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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324630/morphological-and-neurochemical-differences-in-peptidergic-nerve-fibres-of-the-mouse-vagina
#1
Christine Barry, Esther Ji, Harman Sharma, Lara Beukes, Pat Vilimas, Yvette DeGraaf, Dusan Matusica, Rainer V Haberberger
The vagina is innervated by a complex arrangement of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres that contain classical transmitters plus an array of neuropeptides and enzymes known to regulate diverse processes including blood flow and nociception. The neurochemical characteristics and distributions of peptide-containing nerves in the mouse vagina are unknown. This study used multiple labelling immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and analysis to investigate the presence and colocalization of the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nerve fibres of the murine vaginal wall...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315869/npy-and-cgrp-inhibitor-influence-on-erk-pathway-and-macrophage-aggregation-during-fracture-healing
#2
Peng Tang, Chunguang Duan, Zheng Wang, ChunMei Wang, Guolin Meng, Kaifeng Lin, Qian Yang, Zhi Yuan
AIM: The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of neurotransmitters NPY and CGRP on ERK signaling in fracture healing, and to identify the correlation between macrophage aggregation and fracture healing. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to build a fracture model. The neurotransmitter receptor inhibitors were injected intraperitoneally into the rats. Immunofluorescence staining and ELISA were employed to determine the expression of NPY and CGRP in fracture area and the peripheral blood, respectively...
March 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302012/targeting-npy-crf-ucns-and-nps-neuropeptide-systems-to-treat-alcohol-use-disorder-aud
#3
Francisco David Rodriguez, Rafael Coveñas
BACKGROUND: The term Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) incorporates different states of disease related to the recurrent use of alcohol and linked to the relevant impairment, disability and failure to perform major responsibilities in different realms. Many neurotransmitter systems are involved in the phases or states of alcoholism from reward mechanisms, associated to binge intoxication, to stress and anxiety linked to relapse and withdrawal. Some neuropeptides play a key function in the control of anxiety and stress, and establish a close relationship with the pathological mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction...
March 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301916/a-role-of-central-nell2-in-the-regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-rats
#4
Jin Kwon Jeong, Jae Geun Kim, Han Rae Kim, Tae Hwan Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Byung Ju Lee
A brain-enriched secreting signal peptide, NELL2, has been suggested to play multiple roles in the development, survival, and activity of neurons in mammal. We investigated here a possible involvement of central NELL2 in regulating feeding behavior and metabolism. In situ hybridization and an immunohistochemical approach were used to determine expression of NELL2 as well as its colocalization with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the rat hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of NELL2 on feeding behavior, 2 nmole of antisense NELL2 oligodeoxynucleotide was administered into the lateral ventricle of adult male rat brains for 6 consecutive days, and changes in daily body weight, food, and water intake were monitored...
March 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301861/neuropeptide-y-inhibits-the-trigeminovascular-pathway-through-npy-y1-receptor-implications-for-migraine-erratum
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294153/calretinin-and-neuropeptide-y-interneurons-are-differentially-altered-in-the-motor-cortex-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-als
#6
Rosemary M Clark, Catherine A Blizzard, Kaylene M Young, Anna E King, Tracey C Dickson
Increasing evidence indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance may have a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Impaired inhibitory circuitry is consistently reported in the motor cortex of both familial and sporadic patients, closely associated with cortical hyperexcitability and ALS onset. Inhibitory network dysfunction is presumably mediated by intra-cortical inhibitory interneurons, however, the exact cell types responsible are yet to be identified. In this study we demonstrate dynamic changes in the number of calretinin- (CR) and neuropeptide Y-expressing (NPY) interneurons in the motor cortex of the familial hSOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model, suggesting their potential involvement in motor neuron circuitry defects...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294152/melanocortin-3-receptors-expressed-in-nkx2-1-ve-neurons-are-sufficient-for-controlling-appetitive-responses-to-hypocaloric-conditioning
