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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903700/dietary-fat-alters-the-response-of-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-y-to-subsequent-energy-intake-in-broiler-chickens
#1
Xiao J Wang, Shao H Xu, Lei Liu, Zhi G Song, Hong C Jiao, Hai Lin
Dietary fat affects appetite and appetite-related peptides in birds and mammals; however, the effect of dietary fat on appetite is still unclear in chickens faced with differential energy statuses. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fat on feed intake and hypothalamic neuropeptides in chickens subjected to two feeding states or two diets. In Experiment 1, chickens were fed a high-fat diet (HF) or low-fat diet (LF) for 35d, and then subjected to fed (HF-fed, LF-fed) or fasted (HF-fasted, LF-fasted) statuses for 24h...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893846/cerebellum-transcriptome-of-mice-bred-for-high-voluntary-activity-offers-insights-into-locomotor-control-and-reward-dependent-behaviors
#3
Kelsey Caetano-Anollés, Justin S Rhodes, Theodore Garland, Sam D Perez, Alvaro G Hernandez, Bruce R Southey, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas
The role of the cerebellum in motivation and addictive behaviors is less understood than that in control and coordination of movements. High running can be a self-rewarding behavior exhibiting addictive properties. Changes in the cerebellum transcriptional networks of mice from a line selectively bred for High voluntary running (H) were profiled relative to an unselected Control (C) line. The environmental modulation of these changes was assessed both in activity environments corresponding to 7 days of Free (F) access to running wheel and to Blocked (B) access on day 7...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893782/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-and-or-salicylate-on-palmitate-or-tnf%C3%AE-induced-neuroinflammatory-marker-and-neuropeptide-gene-regulation-in-immortalized-npy-agrp-neurons
#4
Wenqing Ye, Ernesto H Ramos, Brian C Wong, Denise D Belsham
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus induce feeding and decrease energy expenditure. With consumption of a diet high in fat, there is an increase in circulating saturated free fatty acids, including palmitate, leading to the development of neuroinflammation and secretion of cytokines, such as TNFα, and in turn activation of the canonical IKKβ/NFκB cascade. We describe a model of palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in a functionally characterized, immortalized NPY/AgRP-expressing cell model, mHypoE-46, to study whether the anti-diabetic metformin alone or in combination with the anti-inflammatory agent salicylate can ameliorate these detrimental effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889920/neuropeptide-y-receptor-1-is-expressed-by-b-and-t-lymphocytes-and-mast-cells-in-infantile-haemangiomas
#5
Elysia M S Tan, Max G Blackwell, Jonathan C Dunne, Reginald Marsh, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
AIM: We investigated the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor 1 (NPYR1) and NPY receptor 2 (NPYR2) in infantile haemangiomas (IHs). METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on proliferating IHs from six patients aged 4-13 (mean 8.7) months and involuted IHs from six patients aged 5-59 (mean 18.7) years, for the expression of NPY, NPYR1 and NPYR2. Protein and messenger ribonucleic acid expression corresponding to these proteins was investigated by Western blotting and NanoString analysis, respectively...
November 27, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874262/a-deep-hydrophobic-binding-cavity-is-the-main-interaction-for-different-y2-r-antagonists
#6
Kerstin Burkert, Tristan Zellmann, René Meier, Anette Kaiser, Jan Stichel, Jens Meiler, Gopi K Mittapalli, Edward Roberts, Annette G Beck-Sickinger
The neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2 R) is involved in various pathophysiological processes such as epilepsy, mood disorders, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Therefore, the Y2 R is an interesting target for drug development. A detailed understanding of the binding pocket could facilitate the development of highly selective antagonists to study the role of Y2 R in vitro and in vivo. In this study, several residues crucial to the interaction of BIIE0246 and SF-11 derivatives with Y2 R were investigated by signal transduction assays...
