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Kidney, transplant, nephrotoxin, nephrotoxic

Gwenn E McLaughlin, Carolyn L Abitbol
BACKGROUND: Acute tacrolimus toxicity is manifest by oliguria and elevated serum creatinine. Various vasoregulatory molecules have been implicated in calcineurin inhibitor-mediated nephrotoxicity, including calcium, adenosine and endothelin. Theophylline (THEO), a non-specific adenosine-receptor antagonist prevents renal dysfunction from various nephrotoxins which mediate vasoconstriction. In the setting of acute tacrolimus toxicity, we demonstrated that administration of THEO along with a loop diuretic (LD) enhanced diuresis...
July 2005: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
V G Reddy
Postoperative acute renal failure (PO-ARF) is a serious complication resulting in a prolonged stay and high mortality. Patients may be at risk for this problem because of an underlying medical illness, nature of surgery, nephrotoxin exposure, or combinations of these factors. An increase in the intra abdominal pressure above 20-mm Hg is associated with an increase in the incidence of PO-ARF. Based on many clinical studies in high-risk surgical patients and patients undergoing renal transplantation, the only proven management strategies for prevention of PO-ARF are adequate volume expansion and avoidance of hypovolaemia...
January 2002: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
C A Lawton, B L Fish, J E Moulder
PURPOSE: Chronic renal failure is a significant cause of late morbidity in bone marrow transplant patients whose conditioning regimen includes total body irradiation (TBI). Radiation is a major cause of this syndrome (bone marrow transplant nephropathy), but it may not be the only cause. These studies use a rat syngeneic bone marrow transplant model to determine whether nephrotoxic agents used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be enhancing or accelerating the development of radiation nephropathy...
March 1, 1994: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
L Chan, J I Shapiro
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has contributed considerably to our understanding of experimental acute renal failure. Changes in energy metabolism which are caused by ischemia, urinary obstruction, and nephrotoxic drugs have been characterized with NMR spectroscopy. Data from our laboratory and others utilizing 31P NMR have demonstrated that levels of adenosine triphosphate fall rapidly with ischemia, and that the ability of the kidney to regenerate ATP correlates with ultimate functional recovery. Additionally, development of intracellular acidosis appears to occur early with ischemia and may, if severe enough, predict poor functional recovery...
1989: Renal Failure
L H Lash, R M Nelson, R A Van Dyke, M W Anders
The central role of cysteine conjugate beta-lyase (beta-lyase) in the bioactivation of nephrotoxic halogenated hydrocarbons and the possibility of human exposure to these chemicals has focused interest on the beta-lyase from human kidney. Human kidney tissue was collected as surgical waste material, and subcellular fractions were isolated by differential centrifugation. Human beta-lyase activity, determined with S-(2-benzothiazolyl)-L-cysteine (BTC) as the substrate, was present in the cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions, but was highest in the cytosolic fraction...
January 1990: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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