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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738162/neuropeptide-y-and-its-receptors-in-ventricular-endocardial-endothelial-cells
#1
Danielle Jacques, Pedro D'Orleans-Juste, Sheldon Magder, Ghassan Bkaily
Endocardial endothelial cells (EECs) constitute an important component of the heart. These cells form a monolayer that covers the cavities of the right (EECRs) and left (EECLs) ventricles. They play an important role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling via their secretion of cardioactive factors such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). They also contribute to cardiac pathology such as arrhythmia, hypertrophy and heart failure. Differences between EECRs and EECLs contribute to tuning of circulating factors at the entry and exit of the ventricles...
July 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737807/npy-binds-with-heme-to-form-a-npy-heme-complex-enhancing-peroxidase-activity-in-free-heme-and-promoting-npy-nitration-and-inactivation
#2
Huixian Ye, Zhen Yang, Hailing Li, Zhonghong Gao
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a member of the pancreatic peptide family of neuropeptides that play a crucial role in numerous central and peripheral nervous system responses. Recently, it has been shown that NPY protects cells against neurotoxic damage from β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Heme is a common factor linking several metabolic perturbations in AD and altered heme metabolism has been shown to be related to the pathologies of AD. Thus, heme may have a chance to act on NPY and potentially counteract its function...
July 24, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#3
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720509/the-neuropeptide-galanin-promotes-an-anti-thrombotic-phenotype-on-endocardial-endothelial-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#4
Christina Tyrrell, Amanda Toyooka, Faiza Khan, Kent L Thornburg, James O Mudd, Wohaib Hasan
Thromboembolic complications are a significant cause of mortality and re-hospitalization in heart failure (HF) patients. One source of thrombi is the ventricular endocardial surface that becomes increasingly pro-thrombotic as HF progresses. Anticoagulation comes with bleeding risks so identifying therapeutic agents for improving cardiac endothelial health are of critical clinical importance. Endocardial endothelial cells are closely apposed to cardiac sympathetic nerves. In HF, cardiac sympathetic nerves are dysregulated and promote disease progression...
July 12, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713048/phytochemical-analysis-and-effects-on-ingestive-behaviour-of-a-caralluma-fimbriata-extract
#5
Annabella Vitalone, Antonella Di Sotto, Caterina Loredana Mammola, Rosemarie Heyn, Selenia Miglietta, Paola Mariani, Fabio Sciubba, Passarelli Francesca, Nativio Paola, Gabriela Mazzanti
Caralluma fimbriata Wall. is currently used as a "natural slimming" food supplement, likely due to its content in pregnane glycosides. In the present study, a commercially available Caralluma fimbriata extract (Slimaluma(®); CFE, 100 mg/kg) has been evaluated for its ability to affect the ingestive behaviour in female rats, also with reference to the modulation of brain neuropeptides NPY and ORX.The interference of CFE with α-amylase and lipase has been investigated in vitro, as possible peripheral mechanism of action...
July 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712386/neuropeptide-y-improves-cisplatin-induced-bone-marrow-dysfunction-without-blocking-chemotherapeutic-efficacy-in-a-cancer-mouse-model
#6
Min Hee Park, In Kyung Jung, Woo-Kie Min, Jin Ho Choi, Gyu Man Kim, Hee Kyung Jin, Jae-Sung Bae
Cisplatin is the most effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agent for many types of cancer. Unfortunately, its clinical use is limited by its adverse effects, notably bone marrow suppression leading to abnormal hematopoiesis. We previously revealed that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is responsible for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function by protecting the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) fibers survival from chemotherapy-induced bone marrow impairment. Here, we show the NPY-mediated protective effect against bone marrow dysfunction due to cisplatin in an ovarian cancer mouse model...
July 17, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702613/four-component-zinc-porphyrin-zinc-salphen-nanorotor
#7
Merve S Özer, Anup Rana, Pronay K Biswas, Michael Schmittel
An off-axis supramolecular rotor was composed of four components: a zinc-porphyrin based stator with four phenanthroline stations and a zinc-salphen based rotator were self-assembled with DABCO and four copper(i) ions to furnish the rotor ROT-2 in quantitative yield. The DABCO serves as a connecting axle between the rotator and the stator, while the rotator is additionally connected to two copper(i)-loaded phenanthroline stations of the stator via its two pyridine terminals (Npy → [Cu(phen)](+)). For the thermally activated rotation both Npy → [Cu(phen)](+) interactions have to be cleaved...
