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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642561/%C3%AE-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-%C3%AE-nad-inhibits-atp-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-release-from-human-monocytic-cells
#1
Sebastian Daniel Hiller, Sarah Heldmann, Katrin Richter, Innokentij Jurastow, Mira Küllmar, Andreas Hecker, Sigrid Wilker, Gabriele Fuchs-Moll, Ivan Manzini, Günther Schmalzing, Wolfgang Kummer, Winfried Padberg, J Michael McIntosh, Jelena Damm, Anna Zakrzewicz, Veronika Grau
While interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine essential for host defense, high systemic levels cause life-threatening inflammatory syndromes. ATP, a stimulus of IL-1β maturation, is released from damaged cells along with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that β-NAD controls ATP-signaling and, hence, IL-1β release. Lipopolysaccharide-primed monocytic U937 cells and primary human mononuclear leukocytes were stimulated with 2'(3')- O -(4-benzoyl-benzoyl)ATP trieethylammonium salt (BzATP), a P2X7 receptor agonist, in the presence or absence of β-NAD...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577851/structural-and-aggregation-properties-of-alpha-synuclein-linked-to-phospholipase-a2-action
#2
Kerensa Broersen, Violeta Ruiperez, Bazbek Davletov
Alpha-synuclein is a protein involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The physiological function of alpha-synuclein is unknown although the protein has been reported to extensively interact with membranes and lipid vesicles. We and others recently suggested that specific brain-enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. arachidonic acid, can also give rise to a conformational change in alpha-synuclein and ultimately induces its fibrillation. Arachidonic acid is released by phospholipase A2 activity and clinical observations have shown a link between mutations in PLA2G6, the gene responsible for the production of phospholipase A2, and early onset types of parkinsonism...
March 26, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504901/association-of-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-with-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-in-oxys-rats
#3
Natalia A Stefanova, Kseniya Yi Maksimova, Ekaterina A Rudnitskaya, Natalia A Muraleva, Nataliya G Kolosova
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD): the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The involvement of neurovasculature disorders in the progression of AD is now increasingly appreciated, but whether they represent initial factors or late-stage pathological changes during the disease is unclear. Using senescence-accelerated OXYS rats, which simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we evaluated contributions of cerebrovascular alterations to the disease development...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454663/novel-pla2g6-mutations-and-clinical-heterogeneity-in-chinese-cases-with-phospholipase-a2-associated-neurodegeneration
#4
Yi-Jun Chen, Yu-Chao Chen, Hai-Lin Dong, Li-Xi Li, Wang Ni, Hong-Fu Li, Zhi-Ying Wu
INTRODUCTION: Phospholipase A2-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is an autosomal recessive movement disorder with abnormal iron deposition in basal ganglia, substantial nigra and adjacent areas, and cerebellar atrophy. It is caused by PLA2G6 mutations and comprises three phenotypes. We aimed to investigate genetic mutations in patients with predominantly extrapyramidal symptoms. METHODS: Eighteen Chinese patients with early onset of extrapyramidal symptoms were identified and underwent targeted next-generation sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440694/mutations-in-the-drosophila-homolog-of-human-pla2g6-give-rise-to-age-dependent-loss-of-psychomotor-activity-and-neurodegeneration
#5
Konstantin G Iliadi, Oxana B Gluscencova, Natalia Iliadi, Gabrielle L Boulianne
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that typically begins within the first few years of life and leads to progressive impairment of movement and cognition. Several years ago, it was shown that >80% of patients with INAD have mutations in the phospholipase gene, PLA2G6. Interestingly, mutations in PLA2G6 are also causative in two other related neurodegenerative diseases, atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy and Dystonia-parkinsonism. While all three disorders give rise to similar defects in movement and cognition, some defects are unique to a specific disorder...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344929/pla2g6-deficiency-in-zebrafish-leads-to-dopaminergic-cell-death-axonal-degeneration-increased-%C3%AE-synuclein-expression-and-defects-in-brain-functions-and-pathways
