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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156410/how-do-we-learn-to-kill-in-volleyball-the-role-of-working-memory-capacity-and-expertise-in-volleyball-motor-learning
#1
Elisa Bisagno, Sergio Morra
This study examines young volleyball players' learning of increasingly complex attack gestures. The main purpose of the study was to examine the predictive role of a cognitive variable, working memory capacity (or "M capacity"), in the acquisition and development of motor skills in a structured sport. Pascual-Leone's theory of constructive operators (TCO) was used as a framework; it defines working memory capacity as the maximum number of schemes that can be simultaneously activated by attentional resources...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131779/sport-sampling-is-associated-with-improved-landing-technique-in-youth-athletes
#2
Lindsay J DiStefano, Eleanor M Beltz, Hayley J Root, Jessica C Martinez, Andrew Houghton, Nicole Taranto, Katherine Pearce, Erin McConnell, Courtney Muscat, Steve Boyle, Thomas H Trojian
BACKGROUND: Sport sampling is recommended to promote fundamental movement skill acquisition and physical activity. In contrast, sport specialization is associated with musculoskeletal injury risk, burnout, and attrition from sport. There is limited evidence to support the influence of sport sampling on neuromuscular control, which is associated with injury risk, in youth athletes. HYPOTHESIS: Athletes who participated in only 1 sport during the previous year would demonstrate higher Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores than their counterparts...
November 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977134/exergames-as-a-tool-for-the-acquisition-and-development-of-motor-skills-and-abilities-a-systematic-review
#3
Pâmella de Medeiros, Renata Capistrano, Marcela Almeida Zequinão, Siomara Aparecida da Silva, Thais Silva Beltrame, Fernando Luiz Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the literature on the effectiveness of exergames in physical education classes and in the acquisition and development of motor skills and abilities. DATA SOURCE: The analyses were carried out by two independent evaluators, limited to English and Portuguese, in four databases: Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus and PubMed, without restrictions related with year. The keywords used were: "Exergames and motor learning and motor skill" and "Exergames and motor skill and physical education"...
September 21, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931987/enhancement-of-motor-skill-learning-by-a-combination-of-ideal-model-observation-and-self-observation
#4
Hitomi Nishizawa, Teiji Kimura
[Purpose] In sports physical therapy, video of a patient's movement or of a skilled model's movement has been used as observational learning methods for injury prevention and movement modification. Positive effects of model video observation have been reported. This study aimed to clarify the effect on motor skill learning using a combination of model-observation and self-observation, which is thought to act as an enhanced method for active error detection by comparing model-observation and self-observation alone for acquisition of correct sports movement...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#5
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813355/the-generalizability-of-working-memory-capacity-in-the-sport-domain
#6
REVIEW
Tim Buszard, Rich Sw Masters, Damian Farrow
Working-memory capacity has been implicated as an influential variable when performing and learning sport-related skills. In this review, we critically evaluate evidence linking working-memory capacity with performing under pressure, tactical decision making, motor skill acquisition, and sport expertise. Laboratory experiments link low working-memory capacity with poorer performance under pressure and poorer decision making when required to inhibit distractions or resolve conflict. However, the generalizability of these findings remains unknown...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813352/optimizing-motivation-and-attention-for-motor-performance-and-learning
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca Lewthwaite, Gabriele Wulf
We review three lines of recent research at an intersection of motor learning and sport psychology as they relate to motor skill acquisition: enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and external attentional focus. Findings within these lines of research have been integrated into a new theory, the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory (i.e., OPTIMAL theory, Wulf and Lewthwaite, 2016), and have been applied in motor skill acquisition and performance. Implications range from more effective skill development in children and novice performers to athletes and performers in many fields, including clinical rehabilitation...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799864/internal-and-external-imagery-effects-on-tennis-skills-among-novices
#8
Amir Dana, Elmira Gozalzadeh
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of internal and external visual imagery perspectives on performance accuracy of open and closed tennis skills (i.e., serve, forehand, and backhand) among novices. Thirty-six young male novices, aged 15 to 18 years, from a summer tennis program participated in the study. Following initial skill acquisition (12 sessions), baseline assessments of imagery ability and imagery perspective preference were used to assign participants to one of three groups: internal imagery ( n = 12), external imagery ( n = 12), or a no-imagery (mental math exercise) control group ( n = 12)...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782541/investigating-the-efficacy-of-web-based-transfer-training-on-independent-wheelchair-transfers-through-randomized-control-trials
#9
Lynn Worobey, Stephanie Rigot, Nathan Hogaboom, Chris Venus, Michael L Boninger
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of a web-based transfer training module at improving transfer technique across three groups: web-based training, in-person training (current standard of practice), and a waitlist control group (WLCG). Secondarily, to determine subject factors that can be used to predict improvements in transfer ability after training. DESIGN: Randomized control trials. SETTING: Summer and winter sporting events for disabled veterans...
