilitation science, sport science and psychology that learning can be promoted with the application of motor learning principles...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Howie J Carson, Dave Collins
This article focuses on raising concern that anxiety-performance relationship theory has insufficiently catered for motoric issues during, primarily, closed and self-paced skill execution (e.g., long jump and javelin throw). Following a review of current theory, we address the under-consideration of motoric issues by extending the three-dimensional model put forward by Cheng, Hardy, and Markland (2009) ('Toward a three-dimensional conceptualization of performance anxiety: Rationale and initial measurement development, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 271-278)...
January 1, 2016: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Otto Lappi
A fundamental question in human brain plasticity is how sensory, motor, and cognitive functions adapt in the process of skill acquisition extended over a period of many years. Recently, there has emerged a growing interest in cognitive neuroscience on studying the functional and structural differences in the brains of elite athletes. Elite performance in sports, music, or the arts, allows us to observe sensorimotor and cognitive performance at the limits of human capability. In this mini-review, we look at driving expertise...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elliott Silverman, Scott A Tucker, Solveig Imsdahl, Justin A Charles, Mallory A Stellato, Mercy D Wagner, Kimberly M Brown
Training to excellence in the conduct of surgical procedures has many similarities to the acquisition and mastery of technical skills in elite-level music and sports. By using coaching techniques and strategies gleaned from analysis of professional music ensembles and athletic training, surgical educators can set conditions that increase the success rate of training to elite performance. This article describes techniques and strategies used in both music and athletic coaching, and it discusses how they can be applied and integrated into surgical simulation and education...
August 2015: Surgical Clinics of North America
Jon N Radcliffe, Paul Comfort, Tom Fawcett
This study provided the basis by which professional development needs can be addressed and add to the applied sport psychology literature from an underresearched sport domain. This study endeavored to use qualitative methods to explore the specific techniques applied by the strength and conditioning professional. Eighteen participants were recruited for interview, through convenience sampling, drawn from a previously obtained sample. Included in the study were 10 participants working within the United Kingdom, 3 within the United States, and 5 within Australia offering a cross section of experience from ranging sport disciplines and educational backgrounds...
September 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Anne Benjaminse, Alli Gokeler, Ariel V Dowling, Avery Faigenbaum, Kevin R Ford, Timothy E Hewett, James A Onate, Bert Otten, Gregory D Myer
Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve current prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current ACL injury prevention training may be a deficit in the transfer of conscious, optimal movement strategies rehearsed during training sessions to automatic movements required for athletic activities and unanticipated events on the field...
March 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Gregory D Myer, Avery D Faigenbaum, Nicholas M Edwards, Joseph F Clark, Thomas M Best, Robert E Sallis
Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise...
December 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
T Schlesinger, F Studer, S Nagel
In view of the changes in and growing variety of sports-related occupations, it is highly relevant for educational institutions to know how well the educational contents of their sport science courses meet the professional requirements. This study analyses the relationship between the competencies acquired through academic sports science courses and the requirements of the relevant jobs in Switzerland. The data for this empirical analysis were drawn from a sample of n = 1054 graduates of different academic sport science programmes at all eight Swiss universities...
2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Machar Reid, Georgia Giblin, David Whiteside
Tennis coaches often use the fundamental throwing skill as a training tool to develop the service action. However, recent skill acquisition literature questions the efficacy of non-specific training drills for developing complex sporting movements. Thus, this study examined the mechanical analogy of the throw and the tennis serve at three different levels of development. A 500 Hz, 22-camera VICON MX motion capture system recorded 28 elite female tennis players (prepubescent (n = 10), pubescent (n = 10), adult (n = 8)) as they performed flat serves and overhand throws...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
Alessandra di Cagno, Claudia Battaglia, Giovanni Fiorilli, Marina Piazza, Arrigo Giombini, Federica Fagnani, Paolo Borrione, Giuseppe Calcagno, Fabio Pigozzi
Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr.) and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years), competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz's battery (1985), and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics...
December 2014: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
David P Broadbent, Joe Causer, Paul R Ford, A Mark Williams
INTRODUCTION: Contextual interference (CI) effect predicts that a random order of practice for multiple skills is superior for learning compared to a blocked order. We report a novel attempt to examine the CI effect during acquisition and transfer of anticipatory judgments from simulation training to an applied sport situation. METHOD: Participants were required to anticipate tennis shots under either a random practice schedule or a blocked practice schedule. Response accuracy was recorded for both groups in pretest, during acquisition, and on a 7-d retention test...
June 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David P Broadbent, Joe Causer, A Mark Williams, Paul R Ford
Perceptual-cognitive skills training provides a potentially valuable method for training athletes on key skills, such as anticipation and decision-making. It can be used when athletes are unable to physically train or are unable to experience repeated key situations from their sport. In this article, we review research on perceptual-cognitive skills training and describe future research areas focusing on a number of key theories and principles. The main aim of any training intervention should be the efficacy of retention and transfer of learning from training to field situations, which should be the key consideration when designing the representative tasks used in perceptual-cognitive skills training...
2015: European Journal of Sport Science
Miriam Chang Yi Lee, Jia Yi Chow, John Komar, Clara Wee Keat Tan, Chris Button
Learning a sports skill is a complex process in which practitioners are challenged to cater for individual differences. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach for learning a sports skill. Twenty-four 10-year-old females participated in a 4-week intervention involving either a Nonlinear Pedagogy (i.e.,manipulation of task constraints including equipment and rules) or a Linear Pedagogy (i.e., prescriptive, repetitive drills) approach to learn a tennis forehand stroke...
2014: PloS One
Anne Benjaminse, Wouter Welling, Bert Otten, Alli Gokeler
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have been successful in the short term. Motor learning strategies with an internal focus (IF) to body movements have traditionally been utilized, but may be less suitable than an external focus (EF) for the acquisition and control of complex motor skills required for sport. To investigate the available literature and provide an overview of the effect of IF and EF instructions on jump landing technique. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMed (1966 to May 2014), CINAHL (1981 to May 2014) and PsycInfo (1989 to May 2014)...
May 2015: Physical Therapy in Sport
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