#6
Elena Sánchez, Luis J Azcona, Coro Paisán-Ruiz
This study aimed to gain insights into the pathophysiology underlying PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration that is implicated in three different neurological disorders, suggesting that other, unknown genetic or environmental factors might contribute to its wide phenotypic expression. To accomplish this, we downregulated the function of pla2g6 in the zebrafish nervous system, performed parkinsonism-related phenotypic characterization, and determined the effects of gene regulation upon the loss of pla2g6 function by using RNA sequencing and downstream analyses...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325618/neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation
#7
Susan J Hayflick, Manju A Kurian, Penelope Hogarth
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting children and adults. These rare disorders are often first suspected when increased basal ganglia iron is observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging. For the majority of NBIA disorders the genetic basis has been delineated, and clinical testing is available. The four most common NBIA disorders include pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) due to mutations in PANK2, phospholipase A2 -associated neurodegeneration caused by mutation in PLA2G6, mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration from mutations in C19orf12, and beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration due to mutations in WDR45...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124790/neuropathology-of-genetic-synucleinopathies-with-parkinsonism-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Susanne A Schneider, Roy N Alcalay
Clinical-pathological studies remain the gold-standard for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, mounting data from genetic PD autopsies challenge the diagnosis of PD based on Lewy body pathology. Most of the confirmed genetic risks for PD show heterogenous neuropathology, even within kindreds, which may or may not include Lewy body pathology. We review the literature of genetic PD autopsies from cases with molecularly confirmed PD or parkinsonism and summarize main findings on SNCA (n = 25), Parkin (n = 20, 17 bi-allelic and 3 heterozygotes), PINK1 (n = 5, 1 bi-allelic and 4 heterozygotes), DJ-1 (n = 1), LRRK2 (n = 55), GBA (n = 10 Gaucher disease patients with parkinsonism), DNAJC13, GCH1, ATP13A2, PLA2G6 (n = 8 patients, 2 with PD), MPAN (n = 2), FBXO7, RAB39B, and ATXN2 (SCA2), as well as on 22q deletion syndrome (n = 3)...
November 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108286/park14-pla2g6-mutants-are-defective-in-preventing-rotenone-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-ros-generation-and-activation-of-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#9
Ching-Chi Chiu, Tu-Hsueh Yeh, Chin-Song Lu, Yin-Cheng Huang, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Ying-Zu Huang, Yi-Hsin Weng, Yu-Chuan Liu, Szu-Chia Lai, Ying-Ling Chen, Yu-Jie Chen, Chao-Lang Chen, Hsin-Yi Chen, Yan-Wei Lin, Hung-Li Wang
Mutations in the gene encoding Ca2+ -independent phospholipase A2 group 6 (PLA2G6) cause the recessive familial type 14 of Parkinson's disease (PARK14). Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). PLA2G6 is believed to be required for maintaining mitochondrial function. In the present study, rotenone-induced cellular model of PD was used to investigate possible molecular pathogenic mechanism of PARK14 mutant PLA2G6-induced PD. Overexpression of wild-type (WT) PLA2G6 ameliorated rotenone-induced apoptotic death of SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036293/rare-germline-variants-in-known-melanoma-susceptibility-genes-in-familial-melanoma
#10
Alisa M Goldstein, Yanzi Xiao, Joshua Sampson, Bin Zhu, Melissa Rotunno, Hunter Bennett, Yixuan Wen, Kristine Jones, Aurelie Vogt, Laurie Burdette, Wen Luo, Bin Zhu, Meredith Yeager, Belynda Hicks, Jiali Han, Immaculata De Vivo, Stella Koutros, Gabriella Andreotti, Laura Beane-Freeman, Mark Purdue, Neal D Freedman, Stephen J Chanock, Margaret A Tucker, Xiaohong R Yang
Known high-risk cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) genes account for melanoma risk in <40% of melanoma-prone families, suggesting the existence of additional high-risk genes or perhaps a polygenic mechanism involving multiple genetic modifiers. The goal of this study was to systematically characterize rare germline variants in 42 established melanoma genes among 144 CMM patients in 76 American CMM families without known mutations using data from whole-exome sequencing. We identified 68 rare (<0.1% in public and in-house control datasets) nonsynonymous variants in 25 genes...