#7
Clémence Girardet, Maria M Mavrikaki, Joseph R Stevens, Courtney A Miller, Daniel L Marks, Andrew A Butler
Melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R) have a contextual role in appetite control that is amplified with hypocaloric conditioning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice subjected to hypocaloric feeding schedules (HFS) exhibit compulsive behavioral responses involving food anticipatory activity (FAA) and caloric loading following food access. These homeostatic responses to calorie-poor environs are attenuated in B6 mice in which Mc3r transcription is suppressed by a lox-stop-lox sequence in the 5'UTR (Mc3r(TB/TB)). Here, we report that optimization of caloric loading in B6 mice subject to HFS, characterized by increased meal size and duration, is not observed in Mc3r(TB/TB) mice...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288865/retinal-npy-and-5-ht-inputs-to-the-aged-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#8
Rovena C G J Engelberth, Kayo D de Azevedo Silva, Felipe Porto Fiuza, Joacil Germano Soares, Miriam S M O Costa, Ruthnaldo R de Melo Lima, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, José R Dos Santos, José R L P Cavalcanti, Jeferson S Cavalcante
The circadian timing system (CTS) anticipates optimal physiological patterns in response to environmental fluctuations, such as light-dark cycle. Since age-related disruption of circadian synchronization is linked to several pathological conditions, we characterized alterations of neurochemical constituents and retinal projections to the major pacemaker of CTS, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in adult and aged marmosets. We used intraocular injections of neural tracer Cholera toxin b (CTb) to report age-related reductions in CTb, neuropeptide Y and serotonin immunoreactivities...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284881/susceptibility-or-resilience-prenatal-stress-predisposes-male-rats-to-social-subordination-but-facilitates-adaptation-to-subordinate-status
#9
Karen A Scott, Annette D de Kloet, Michael D Smeltzer, Eric G Krause, Jonathan N Flak, Susan J Melhorn, Michelle T Foster, Kellie L K Tamashiro, Randall R Sakai
Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB), adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy...
March 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283578/molecular-identification-and-functional-analysis-of-ctrp9-in-epinephelus-coioides
#10
Guokun Yang, Chaobin Qin, Bin Wang, Jirong Jia, Xi Yuan, Caiyun Sun, Wensheng Li
CTRP9 is a member of the C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily and has been studied in mammals, while the comparative studies of CTRP9 in non-mammalian species are still absent. In this study, CTRP9 was isolated and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The full length cDNA of CTRP9 was 1378 bp in size with ORF (open reading frame) of 1020 bp which encods a 339 amino acids preprohormone. The mRNA expression of CTRP9 showed a rather high level in the kidney and brain, but low level in other tissues...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282136/mechanistic-investigation-of-bis-imino-pyridine-manganese-catalyzed-carbonyl-and-carboxylate-hydrosilylation
#11
Tufan K Mukhopadhyay, Christopher L Rock, Mannkyu Hong, Daniel Charles Ashley, Thomas L Groy, Mu-Hyun Baik, Ryan J Trovitch
We recently reported a bis(imino)pyridine (or pyridine diimine, PDI) manganese precatalyst, (Ph2PPrPDI)Mn (1), that is active for the hydrosilylation of ketones and dihydrosilylation of esters. In this contribution, we reveal an expanded scope for 1-mediated hydrosilylation and propose two different mechanisms through which catalysis is achieved. Aldehyde hydrosilylation turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 4,900 min-1 have been realized, the highest reported for first row metal-catalyzed carbonyl hydrosilylation...
March 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279130/dietary-macronutrient-composition-and-central-neuropeptide-y-injection-affect-dietary-preference-and-hypothalamic-gene-expression-in-chicks
#12
Betty R McConn, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on central NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. METHODS: Day-of-hatch chicks were fed one of three diets (3000 kcal ME/kg) ad libitum from hatch: high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF; 30% ME derived from soybean oil), and high protein (HP; 25 vs. 22% CP). In Experiment 1, chicks received intracerebroventricular injections of 0 (vehicle), 0.2, or 2.0 nmol NPY on day 4 and food intake was recorded for 6 hours...
