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Visual processing delay

Audrey J Sederberg, Jason N MacLean, Stephanie E Palmer
To compensate for sensory processing delays, the visual system must make predictions to ensure timely and appropriate behaviors. Recent work has found predictive information about the stimulus in neural populations early in vision processing, starting in the retina. However, to utilize this information, cells downstream must be able to read out the predictive information from the spiking activity of retinal ganglion cells. Here we investigate whether a downstream cell could learn efficient encoding of predictive information in its inputs from the correlations in the inputs themselves, in the absence of other instructive signals...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sanna Puusepp, Reka Kovacs-Nagy, Bader Alhaddad, Matthias Braunisch, Georg F Hoffmann, Urania Kotzaeridou, Lucia Lichvarova, Mailis Liiv, Christine Makowski, Merle Mandel, Thomas Meitinger, Sander Pajusalu, Richard J Rodenburg, Dzhamilja Safiulina, Tim M Strom, Inga Talvik, Annika Vaarmann, Callum Wilson, Allen Kaasik, Tobias B Haack, Katrin Õunap
Variants in the SPATA5 gene were recently described in a cohort of patients with global developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, seizures, cortical visual impairment and microcephaly. SPATA5 protein localizes predominantly in the mitochondria and is proposed to be involved in mitochondrial function and brain developmental processes. However no functional studies have been performed. This study describes five patients with psychomotor developmental delay, microcephaly, epilepsy and hearing impairment, who were thought clinically to have a mitochondrial disease with subsequent whole-exome sequencing analysis detecting compound heterozygous variants in the SPATA5 gene...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Kai-Chih Huang, Jeremy McCall, Pu Wang, Chien-Sheng Liao, Gregory Eakins, Ji-Xin Cheng, Chen Yang
Graphene grain boundaries (GBs) and other nano-defects can deteriorate electronic properties. Here, using transient absorption (TA) microscopy, we directly visualized GBs by TA intensity increase due to change in density of state. We also observed a faster decay due to defect-accelerated carrier relaxation in the GB area. By line-illumination and parallel detection, we increased the TA intensity imaging speed to 1,000 frames per second, which is 6 orders of magnitude faster than Raman microscopy. Combined with a resonant optical delay tuner which scans a 5...
January 17, 2018: Nano Letters
Sunita Gudwani, Sanjay K Munjal, Naresh K Panda, Adarsh Kohli
INTRODUCTION: Chronic subjective tinnitus is associated with cognitive disruptions affecting perception, thinking, language, reasoning, problem solving, memory, visual tasks (reading) and attention. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate existence of any association between tinnitus parameters and neuropsychological performance to explain cognitive processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design was prospective, consisting 25 patients with idiopathic chronic subjective tinnitus and gave informed consent before planning their treatment...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
Céline Paeye, Thérèse Collins, Patrick Cavanagh, Arvid Herwig
The cortical representations of a visual object differ radically across saccades. Several studies claim that the visual system adapts the peripheral percept to better match the subsequent foveal view. Recently, Herwig, Weiß, and Schneider (2015, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1339(1), 97-105) found that the perception of shape demonstrates a saccade-dependent learning effect. Here, we ask whether this learning actually requires saccades. We replicated Herwig et al.'s (2015) study and introduced a fixation condition...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Sze Chai Kwok, Carlo Fantoni, Laura Tamburini, Lei Wang, Walter Gerbino
We used a cross-modal priming paradigm to evoke a biphasic effect in visual short-term memory. Participants were required to match the memorandum (a visual shape, either spiky or curvy) to a delayed probe (a shape belonging to the same category). In two-thirds of trials the sequence of shapes was accompanied by a task-irrelevant sound (either tzk or upo, cross-modally correspondent to spiky and curvy shape categories, respectively). The biphasic effect occurred when a congruent vs. incongruent sound was presented 200ms after the memorandum, while it did not occur when the sound was presented 200ms before or simultaneously with it...
