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Liena E O Elsayed, Inaam N Mohammed, Ahlam A A Hamed, Maha A Elseed, Adam Johnson, Mathilde Mairey, Hassab Elrasoul S A Mohamed, Mohamed N Idris, Mustafa A M Salih, Sarah M El-Sadig, Mahmoud E Koko, Ashraf Y O Mohamed, Laure Raymond, Marie Coutelier, Frédéric Darios, Rayan A Siddig, Ahmed K M A Ahmed, Arwa M A Babai, Hiba M O Malik, Zulfa M B M Omer, Eman O E Mohamed, Hanan B Eltahir, Nasr Aldin A Magboul, Elfatih E Bushara, Abdelrahman Elnour, Salah M Abdel Rahim, Abdelmoneim Alattaya, Mustafa I Elbashir, Muntaser E Ibrahim, Alexandra Durr, Anjon Audhya, Alexis Brice, Ammar E Ahmed, Giovanni Stevanin
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are the second most common type of motor neuron disease recognized worldwide. We investigated a total of 25 consanguineous families from Sudan. We used next-generation sequencing to screen 74 HSP-related genes in 23 families. Linkage analysis and candidate gene sequencing was performed in two other families. We established a genetic diagnosis in six families with autosomal recessive HSP (SPG11 in three families and TFG/SPG57, SACS and ALS2 in one family each). A heterozygous mutation in a gene involved in an autosomal dominant HSP (ATL1/SPG3A) was also identified in one additional family...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Shinji Hadano, Shun Mitsui, Lei Pan, Asako Otomo, Mizuki Kubo, Kai Sato, Suzuka Ono, Wakana Onodera, Koichiro Abe, XuePing Chen, Masato Koike, Yasuo Uchiyama, Masashi Aoki, Eiji Warabi, Masayuki Yamamoto, Tetsuro Ishii, Toru Yanagawa, Hui-Fang Shang, Fumihito Yoshii
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Multiple toxicity pathways, such as oxidative stress, misfolded protein accumulation, and dysfunctional autophagy, are implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS. However, molecular basis of the interplay between such multiple factors in vivo remains unclear. Here, we report that two independent ALS-linked autophagy-associated gene products; SQSTM1/p62 and ALS2/alsin, but not antioxidant-related factor; NFE2L2/Nrf2, are implicated in the pathogenesis in mutant SOD1 transgenic ALS models...
July 20, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
D I Stephanova, A Kossev
The present study investigates action potential abnormalities in previously simulated cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, termed as ALS1, ALS2 and ALS3, respectively, when the temperature is changed from 20[Formula: see text]C to 42[Formula: see text]C. These ALS cases are modeled as three progressively severe axonal abnormalities. The effects of temperature on the kinetics of currents, defining action potentials in the normal and abnormal cases, are also given and discussed. These computations use our temperature-dependent multi-layered model of human motor nerve fibers...
June 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Anatoly Uzdensky, Svetlana Demyanenko, Grigory Fedorenko, Tayana Lapteva, Alexej Fedorenko
After ischemic stroke, cell damage propagates from infarct core to surrounding tissues (penumbra). To reveal proteins involved in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in penumbra, we studied protein expression changes in 2-mm ring around the core of photothrombotic infarct induced in the rat brain cortex by local laser irradiation after administration of Bengal Rose. The ultrastructural study showed edema and degeneration of neurons, glia, and capillaries. Morphological changes gradually decreased across the penumbra...
June 21, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Zhang-Yu Zou, Ming-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Guang Li, Li-Ying Cui
Juvenile onset ALS is a very rare form of motor neuron disease, with the first symptoms of motor neuron degeneration manifested before 25 years of age. Mutations in the alsin (ALS2), senataxin (SETX), and spatacsin (SPG11) genes have been associated with familial ALS with juvenile onset and slow progression, whereas the genetic architecture of sporadic juvenile ALS remains unclear. We screened mutations in C9orf72, SOD1, FUS, TARDBP, ANG, VCP and PFN1 in 16 juvenile sporadic ALS patients. Four cases (25%) carrying FUS mutations and one individual (6%) harbouring a SOD1 mutation were identified...