December 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993562/ultrastructural-features-of-canine-neuroaxonal-dystrophy-in-a-papillon-dog
#11
Miyuu Tanaka, Shinobu Yamaguchi, Hideo Akiyoshi, Masaya Tsuboi, Kazuyuki Uchida, Takeshi Izawa, Jyoji Yamate, Mitsuru Kuwamura
Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe axonal swelling (spheroids) throughout the nervous system. In dogs, NAD has been reported in several breeds and a missense mutation in PLA2G6 gene has recently been identified in the Papillon dog NAD. Here we performed ultrastructural analysis to clarify the detailed ultrastructural features of the Papillon dog NAD. Dystrophic axons consisted of accumulation of filamentous materials, tubulovesicular structures, and swollen edematous mitochondria with degenerated inner membranes were often observed in the central nervous system...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991683/a-new-pla2g6-mutation-in-a-family-with-infantile-neuroaxonal-dystrophy
#12
Grazia Iannello, Claudio Graziano, Giovanna Cenacchi, Duccio Maria Cordelli, Roberta Zuntini, Valentina Papa, Anna Maria Magistà, Monica Gagliardi, Radha Procopio, Aldo Quattrone, Grazia Annesi
Phospholipase A2-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN), a syndrome of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in PLA2G6 gene. This gene encodes a calcium-independent group VI phospholipase A2 (iPLA-VI) critical in cell membrane homeostasis. PLAN syndrome encompasses a group of phenotypes with a different age of onset: classic infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy of childhood-onset (atypical NAD) and adult-onset PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism (PARK14)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914269/looking-beyond-the-exome-a-phenotype-first-approach-to-molecular-diagnostic-resolution-in-rare-and-undiagnosed-diseases
#13
Loren D M Pena, Yong-Hui Jiang, Kelly Schoch, Rebecca C Spillmann, Nicole Walley, Nicholas Stong, Sarah Rapisardo Horn, Jennifer A Sullivan, Allyn McConkie-Rosell, Sujay Kansagra, Edward C Smith, Mays El-Dairi, Jane Bellet, Martha Ann Keels, Joan Jasien, Peter G Kranz, Richard Noel, Shashi K Nagaraj, Robert K Lark, Daniel S G Wechsler, Daniela Del Gaudio, Marco L Leung, Laura G Hendon, Collette C Parker, Kelly L Jones, David B Goldstein, Vandana Shashi
PurposeTo describe examples of missed pathogenic variants on whole-exome sequencing (WES) and the importance of deep phenotyping for further diagnostic testing.MethodsGuided by phenotypic information, three children with negative WES underwent targeted single-gene testing.ResultsIndividual 1 had a clinical diagnosis consistent with infantile systemic hyalinosis, although WES and a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based ANTXR2 test were negative. Sanger sequencing of ANTXR2 revealed a homozygous single base pair insertion, previously missed by the WES variant caller software...
September 14, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821231/novel-mutations-in-pank2-and-pla2g6-genes-in-patients-with-neurodegenerative-disorders-two-case-reports
#14
Hassan Dastsooz, Hamid Nemati, Mohammad Ali Farazi Fard, Majid Fardaei, Mohammad Ali Faghihi
BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders associated with progressive impairment of movement, vision, and cognition. The disease is initially diagnosed on the basis of changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging which indicate an abnormal brain iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. However, the diagnosis of specific types should be based on both clinical findings and molecular genetic testing for genes associated with different types of NBIA, including PANK2, PLA2G6, C19orf12, FA2H, ATP13A2, WDR45, COASY, FTL, CP, and DCAF17...