March 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263818/glucocorticoids-induced-high-fat-diet-preference-via-activating-hypothalamic-ampk-signaling-in-chicks
#13
Lei Liu, Xiaojuan Wang, Hongchao Jiao, Hai Lin
Glucocorticoids (GCs) stimulate appetite, contributing to enhanced fat deposition. Our present study was conducted to determine whether GCs could evoke an appetite specifically for fat-rich diets in chicks. Chicks were subjected to a subcutaneous injection of corticosterone (CORT, 2 mg/kg body weight/day) or corn oil (control), and food preference was tested. The results showed that CORT-chicks consumed more high-fat diet (HFD) compared with controls. In HFD-fed chicks, hypothalamic phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels were increased by CORT treatment...
March 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261997/the-strategies-of-behavior-energetic-and-thermogenesis-of-striped-hamsters-in-response-to-food-deprivation
#14
Jing Wen, Song Tan, Qinggang Qiao, Lulu Shi, Yixin Huang, Zhijun Zhao
The life history of many animals includes periods of food shortage. Two behavioral strategies are involved in small mammals in response to food shortage: an increase in activity behavior, representing the increased foraging or migratory behavior, and a decrease in activity level, serving as a mechanism for conserving energy. However, it is uncertain whether animals adopt both strategies in response to food shortage, and whether hormone and neuroendocrine mechamisms are involved in both strategies. In the present study, the changes of behavior and metabolic rate were examined in food-deprived striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis)...
March 6, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251550/the-mystery-of-puberty-initiation-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-icpp
#15
REVIEW
Sofia Leka-Emiri, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Puberty is a major developmental stage. Damaging mutations, considered as "mistakes of nature", have contributed to the unraveling of the networks implicated in the normal initiation of puberty. Genes involved in the abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis development, in the normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH), in the X-linked or autosomal forms of Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249734/role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-nerve-growth-factor-in-the-regulation-of-neuropeptide-w-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#16
Rikang Wang, Fengxia Yan, Rifang Liao, Pei Wan, Peter J Little, Wenhua Zheng
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are neurotrophic factors involved in the growth, survival and functioning of neurons. In addition, a possible role of neurotrophins, particularly BDNF, in HPA axis hyperactivation has recently been proposed. Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an endogenous peptide ligand for the GPR7 and GPR8 and a stress mediator in the hypothalamus. It activates the HPA axis by working on hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). No information is available about the interrelationships between neurotrophines like NGF/BDNF and NPW...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242329/the-effects-of-intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-irisin-on-feeding-behaviour-in-rats
#17
Suat Tekin, Yavuz Erden, Fatma Ozyalin, Yilmaz Cigremis, Cemil Colak, Suleyman Sandal
Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, has attracted attention with its effects on energy metabolism. This study was conducted to determine the possible effects of irisin on nutritional behaviour. In this study, 40 male Wistar Albino rats were separated into 4 groups (n=10 for each group). Osmotic mini-pumps were connected to metal cannulas implanted to lateral ventricle; and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (vehicle), and 10 and 100nM of irisin was infused for 7days. The daily food and water consumptions and body weights of rats were followed up...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239793/npy1-receptors-participate-in-the-regulation-of-myocardial-contractility-in-rats
#18
P M Masliuko, T A Anikina, A A Zverev, A V Krylova, K Yu Moiseev, T L Zefirov
Selective agonist (Leu(31)Pro(34)NPY) and blocker (BIBP-3226) of NPY1 receptors were used to determine the type of NPY receptors involved in myocardial contraction. Experiments with isometric contraction of myocardial strips from mature rats showed that the agonist produced the most potent effect in a concentration of 10(-7) M. In this concentration, Leu(31)Pro(34)NPY showed the greatest positive inotropic effect on the contraction of the atria and ventricles. In contrast, selective blocker BIBP-3226 reduced the force of myocardial contractions...
February 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229938/participation-of-ghrelin-signalling-in-the-reciprocal-regulation-of-hypothalamic-npy-pomc-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#19
Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
February 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#20
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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