2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Hee-Jung Kim, Ki-Wook Oh, Min-Jung Kwon, Seong-il Oh, Jin-Seok Park, Young-Eun Kim, Byung-Ok Choi, Seungbok Lee, Chang-Seok Ki, Seung Hyun Kim
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease involving motor neurons. Because a growing number of genes have been identified as the genetic etiology of ALS, simultaneous screening of mutations in multiple genes is likely to be more efficient than gene-by-gene testing. In this study, we performed a multigene panel testing by using targeted capture of 18 ALS-related genes followed by next-generation sequencing. Using this technique, we tried to identify mutations in 4 index patients with familial ALS and 148 sporadic ALS in Korean population and identified 4 known mutations in SOD1, ALS2, MAPT, and SQSTM1 genes, respectively, and 28 variants of uncertain significance in 9 genes...
January 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Sergei Svitashev, Joshua K Young, Christine Schwartz, Huirong Gao, S Carl Falco, A Mark Cigan
Targeted mutagenesis, editing of endogenous maize (Zea mays) genes, and site-specific insertion of a trait gene using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)-guide RNA technology are reported in maize. DNA vectors expressing maize codon-optimized Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease and single guide RNAs were cointroduced with or without DNA repair templates into maize immature embryos by biolistic transformation targeting five different genomic regions: upstream of the liguleless1 (LIG1) gene, male fertility genes (Ms26 and Ms45), and acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes (ALS1 and ALS2)...
October 2015: Plant Physiology
Christophe Délye, Romain Causse, Séverine Michel
BACKGROUND: Following control failure by herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in French wheat fields and vineyards, we aimed to confirm resistance evolution and investigate the evolutionary origin and spread of resistance in the tetraploid species Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), a widespread, highly mobile weed. RESULTS: Sequencing of two ALS homeologues in S. vulgaris enabled the first identification and characterisation of ALS-based resistance in this species...
January 2016: Pest Management Science
Ana Gil-Bona, Claudia Marcela Parra-Giraldo, María Luisa Hernáez, Jose Antonio Reales-Calderon, Norma V Solis, Scott G Filler, Lucia Monteoliva, Concha Gil
The ability to switch from yeast to hyphal growth is essential for virulence in Candida albicans. The cell surface is the initial point of contact between the fungus and the host. In this work, a free-gel proteomic strategy based on tryptic digestion of live yeast and hyphae cells and protein identification using LC-MS/MS methodology was used to identify cell surface proteins. Using this strategy, a total of 943 proteins were identified, of which 438 were in yeast and 928 were in hyphae. Of these proteins, 79 were closely related to the organization and biogenesis of the cell wall, including 28 GPI-anchored proteins, such as Hyr1 and Sod5 which were detected exclusively in hyphae, and Als2 and Sap10which were detected only in yeast...
September 8, 2015: Journal of Proteomics
Pavle Vrebalov Cindro, Veselin Vrebalov Cindro
Following the completion of the Human Genome Project, a lot of progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of motor neuron diseases (MNDs) and neuropathies. Spinal Muscular Atrophies (SMA) are caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene localized on Chromosome 5q11. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) has been found to have at least 18 different types, many of them associated to different genetic loci (e.g. SOD1, ALS2, SETX, FUS, VAPB, ANG, TARDBP and others), but many of the forms have still not been associated with a particular gene...
March 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
Saima Siddiqi, Jia Nee Foo, Anthony Vu, Saad Azim, David L Silver, Atika Mansoor, Stacey Kiat Hong Tay, Sumiya Abbasi, Asraf Hussain Hashmi, Jamal Janjua, Sumbal Khalid, E Shyong Tai, Gene W Yeo, Chiea Chuen Khor
The diagnosis of childhood neurological disorders remains challenging given the overlapping clinical presentation across subgroups and heterogeneous presentation within subgroups. To determine the underlying genetic cause of a severe neurological disorder in a large consanguineous Pakistani family presenting with severe scoliosis, anarthria and progressive neuromuscular degeneration, we performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping accompanied by whole-exome sequencing in two affected first cousins and their unaffected parents to find the causative mutation...