November 22, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867820/alteration-of-npy-in-hypothalamus-and-its-correlation-with-leptin-and-ghrelin-during-the-development-of-t2dm-in-a-rat-model
#7
Qing-Jiu Zhang, Chang-Chun Yang, Song-Yun Zhang, Li-Hui Zhang, Jie Li
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the alteration of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and its correlation with insulin, leptin and ghrelin during the development of a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The type 2 diabetes mellitus model was developed in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats followed by the intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg). At four time points during the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats, the fasting serum insulin, leptin, and plasma ghrelin were measured and the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) content and mRNA expression were detected in the rats, which were divided into 4 groups: normal control (NC), DIO4W, DIO8W, and T2DM; the mRNA expression of OB-Rb, and GSH-R1a in the hypothalamus were also assayed...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862969/mediation-of-oxidative-stress-in-hypothalamic-ghrelin-associated-appetite-control-in-rats-treated-with-phenylpropanolamine
#8
Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)-induced appetite control is associated with oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. This study explored whether hypothalamic antioxidants participated in hypothalamic ghrelin system-associated appetite control in PPA-treated rats. Rats were given PPA daily for 4 days, and changes in food intake and the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
November 8, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856419/neuropeptide-y-npy-promotes-inflammation-induced-tumorigenesis-by-enhancing-epithelial-cell-proliferation
#9
Sabrina Jeppsson, Shanthi Srinivasan, Bindu Chandrasekharan
We have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY), abundantly produced by enteric neurons, is an important regulator of intestinal inflammation. However the role of NPY in the progression of chronic inflammation to tumorigenesis is unknown. We investigated whether NPY could modulate epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and thus regulate tumorigenesis. Repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSSn) was used to model inflammation-induced tumorigenesis in wild-type (WT) and NPY knockout (NPY(-/-)) mice...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855650/trimetazidine-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-early-cardiac-energy-dysfunction-via-regulation-of-neuropeptide-y-system-in-a-rat-model-of-abdominal-aortic-constriction
#10
Ailan Chen, Wanglin Li, Xinyu Chen, Yuechun Shen, Wenjun Dai, Qi Dong, Xinchun Li, Caiwen Ou, Minsheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Metabolism remodeling has been recognized as an early event following cardiac pressure overload. However, its temporal association with ventricular hypertrophy has not been confirmed. Moreover, whether trimetazidine could favorably affect this process also needs to be determined. The aim of the study was to explore the temporal changes of myocardial metabolism remodeling following pressure-overload induced ventricular hypertrophy and the potential favorable effect of trimetazidine on myocardial metabolism remodeling...
November 17, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847128/effective-g-protein-coupling-of-y2-receptors-along-axonal-fiber-tracts-and-its-relevance-for-epilepsy
#11
Elisabeth Dum, Sabine Fürtinger, Elisabeth Gasser, Anneliese Bukovac, Meinrad Drexel, Ramon Tasan, Günther Sperk
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y2 receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and, upon activation, induce opening of potassium channels or closing of calcium channels. They are generally presynaptically located. Depending on the neuron in which they are expressed they mediate inhibition of release of NPY and of the neuron's classical transmitter GABA, glutamate or noradrenaline, respectively. Here we provide evidence that Y2 receptor binding is inhibited dose-dependently by GTPγS along Schaffer collaterals, the stria terminalis and the fimbria indicating that Y2 receptors are functionally coupled to G-proteins along these fiber tracts...
October 26, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836326/diabetes-mellitus-influences-the-expression-of-npy-and-vegf-in-neurons-of-rat-trigeminal-ganglion
#12
Milka Jerić, Katarina Vukojević, Ana Vuica, Natalija Filipović
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) influences the trigeminal nerve function by changing the pain response and transduction of the orofacial sensory pathways. It affects the inflammatory response via neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which could potentially have a relevant role in the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy. The aim was to investigate expression of VEGF and NPY in subpopulations of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in rat models of early DM1 and DM2...
November 3, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829152/a-small-potassium-current-in-agrp-npy-neurons-regulates-feeding-behavior-and-energy-metabolism
#13
Yanlin He, Gang Shu, Yongjie Yang, Pingwen Xu, Yan Xia, Chunmei Wang, Kenji Saito, Antentor Hinton, Xiaofeng Yan, Chen Liu, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, Yong Xu
Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823858/ambient-temperature-modulates-the-effects-of-the-prader-willi-syndrome-candidate-gene-snord116-on-energy-homeostasis
#14
Y Qi, L Purtell, M Fu, K Sengmany, K Loh, L Zhang, S Zolotukhin, A Sainsbury, L Campbell, H Herzog
Germline deletion of the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) candidate gene Snord116 in mice leads to some classical symptoms of human PWS, notably reductions in body weight, linear growth and bone mass. However, Snord116 deficient mice (Snord116(-/-)) do not develop an obese phenotype despite their increased food intake and the underlying mechanism for that is unknown. We tested the phenotypes of germline Snord116(-/-) as well as neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuron specific Snord116(lox/lox)/NPY(cre/+) mice at 30°C, the thermoneutral temperature of mice, and compared these to previous reports studies conducted at normal room temperature...
