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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775703/ultrastructural-characterization-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-neuropeptide-y-in-the-rat-locus-coeruleus-anatomical-evidence-for-putative-interactions
#1
Catherine C Theisen, Beverly A S Reyes, E L Sabban, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
As a neurochemical mediator of stress resilience, NPY has been shown to oppose excitatory effects of the pro-stress neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Previous studies have described the anatomical organization of NPY and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala, which sends CRF projections to the locus coeruleus (LC), activating LC norepinephrine release. However, the cellular substrates for interactions between NPY and CRF in the LC remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these anatomical substrates in the male rat LC, using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy to detect NPY and CRF, as well as CRF and Y1 or Y2 receptors (Y1R or Y2R)...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775408/lack-of-tone-in-mouse-small-mesenteric-arteries-leads-to-outward-remodeling-which-can-be-prevented-by-prolonged-agonist-induced-vasoconstriction
#2
Anika Klein, Philomeena Daphne Joseph, Vibeke Grøsfjeld Christensen, Lars Jørn Jensen, Jens Christian Brings Jacobsen
Inward remodeling of resistance vessels is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Thus far, the remodeling process remains incompletely elucidated, but the activation level of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) appears to play a central role. Accordingly, previous data suggest that an antagonistic and, supposedly beneficial, response - outward remodeling - may follow prolonged vasodilatation. This study aims to determine if 1) outward remodeling follows 3 days of vessel culture without tone, 2) a similar response can be elicited in a much shorter 4-hour time frame and finally 3) a 4-hour response can be prevented or reversed by the presence of vasoconstrictors in the medium...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765307/a-novel-integrative-mechanism-in-anxiolytic-behavior-induced-by-galanin-2-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-interactions-on-medial-paracapsular-intercalated-amygdala-in-rats
#3
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763369/adipose-y5r-mrna-is-higher-in-obese-than-non-obese-humans-and-is-correlated-with-obesity-parameters
#4
Saimai Chatree, Chantacha Sitticharoon, Pailin Maikaew, Panapat Uawithya, Supornpim Chearskul
Neuropeptide Y is mainly expressed in the central nervous system to regulate food intake via its receptors, Y receptors, and in various peripheral tissues including adipose tissue. The objectives of this study were to compare Y5R mRNA and adipocyte parameters consisting of area, width, height, and perimeter either between obese and non-obese subjects or between subcutaneous and visceral fat as well as to compare between NPY, Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R mRNA expressions in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, Y5R was greater in obese than in non-obese humans (both P < 0...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751614/effects-of-dietary-acute-tryptophan-depletion-atd-on-npy-serum-levels-in-healthy-adult-humans-whilst-controlling-for-methionine-supply-a-pilot-study
#5
Janice W Y Wong, Hugo A E Morandini, Vita L S Dingerkus, Tilman J Gaber, Kevin C Runions, Pradeep Rao, Simone Mahfouda, Katrin Helmbold, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Rebecca Koenemann, Richard M Stewart, Florian D Zepf
Central nervous serotonin (5-HT) can influence behaviour and neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence from animal models suggest that lowered levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) may have similar effects, although it is currently unknown whether decreased central nervous 5-HT impact NPY concentrations. Given that the production of NPY is dependent on the essential amino acid methionine (MET), it is imperative to account for the presence of MET in such investigations. Hence, this study sought to examine the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD; a dietary procedure that temporarily lowers central nervous 5-HT synthesis) on serum concentrations of NPY, whilst using the potential renal acid load indicator (PRAL) to control for levels of MET...
May 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746501/dietary-challenges-differentially-affect-activity-and-sleep-wake-behavior-in-mus-musculus-isolating-independent-associations-with-diet-energy-balance-and-body-weight
#6
Isaac J Perron, Brendan T Keenan, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Nicholas F Lahens, Nicole L Yohn, Keith R Shockley, Allan I Pack, Sigrid C Veasey
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Associated with numerous metabolic and behavioral abnormalities, obesity is classified by metrics reliant on body weight (such as body mass index). However, overnutrition is the common cause of obesity, and may independently contribute to these obesity-related abnormalities. Here, we use dietary challenges to parse apart the relative influence of diet and/or energy balance from body weight on various metabolic and behavioral outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy male mice (mus musculus) were subjected to the diet switch feeding paradigm, generating groups with various body weights and energetic imbalances...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745385/understanding-am-3-cm-3-separation-with-h-4-tpaen-and-its-hydrophilic-derivatives-a-quantum-chemical-study
#7
Pin-Wen Huang, Cong-Zhi Wang, Qun-Yan Wu, Jian-Hui Lan, Gang Song, Zhi-Fang Chai, Wei-Qun Shi
Am3+/Cm3+ separation is an extremely hard but important task in nuclear waste treatment. In this study, Am and Cm complexes formed with a back-extraction agent N,N,N',N'-tetrakis[(6-carboxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]ethylene-diamine (H4TPAEN) and its two derivatives with hydrophilic substituents (methoxy and morpholine groups) were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). The optimized geometrical structures indicated that the Am3+ cation matched better with the cavities of the three studied ligands than Cm3+, and the Am3+ cations were located deeper in the cavities of the ligands...