2014: PloS One
Fei Xie, Zhi-Dong Cen, Jian-Feng Xiao, Wei Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Neurological Sciences
Filipa Flor-de-Lima, Mafalda Sampaio, Nahid Nahavandi, Susana Fernandes, Miguel Leão
Mutations in the ALS2 gene cause three distinct disorders: infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia, juvenile primary lateral sclerosis, and autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We present a review of the literature and the case of a 16-year-old boy who is, to the best of our knowledge, the first Portuguese case with infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia. Clinical investigations included sequencing analysis of the ALS2 gene, which revealed a heterozygous mutation in exon 5 (c...
2014: Case Reports in Genetics
Yoshinao Sada, Hajime Ikeda, Seiji Yamato, Satoru Kizawa
Schoenoplectus juncoides, a noxious weed for paddy rice, is known to become resistant to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides by a target-site mutation in either of the two acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes (ALS1 and ALS2). SU-resistant S. juncoides plants having an Asp376Glu mutation in ALS2 were found from a paddy rice field in Japan, but their resistance profile has not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, dose-response of the SU-resistant accession was compared with that of a SU-susceptible accession at in vivo whole-plant level as well as at in vitro enzymatic level...
September 2013: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Zhi-Jun Liu, Hong-Fu Li, Guo-He Tan, Qing-Qing Tao, Wang Ni, Xue-Wen Cheng, Zhi-Qi Xiong, Zhi-Ying Wu
To date, at least 18 causative genes have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Because of the clinical and genetic heterogeneity, molecular diagnosis for ALS faces great challenges. HaloPlex target enrichment system is a new targeted sequencing approach, which can detect already known mutations or candidate genes. We performed this approach to screen 18 causative genes of ALS, including SOD1, SETX, FUS, ANG, TARDBP, ALS2, FIG4, VAPB, OPTN, DAO, VCP, UBQLN2, SPG11, SIGMAR1, DCTN1, SQSTM1, PFN1, and CHMP2B in 8 ALS probands...
December 2014: Neurobiology of Aging
Bettina Balint, Kailash P Bhatia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will highlight recent advances in dystonia with focus on clinical aspects such as the new classification, syndromic approach, new gene discoveries and genotype-phenotype correlations. Broadening of phenotype of some of the previously described hereditary dystonias and environmental risk factors and trends in treatment will be covered. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on phenomenology, a new consensus update on the definition, phenomenology and classification of dystonia and a syndromic approach to guide diagnosis have been proposed...
August 2014: Current Opinion in Neurology
Hatice Koçak Eker, Süleyman Ersin Unlü, Fatema Al-Salmi, Andrew H Crosby
Autosomal recessive early onset forms of motor neuron disorders including infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (OMIM #607225) are due to homozygous mutations in the ALS2 gene. Here, we report on a novel splice-site mutation of the ALS2 (c.2351+2C>A) in four children of a consanguineous union with infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia.
May 2014: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Yuta Takayama, Reina E Itoh, Taiichi Tsuyama, Tadashi Uemura
Recessive mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (ALS2) gene have been linked to juvenile-onset ALS2. Although one of the molecular functions of the ALS2 protein is clearly the activation of Rab5, the mechanisms underlying the selective dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons in vivo remain to be fully understood. Here, we focused on the ALS2 homologue of Drosophila melanogaster, isolated two independent deletions, and systematically compared phenotypes of the mutants with those of animals in which Rab5 function in identified neurons was abrogated...
June 2014: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Una-Marie Sheerin, Susanne A Schneider, Lucinda Carr, Guenther Deuschl, Franziska Hopfner, Maria Stamelou, Nicholas W Wood, Kailash P Bhatia
OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. METHODS: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. RESULTS: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene...
March 25, 2014: Neurology
Josef Finsterer, Jean-Marc Burgunder
BACKGROUND: Genetic background and pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases (MNDs) have been increasingly elucidated over recent years. AIMS: To give an overview about publications during the last year concerning the genetic background and phenotypic manifestations of MNDs, such as familial or sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS, sALS), spinal muscular atrophies (SMA), bulbospinal muscular atrophy (BSMA), and unclassified MNDs. METHODS: Pubmed search for literature about ALS, SMA, and BSMA for the period 10/2012 to 9/2013...
February 2014: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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