October 27, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822713/dexamethasone-alters-the-appetite-regulation-via-induction-of-hypothalamic-insulin-resistance-in-rat-brain
#15
Ragitha Chruvattil, Shreya Banerjee, Sarmi Nath, Jatin Machhi, Gitika Kharkwal, Mange Ram Yadav, Sarita Gupta
Elevated levels of glucocorticoid, a steroid hormone released in response to stress, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, which is now known to extend its effect on brain functions. Hence, we aimed to investigate the status of brain insulin signaling in response to dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) treatment in female Charles Foster rat. This model exhibited pronounced hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance with loss in appetite and body weight. Immunoblotting of insulin receptor (INSR)-PI3kinase-AKT demonstrated reduced insulin signaling in hypothalamus but no change in hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum in dexamethasone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats, signifying the diversity of distribution and function of insulin in different brain regions...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821576/endogenously-released-neuropeptide-y-suppresses-hippocampal-short-term-facilitation-and-is-impaired-by-stress-induced-anxiety
#16
Qin Li, Aundrea F Bartley, Lynn E Dobrunz
: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has robust anxiolytic properties and is reduced in patients with anxiety disorders. However, mechanisms by which NPY modulates circuit function to reduce anxiety behavior are not known. Anxiolytic effects of NPY are mediated in the CA1 region of hippocampus, and NPY injection into hippocampus alleviates anxiety symptoms in the Predator Scent Stress model of stress-induced anxiety. The mechanisms that regulate NPY release, and its effects on CA1 synaptic function, are not fully understood...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809498/theranostic-nanocages-for-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-active-targeting-of-neuropeptide-y-receptor
#17
Svetlana Avvakumova, Elisabetta Galbiati, Laura Sironi, Silvia A Locarno, Luca Gambini, Chiara Macchi, Laura Pandolfi, Massimiliano Ruscica, Paolo Magni, Maddalena Collini, Miriam Colombo, Fabio Corsi, Giuseppe Chirico, Sergio Romeo, Davide Prosperi
Gold nanocages (AuNCs) have been shown to be a useful tool for harnessing imaging and hyperthermia therapy of cancer, thanks to their unique optical properties, low toxicity and facile surface functionalization. Herein, we use AuNCs for selective targeting of prostate cancer cells (PC3) via specific interaction between neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor and three different NPY analogs conjugated to AuNCs. Localized surface plasmon band of the nanoconjugates was set around 800 nm, which is appropriate for in vivo applications...
November 3, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805869/knockdown-of-neuropeptide-y-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-promotes-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-rats
#18
Lin Li, C Barbier de La Serre, Ni Zhang, Liang Yang, Hong Li, Sheng Bi
Recent evidence has shown that alterations in dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH) neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling influence glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism through which DMH NPY acts to affect glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Here we report that DMH NPY descending signals to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) modulate hepatic insulin sensitivity to control hepatic glucose production in rats. Using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, we revealed that knockdown of NPY in the DMH by adeno-associated virus-mediated NPY-specific RNAi promoted insulin's action on suppression of hepatic glucose production...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805048/kisspeptin-and-rfrp-3-differentially-regulate-food-intake-and-metabolic-neuropeptides-in-the-female-desert-jerboa
#19
Rajae Talbi, Marie-Pierre Laran-Chich, Rabia Magoul, Seloua El Ouezzani, Valérie Simonneaux
Jerboas are wild rodents exhibiting exceptional adaptation to their desert environment. Under harsh autumn conditions, they shut down reproduction, increase body weight and hibernate, while during spring they become sexually active even under negative energy-balance. We recently reported that these rhythms are associated with synchronized changes in genes expressing reproductive (Kiss1, Rfrp) and metabolic (Npy and Pomc) peptides, raising the hypothesis of coordinated seasonal regulation of both functions. Here we analyzed whether kisspeptin and RFRP-3 regulate food-intake in parallel to their established reproductive functions...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803314/promotion-of-adipogenesis-by-neuropeptide-y-during-the-later-stages-of-chicken-preadipocyte-differentiation
#20
Steven L Shipp, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) promotes adipogenesis in both birds and mammals, although mechanisms in avians remain unclear. The objective of this study was thus to evaluate effects of NPY on chick preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Preadipocytes were treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L NPY and gene expression and cellular proliferation were evaluated at 12, 24, and 48 h. At 12 h posttreatment, mRNA abundance of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), and thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase 2 was upregulated and NPY was downregulated in response to NPY (0 vs...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
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