May 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740512/bioinformatic-analysis-and-identification-of-potential-prognostic-micrornas-and-mrnas-in-thyroid-cancer
#8
Jianing Tang, Deguang Kong, Qiuxia Cui, Kun Wang, Dan Zhang, Qianqian Yuan, Xing Liao, Yan Gong, Gaosong Wu
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine malignancies. Multiple evidences revealed that a large number of microRNAs and mRNAs were abnormally expressed in thyroid cancer tissues. These microRNAs and mRNAs play important roles in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we identified 72 microRNAs and 1,766 mRNAs differentially expressed between thyroid cancer tissues and normal thyroid tissues and evaluated their prognostic values using Kaplan-Meier survival curves by log-rank test. Seven microRNAs (miR-146b, miR-184, miR-767, miR-6730, miR-6860, miR-196a-2 and miR-509-3) were associated with the overall survival...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739919/identification-of-core-genes-and-key-pathways-via-integrated-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-profiles-in-bladder-cancer
#9
Yongzhen Zhang, Liang Fang, Yuanwei Zang, Zhonghua Xu
BACKGROUND Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common urological malignant tumor. In BC, aberrant DNA methylation is believed to be associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the identification of key genes and pathways could help determine the potential molecular mechanisms of BC development. MATERIAL AND METHODS Microarray data on gene expression and gene methylation were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Abnormal methylated/expressed genes were analyzed by GEO2R and statistical software R...
May 9, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737878/involvement-of-cortisol-and-sirtuin1-during-the-response-to-stress-of-hypothalamic-circadian-system-and-food-intake-related-peptides-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#10
Fatemeh Naderi, Juan Hernández-Pérez, Mauro Chivite, José L Soengas, Jesús M Míguez, Marcos A López-Patiño
Stress is conditioning animal welfare by negatively affecting a wide range of physiological and behavioral functions. This may be applied to circadian physiology and food intake. Cortisol, the stress-related hormone, may mediate such effect of stress, but other indirect mediators might be considered, such as sirtuin1. Then, either the independent modulatory effect or the existence of any interaction between mediators may be responsible. The circadian system is the main modulator of several integrative mechanisms at both central and peripheral levels that are rhythmically presented, thus influencing different processes such as food intake...
May 8, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730872/neuropeptide-y-levels-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Özlem Hekim Bozkurt, Esra Güney, Zeynep Göker, Gülser Şenses Dinç, Murat Alışık, Özcan Erel, Esra Çöp, Özden Şükran Üneri
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adolescence, however, the etiology has not been described. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one potential factor that may be involved in the etiology of ADHD. The goal of this study was to evaluate NPY levels in children with ADHD and compare the findings to healthy controls. METHODS: Forty-eight ADHD patients and 40 healthy controls were included in this study. The age range of ADHD patients was 6 to 16 years...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714060/a-review-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-snps-in-orexigenic-neuropeptides-targeting-g-protein-coupled-receptors-gpcrs
#13
Mark D Ericson, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
Many physiological pathways are involved in appetite, food intake, and the maintenance of energy homeostasis. In particular, neuropeptides within the central nervous system have been demonstrated to be critical signaling molecules for modulating appetite. Both anorexigenic (appetite-decreasing) and orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) neuropeptides have been described. The biological effects of these neuropeptides can be observed following central administration in animal models. This review will focus on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six orexigenic neuropeptides: agouti-related protein (AGRP), galanin, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), orexin A, and orexin B...
May 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705515/effects-of-water-extract-from-epimedium-on-neuropeptide-signaling-in-an-ovariectomized-osteoporosis-rat-model
#14
Hengrui Liu, Yingquan Xiong, Haixia Wang, Li Yang, Chaopeng Wang, Xiaoguang Liu, Zhidi Wu, Xiaoyun Li, Ling Ou, Ronghua Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: For the past millenium, water extract from Epimedium (dried leaves of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim.) has been widely used for bone disease therapy in traditional Chinese medicine and has been reported to exhibit salutary effects on osteoporosis in clinical trials. The therapeutic effect of Epimedium is associated with the function of the brain in traditional Chinese medicine theory. STUDY AIM: To determine the potential relationship between treating osteoporosis with Epimedium and neuropeptide regulation...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701189/plasma-concentrations-of-neurotransmitters-and-postpartum-depression
#15
Rihua Xie, Haiyan Xie, Daniel Krewski, Guoping He
To determine associations between postpartum depression (PPD) and plasma neurotransmitters.
 Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested to a prospective cohort established in 3 comprehensive tertiary hospitals in Changsha, Hunan, China from February to September 2007. The Chinese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used at 2 weeks postpartum to screen PPD, with a score of 13 or higher as the cut-off for PPD. The women with matched age but without PPD and delivery within 5 years were selected as controls...
March 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697017/high-fat-diet-induces-depression-like-behaviour-in-mice-associated-with-changes-in-microbiome-neuropeptide-y-and-brain-metabolome
#16
Ahmed M Hassan, Giulia Mancano, Karl Kashofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Andrija Matak, Raphaela Mayerhofer, Florian Reichmann, Marta Olivares, Audrey M Neyrinck, Nathalie M Delzenne, Sandrine P Claus, Peter Holzer
OBJECTIVES: The biological mechanisms linking diet-related obesity and depression remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) on murine behaviour, intestinal microbiome, brain metabolome, neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity. METHODS: Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed an HFD (60 kJ% from fat) or control diet (12 kJ% from fat) for 8 weeks, followed by behavioural phenotyping. Caecal microbiome was analysed by 16S rDNA sequencing, brain metabolome by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, NPY expression by PCR and immunoassay, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity by enzymatic assay...
April 26, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682090/the-neuropeptide-genes-sst-tac1-hcrt-npy-and-gal-are-powerful-epigenetic-biomarkers-in-head-and-neck-cancer-a-site-specific-analysis
#17
Kiyoshi Misawa, Masato Mima, Atsushi Imai, Daiki Mochizuki, Yuki Misawa, Shiori Endo, Ryuji Ishikawa, Takeharu Kanazawa, Hiroyuki Mineta
Background: Staging and pathological grading systems are convenient but imperfect predictors of recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identifying biomarkers for HNSCC that will progress and cause death is a critical research area, particularly if the biomarker can be linked to selection of patients. Therefore, to identify potential alternative prognostic markers, we investigated the methylation status of five neuropeptide gene promoters. The promoter methylation status was determined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in 230 cases of HNSCC; 58 hypopharynx, 45 larynx, 56 oropharynx, and 71 oral cavity tumor samples were studied...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681847/cholinergic-hypofunction-in-presbycusis-related-tinnitus-with-cognitive-function-impairment-emerging-hypotheses
#18
Qingwei Ruan, Zhuowei Yu, Weibin Zhang, Jian Ruan, Chunhui Liu, Ruxin Zhang
Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679911/the-effects-of-valproate-and-topiramate-use-on-serum-insulin-leptin-neuropeptide-y-and-ghrelin-levels-in-epileptic-children
#19
Nafiye Polat Çiçek, Tülay Kamaşak, Mine Serin, Aysenur Okten, Ahmet Alver, Ali Cansu
PURPOSE: Although some drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy are known to affect body weight, the hormonal factors responsible have not been sufficiently described. The purpose of this study was to compare insulin, leptin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin levels in children with epilepsy receiving monotherapy with topiramate (TPM) and valproic acid (VPA), the drugs whose effects on body weight have been most discussed, with those of a control group. METHOD: 48 patients (25 VPA, 23 TPM) aged between 6 and 15...
April 11, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674968/peripherally-administered-y-2-receptor-antagonist-biie0246-prevents-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-with-excess-neuropeptide-y-but-enhances-obesity-in-control-mice
#20
Liisa Ailanen, Laura H Vähätalo, Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Satu Mäkelä, Wendy Orpana, Suvi T Ruohonen, Eriika Savontaus
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the level of central and sympathetic nervous systems (SNSs). Genetic silencing of peripheral Y2 -receptors have anti-obesity effects, but it is not known whether pharmacological blocking of peripheral Y2 -receptors would similarly benefit energy homeostasis. The effects of a peripherally administered Y2 -receptor antagonist were studied in healthy and energy-rich conditions with or without excess NPY. Genetically obese mice overexpressing NPY in brain noradrenergic nerves and SNS (OE-NPYDβH ) represented the situation of elevated NPY levels, while wildtype (WT) mice represented the normal NPY levels...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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