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Kidney, transplant, nephrotoxin, nephrotoxic

Heather M Weber, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Valentina Magno, Uwe Freudenberg, Carsten Werner
Dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only therapeutic option for end stage renal disease. Accordingly, there is a large unmet clinical need for new causative therapeutic treatments. Obtaining robust models that mimic the complex nature of the human kidney is a critical step in the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we establish a synthetic in vitro human renal tubulogenesis model based on a tunable glycosaminoglycan-hydrogel platform. In this system, renal tubulogenesis can be modulated by the adjustment of hydrogel mechanics and degradability, growth factor signaling, and the presence of insoluble adhesion cues, potentially providing new insights for regenerative therapy...
July 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Heidi Hedman, Johan Holmdahl, Johan Mölne, Kerstin Ebefors, Börje Haraldsson, Jenny Nyström
BACKGROUND: Accidental intake of mushrooms of the Cortinarius species (deadly webcap) may cause irreversible renal damage and the need for dialysis or transplantation. The species is found in forests of Northern Europe, Scandinavia and North America and may be mistaken for other edible mushrooms. The highly selective nephrotoxic compound of the mushroom is called orellanine. Very little is known about the long-term effects of the nephrotoxin. METHODS: We identified patients who ingested deadly webcap in the period of 1979 to 2012...
April 3, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Gwenn E McLaughlin, Carolyn L Abitbol
BACKGROUND: Acute tacrolimus toxicity is manifest by oliguria and elevated serum creatinine. Various vasoregulatory molecules have been implicated in calcineurin inhibitor-mediated nephrotoxicity, including calcium, adenosine and endothelin. Theophylline (THEO), a non-specific adenosine-receptor antagonist prevents renal dysfunction from various nephrotoxins which mediate vasoconstriction. In the setting of acute tacrolimus toxicity, we demonstrated that administration of THEO along with a loop diuretic (LD) enhanced diuresis...
July 2005: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
V G Reddy
Postoperative acute renal failure (PO-ARF) is a serious complication resulting in a prolonged stay and high mortality. Patients may be at risk for this problem because of an underlying medical illness, nature of surgery, nephrotoxin exposure, or combinations of these factors. An increase in the intra abdominal pressure above 20-mm Hg is associated with an increase in the incidence of PO-ARF. Based on many clinical studies in high-risk surgical patients and patients undergoing renal transplantation, the only proven management strategies for prevention of PO-ARF are adequate volume expansion and avoidance of hypovolaemia...
January 2002: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
C A Lawton, B L Fish, J E Moulder
PURPOSE: Chronic renal failure is a significant cause of late morbidity in bone marrow transplant patients whose conditioning regimen includes total body irradiation (TBI). Radiation is a major cause of this syndrome (bone marrow transplant nephropathy), but it may not be the only cause. These studies use a rat syngeneic bone marrow transplant model to determine whether nephrotoxic agents used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be enhancing or accelerating the development of radiation nephropathy...
March 1, 1994: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
L Chan, J I Shapiro
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has contributed considerably to our understanding of experimental acute renal failure. Changes in energy metabolism which are caused by ischemia, urinary obstruction, and nephrotoxic drugs have been characterized with NMR spectroscopy. Data from our laboratory and others utilizing 31P NMR have demonstrated that levels of adenosine triphosphate fall rapidly with ischemia, and that the ability of the kidney to regenerate ATP correlates with ultimate functional recovery. Additionally, development of intracellular acidosis appears to occur early with ischemia and may, if severe enough, predict poor functional recovery...
1989: Renal Failure
L H Lash, R M Nelson, R A Van Dyke, M W Anders
The central role of cysteine conjugate beta-lyase (beta-lyase) in the bioactivation of nephrotoxic halogenated hydrocarbons and the possibility of human exposure to these chemicals has focused interest on the beta-lyase from human kidney. Human kidney tissue was collected as surgical waste material, and subcellular fractions were isolated by differential centrifugation. Human beta-lyase activity, determined with S-(2-benzothiazolyl)-L-cysteine (BTC) as the substrate, was present in the cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions, but was highest in the cytosolic fraction...
January 1990: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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