July 12, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694769/hypothalamic-integration-of-metabolic-endocrine-and-circadian-signals-in-fish-involvement-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#8
REVIEW
María J Delgado, José M Cerdá-Reverter, José L Soengas
The regulation of food intake in fish is a complex process carried out through several different mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) with hypothalamus being the main regulatory center. As in mammals, a complex hypothalamic circuit including two populations of neurons: one co-expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and the second one population co-expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is involved in the integration of information relating to food intake control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690493/emerging-signaling-pathway-in-arcuate-feeding-related-neurons-role-of-the-acbd7
#9
REVIEW
Damien Lanfray, Denis Richard
The understanding of the mechanisms whereby energy balance is regulated is essential to the unraveling of the pathophysiology of obesity. In the last three decades, focus was put on the metabolic role played by the hypothalamic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and the neurons co-localizing agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These neurons are part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway, whose role is key in energy balance regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687371/body-weight-loss-effective-satiation-and-absence-of-homeostatic-neuropeptide-compensation-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-schedule-fed%C3%A2-a-protein-crosslinked-diet
#10
Nikki Cassie, Richard L Anderson, Dana Wilson, Anne Pawsey, Julian G Mercer, Perry Barrett
Food structure contributes to the induction of satiation and the maintenance of satiety following intake of a meal. There is evidence from human studies that protein-crosslinking of a milk-protein based meal may enhance satiety, but the mechanism underpinning this effect is unknown. We investigated whether a rat model would respond in a similar manner and might provide mechanistic insight into enhanced satiety by structural modification of a food source. Rats were schedule fed a modified AIN-93M based diet in a liquid form or protein-crosslinked to produce a soft-solid form...
July 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686209/detailed-characterization-of-sympathetic-chain-ganglia-schg-neurons-supplying-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#11
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
It is generally known that in the skin sympathetic fibers innervate various dermal structures, including sweat glands, blood vessels, arrectores pilorum muscles and hair follicles. However, there is a lack of data about the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the skin of the pig, a model that is physiologically and anatomically very representative for humans. Thus, the present study was designed to establish the origin of the sympathetic fibers supplying the porcine skin of the hind leg, and the pattern(s) of putative co-incidence of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leu5-enkephalin and galanin (GAL) using combined retrograde tracing and double-labeling immunohistochemistry...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685891/specification-of-neurotransmitter-identity-by-tal1-in-thalamic-nuclei
#12
Bumwhee Lee, Myungsin Lee, Somang Song, Linh Duc Loi, Duc Tri Lam, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, David J Curtis, Yongsu Jeong
BACKGROUND: The neurons contributing to thalamic nuclei are derived from at least two distinct progenitor domains, the caudal (cTH) and rostral (rTH) population of thalamic progenitors. These neural compartments exhibit unique neurogenic patterns and the molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of neurotransmitter identity remain largely unclear. RESULTS: T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 (Tal1) was expressed in the early postmitotic cells in the rTH domain, and its expression was maintained in mature thalamic neurons in the ventrolateral geniculate nucleus (vLG) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL)...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684967/cyclocarya-paliurus-batal-ijinskaja-aqueous-extract-cpae-ameliorates-obesity-by-improving-insulin-signaling-in-the-hypothalamus-of-a-metabolic-syndrome-rat-model
#13
Guangyuan Xu, Hisae Yoshitomi, Wen Sun, Xuan Guo, Lili Wu, Xiangyu Guo, Lingling Qin, Yixin Fan, Tunhai Xu, Tonghua Liu, Ming Gao
BACKGROUND: Antiobesity drugs may not be optimal for treating obesity. However novel antiobesity agents, especially those derived from natural products, may be suitable. Therefore, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of Cyclocarya paliurus (CP) aqueous extract (CPAE) on obesity. METHODS: SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR/cp) rats were used as a model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Experimental animals were allocated into two groups-control and CPAE (0.5 g/kg)-for a 7-week treatment period...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676949/effect-of-the-squid-viscera-hydrolysate-on-growth-performance-and-digestion-in-the-red-sea-bream-pagrus-major
#14
Fumitaka Kondo, Takashi Ohta, Toshiharu Iwai, Atsushi Ido, Chiemi Miura, Takeshi Miura
The improvement in feed efficiency is one of the most important subjects in fish culture. The development of feed, in terms of good intake, high growth performance, and high feed efficiency is needed. Squid viscera are one of the candidates for alternative material in improving feed efficiency in fish culture. In the present study, we described the dietary effect of the squid viscera hydrolysate (SVH) on the growth performance of the red sea bream. The addition of SVH to feed caused significant increases in feed intake, fork length, and body weight and produced a marked improvement in feed conversion after 4 weeks of feeding...