August 18, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655161/dysfunction-of-pla2g6-and-cyp2c44-associated-network-signals-imminent-carcinogenesis-from-chronic-inflammation-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Meiyi Li, Chen Li, Wei-Xin Liu, Conghui Liu, Jingru Cui, Qingrun Li, Hong Ni, Yingcheng Yang, Chaochao Wu, Chunlei Chen, Xing Zhen, Tao Zeng, Mujun Zhao, Lei Chen, Jiarui Wu, Rong Zeng, Luonan Chen
Little is known about how chronic inflammation contributes to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially the initiation of cancer. To uncover the critical transition from chronic inflammation to HCC and the molecular mechanisms at a network level, we analyzed the time-series proteomic data of woodchuck hepatitis virus/c-myc mice and age-matched wt-C57BL/6 mice using our dynamical network biomarker (DNB) model. DNB analysis indicated that the 5th month after birth of transgenic mice was the critical period of cancer initiation, just before the critical transition, which is consistent with clinical symptoms...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651698/an-association-between-pla2g6-and-pla2g4c-gene-polymorphisms-and-schizophrenia-risk-and-illness-severity-in-a-croatian-population
#16
Sergej Nadalin, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović
We investigated the allele and genotype frequency of the rs4375 and rs1549637 polymorphisms in phospholipase A2 (PLA2)G6 and PLA2G4C genes in 203 patients with schizophrenia and 191 controls in a Croatian population. We hypothesized that these polymorphic variations might influence the age of schizophrenia onset and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale psychopathology (PANSS) data. We detected a significant overrepresentation of the PLA2G6-CT and PLA2G4C-AT genotype combination in patients compared with controls (14...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542792/on-the-complexity-of-clinical-and-molecular-bases-of-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation
#17
REVIEW
C Tello, A Darling, V Lupo, B Pérez-Dueñas, C Espinós
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of inherited heterogeneous neurodegenerative rare disorders. These patients present with dystonia, spasticity, parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric disturbances, along with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of iron accumulation. In sum, they are devastating disorders and to date, there is no specific treatment. Ten NBIA genes are accepted: PANK2, PLA2G6, C19orf12, COASY, FA2H, ATP13A2, WDR45, FTL, CP, and DCAF17; and nonetheless, a relevant percentage of patients remain without genetic diagnosis, suggesting that other novel NBIA genes remain to be discovered...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445716/trumping-neurodegeneration-targeting-common-pathways-regulated-by-autosomal-recessive-parkinson-s-disease-genes
#18
REVIEW
Laura Scott, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic; however, rare familial forms have been identified. Autosomal recessive PD (ARPD) results from mutations in Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and ATP13A2, while rare, atypical juvenile ARPD result from mutations in FBXO7, DNAJC6, SYNJ1, and PLA2G6. Studying these genes and their function has revealed mitochondrial quality control, protein degradation processes, and oxidative stress responses as common pathways underlying PD pathogenesis...
December 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295203/pla2g6-mutations-associated-with-a-continuous-clinical-spectrum-from-neuroaxonal-dystrophy-to-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#19
B Ozes, N Karagoz, R Schüle, A Rebelo, M-J Sobrido, F Harmuth, M Synofzik, S I P Pascual, M Colak, B Ciftci-Kavaklioglu, B Kara, A Ordóñez-Ugalde, B Quintáns, M A Gonzalez, A Soysal, S Zuchner, E Battaloglu
PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are 2 groups of heterogeneous neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we report PLA2G6 gene mutations in 3 families from Turkey, Morocco, and Romania. Two affected Turkish siblings presenting HSP adds the disease to PLAN phenotypes. They were homozygous for the PLA2G6 missense c.2239C>T, p.Arg747Trp variant and the ages of onset were 9 and 21. Parkinsonism, dystonia or cognitive decline were not the clinical elements in these patients contrary to the cases that has been previously reported with the same variant, however, iron accumulation was evident in their cranial magnetic resonance imaging...
November 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279750/neurons-and-astrocytes-in-an-infantile-neuroaxonal-dystrophy-inad-mouse-model-show-characteristic-alterations-in-glutamate-induced-ca-2-signaling
#20
Mikhail Strokin, Georg Reiser
INAD (infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, OMIM#256600), an autosomal recessive inherited degenerative disease, is associated with PLA2G6 mutations. PLA2G6 encodes Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (VIA iPLA2). However, it is unclear how the PLA2G6-mutations lead to disease. Non-canonical functions, which were suggested for VIA iPLA2, such as regulation of cellular and mitochondrial Ca(2+) are promising candidates. Therefore, we investigate glutamate (Glu)-evoked Ca(2+) signals in neurons and astrocytes in co-culture obtained from three INAD mouse model strains with Pla2g6 mutations, (i) hypomorphic Pla2g6 allele with reduced transcript levels, (ii) knocked-out Pla2g6, and (iii) (G373R)-point mutation with inactive VIA iPLA2 enzyme...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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