August 3, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685651/successful-transfer-of-a-motor-learning-strategy-to-a-novel-sport
#10
Philip E Kearney, Phil Judge
This study investigated whether secondary school students who were taught a motor learning strategy could transfer their knowledge of the strategy to learning a novel task. Twenty adolescents were randomly allocated to a strategy or control group. The strategy group was taught Singer's five-step learning strategy, while the control group received information on the evolution and biomechanics of the basketball free throw. Both groups received three 1-hour practice sessions on a modified basketball shooting task...
October 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445190/cognitive-learning-and-its-future-in-urology-surgical-skills-teaching-and-assessment
#11
Somayeh B Shafiei, Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid A Guru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the current status of novel cognitive training approaches in surgery and to investigate the potential role of cognitive training in surgical education. RECENT FINDINGS: Kinematics of end-effector trajectories, as well as cognitive state features of surgeon trainees and mentors have recently been studied as modalities to objectively evaluate the expertise level of trainees and to shorten the learning process...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367697/life-lessons-after-classes-investigating-the-influence-of-an-afterschool-sport-program-on-adolescents-life-skills-development
#12
Okseon Lee, Mirim Park, Kyunghwan Jang, Yongnam Park
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents' life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213152/central-neuronal-motor-behaviour-in-skilled-and-less-skilled-novices-approaching-sports-specific-movement-techniques
#13
Tobias Vogt, Kouki Kato, Stefan Schneider, Stefan Türk, Kazuyuki Kanosue
Research on motor behavioural processes preceding voluntary movements often refers to analysing the readiness potential (RP). For this, decades of studies used laboratory setups with controlled sports-related actions. Further, recent applied approaches focus on athlete-non-athlete comparisons, omitting possible effects of training history on RP. However, RP preceding real sport-specific movements in accordance to skill acquisition remains to be elucidated. Therefore, after familiarization 16 right-handed males with no experience in archery volunteered to perform repeated sports-specific movements, i...
April 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099092/training-and-development-of-canadian-wheelchair-basketball-players
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
N Dehghansai, S Lemez, N Wattie, J Baker
Considering the growth in research, examining the development of mainstream sport athletes over the past two decades, studies examining development of athletes with disabilities have been surprisingly limited. While similarities in developmental trajectories between the two cohorts may exist regarding factors such as the value of practice, which tend to be universal regardless of context, disability-related issues (e.g. whether the disability was congenital or acquired) may influence the course of development, affecting variables such as starting age, training and developmental milestones...
June 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873190/development-of-a-skill-acquisition-periodisation-framework-for-high-performance-sport
#15
REVIEW
Damian Farrow, Sam Robertson
Unlike physical training, skill acquisition does not currently utilise periodisation to plan, monitor and evaluate programs. Development of a skill acquisition periodisation framework would allow for systematic investigation into the acute and longitudinal effectiveness of such interventions. Using the physical training literature as a reference point, a skill-training periodisation framework was developed for use in high-performance sport. Previous research undertaken in skill acquisition was used to provide support for the framework...
June 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826280/is-mixed-practice-more-effective-than-physical-practice-alone-for-the-acquisition-of-non-dominant-side-kicking-performance
#16
Kylie A Steel, Eathan Ellem
Perceiving and executing unfamiliar movements, such as left handed/footed movement skills in sports, places additional demands on the perceptual-cognitive system of players that may increase errors. The video self-modeling (VSM) method may provide an accessible solution to this issue, therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the VSM method on the improvement of a non-preferred side kicking task. N = 28 participants engaged in one of three conditions; Mirror reversed/ physical practice (PP), best-of/ PP, or physical practice only...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681710/do-previous-sports-experiences-influence-the-effect-of-an-enrichment-programme-in-basketball-skills
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sara Santos, Nuno Mateus, Jaime Sampaio, Nuno Leite
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an enrichment programme in motor, technical and tactical basketball skills, when accounting for the age of youth sport specialisation. Seventy-six college students (age: M = 20.4, SD = 1.9) were allocated according to three different paths: (i) non-structured (n = 14), (ii) early specialisation (n = 34), and (iii) late specialisation (n = 28), according to information previously provided by the participants about the quantity and type of sporting activities performed throughout their sporting careers...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586426/scaling-tennis-racquets-during-pe-in-primary-school-to-enhance-motor-skill-acquisition
#18
Tim Buszard, Machar Reid, Rich S W Masters, Damian Farrow
PURPOSE: Research supporting the skill acquisition benefits of scaling sports equipment for children in a real-world setting where child-to-coach ratios are high is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of scaling the tennis racquet on children's skill acquisition in a primary school setting. METHOD: Children aged 6 to 7 years old practiced for 5 weeks during physical education classes using either a small racquet (SR group; n = 23) or a large racquet (LR group; n = 23)...
December 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303255/movement-sonification-effects-on-motor-learning-beyond-rhythmic-adjustments
#19
Alfred O Effenberg, Ursula Fehse, Gerd Schmitz, Bjoern Krueger, Heinz Mechling
Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957940/investigating-the-contextual-interference-effect-using-combination-sports-skills-in-open-and-closed-skill-environments
#20
Jadeera P G Cheong, Brendan Lay, Rizal Razman
This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule...
March 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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