July 4, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676307/new-immunomodulatory-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-salmo-salar-leucocytes
#15
Roxana González-Stegmaier, Franz Villarroel-Espíndola, René Manríquez, Mauricio López, Mónica Monrás, Jaime Figueroa, Ricardo Enríquez, Alex Romero
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays different roles in mammals such as: regulate food intake, memory retention, cardiovascular functions, and anxiety. It has also been shown in the modulation of chemotaxis, T lymphocyte differentiation, and leukocyte migration. In fish, NPY expression and functions have been studied but its immunomodulatory role remains undescribed. This study confirmed the expression and synthesis of NPY in S. salar under inflammation, and validated a commercial antibody for NPY detection in teleost...
July 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675783/insulin-and-leptin-excite-anorexigenic-proopiomelanocortin-neurons-via-activation-of-trpc5-channels
#16
REVIEW
Jian Qiu, Edward J Wagner, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are vital anorexigenic neurons. Both the insulin receptor and leptin receptor are coupled to activation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) to regulate multiple functions that increase POMC neuronal excitability. Using whole-cell recording in several mammalian species, we have found that both insulin and leptin depolarized POMC neurons via activation of TRPC5 channels. TRPC5 channels have been rigorously characterized as the downstream effector based on their biophysical properties, pharmacological profile and localization by immunocytochemistry and scRT-PCR...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659833/neuropeptide-y-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-comorbid-depression-versus-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Per Svenningsson, Sven Pålhagen, Aleksander A Mathé
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. The diagnosis of PD is based on movement dysfunctions. Many patients also suffer from comorbid depression in spite of adequate treatment with dopamine replacement, indicating that also other non-dopaminergic mechanisms are involved. Indeed, neuropeptides are critically implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). To increase our understanding of the biochemical basis of depression in PD patients, we examined the levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from PD patients, with or without comorbid depression, and compared them to the levels in patients with MDD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656295/inhibition-of-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-induces-osteoblast-differentiation-in-mc3t3%C3%A2-e1-cells
#18
Motoki Yahara, Kanchu Tei, Masato Tamura
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a major neural signaling molecule. NPY is produced by peripheral tissues, such as osteoblasts, and binds to the corresponding Y1 receptor that belongs to the G‑protein‑coupled receptor family. Osteoblast‑specific Y1 receptor knockout mice exhibit high bone mass, indicating a role of the NPY‑Y1 receptor axis in the regulation of bone homeostasis. In the bone microenvironment, peripheral nerve fibers and osteoblasts produce NPY. However, the effects of the Y1 receptor on osteoblasts remain unexplored...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649723/distribution-and-female-reproductive-state-differences-in-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#19
Danielle T Porter, David A Roberts, Karen P Maruska
Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647359/mild-hypothermia-ameliorates-muscle-wasting-in-septic-rats-associated-with-hypothalamic-ampk-induced-autophagy-and-neuropeptides
#20
Chun Cao, Tao Gao, Minhua Cheng, Fengchan Xi, Chenyan Zhao, Wenkui Yu
Sepsis, always developing muscle wasting, contributes to serious complications and mortality. Mild hypothermia has been reported to have protective effects on the prognosis of septic patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We therefore hypothesized that mild hypothermia could ameliorate muscle wasting during sepsis and whether it was associated with hypothalamus AMPK-induced autophagy and neuropeptides. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg) or saline...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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