January 8, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Florent Lebon, Célia Ruffino, Ian Greenhouse, Ludovica Labruna, Richard B Ivry, Charalambos Papaxanthis
Current theories consider motor imagery, the mental representation of action, to have considerable functional overlap with the processes involved in actual movement preparation and execution. To test the neural specificity of motor imagery, we conducted a series of 3 experiments using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared changes in corticospinal excitability as people prepared and implemented actual or imagined movements, using a delayed response task in which a cue indicated the forthcoming response...
January 4, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Alan N Simmons, Lindsay M Squeglia, M Alejandra Infante, Joseph P Schacht, Susan F Tapert
BACKGROUND: Half of all new alcohol initiates are between 12 and 17 years old. This is a period of intense neurodevelopment, including changes in functional connectivity patterns among higher-order function areas. It is crucial to understand how alcohol-related neurotoxicity may be influenced by drinking onset age. DESIGN: This study prospectively examined the effects of age of first drink on frontoparietal context-dependent functional connectivity (cdFC) during a visual working memory task...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
D A Camfield, T K Burton, F M De Blasio, R J Barry, R J Croft
Recent research has provided evidence to suggest that emotional stimuli may interfere with response inhibition, due to automatic capture of attention. Whilst previous studies have provided data regarding changes to event-related potentials (ERPs) in emotional Go/NoGo tasks, few studies to-date have utilized an emotional stop signal task (SST). Thirty-five participants were included in the study; 21 healthy controls and 14 depressed. An indirect emotional SST was employed, which consisted of the presentation of neutral, negative or positive visual images...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Christian Gerlach, Solja K Klargaard, Anders Petersen, Randi Starrfelt
There is accumulating evidence suggesting that a central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by profound and lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon's paradigm where individuals with DP show a greater local or reduced global bias compared with controls. However, it has not been established what gives rise to this altered processing bias. Is it a reduced global precedence effect, changes in susceptibility to interference effects or both? By analyzing the performance of 10 individuals with DP in Navon's paradigm we find evidence of a reduced global precedence effect: The DPs are slower than controls to process global but not local shape information...
2017: PloS One
Lance Bodily, Jenny Yu, Dante Sorrentino, Barton Branstetter
Purpose: Orbital apex syndrome due to spread of infectious sinusitis is a serious disease, often with an insidious presentation with few ophthalmic signs and symptoms. Failure to recognize and treat infectious orbital apex syndrome early portends a grave prognosis, including profound, permanent visual loss and potentially death. Herein we describe a representative case and discuss the relevant aspects of prompt diagnosis and treatment. Observations: An unusual case of infectious orbital apex syndrome due to contiguous spread of Streptococcus viridans sphenoethmoiditis in a hospitalized, immunosuppressed patient with acute myelogenous leukemia is presented...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Sherry A Beaudreau, Nathan C Hantke, Nehjla Mashal, Christine E Gould, Victor W Henderson, Ruth O'Hara
While investigations have sought to identify the distinct and shared contributions of anxiety and depression to neurocognitive processes in late life, less is known regarding the further contribution of worry, a unique and critical dimension of affective dysregulation. Capturing the full range of symptoms, as inspired by the NIH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), may provide finer-grained information on inter-relationships among worry, anxiety and depression on neurocognitive processing in later life. The objective of this study was to determine if the dimensional trait of worry intensifies known negative associations of dimensional measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms with neurocognitive processes, specifically cognitive control and memory processes...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
Yoshimori Sugano, Mirjam Keetels, Jean Vroomen
Perception of synchrony between one's own action (a finger tap) and the sensory feedback thereof (a visual flash or an auditory pip) can be recalibrated after exposure to an artificially inserted delay between them (temporal recalibration effect: TRE). TRE might be mediated by a compensatory shift of motor timing (when did I tap?) and/or the sensory timing of the feedback (when did I hear/see the feedback?). To examine this, we asked participants to voluntarily tap their index finger at a constant pace while receiving visual or auditory feedback (a flash or pip) that was either synced or somewhat delayed relative to the tap...
2017: PloS One
David A Menassa, Sven Braeutigam, Anthony Bailey, Christine M Falter-Wagner
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with anomalies in time perception. In a perceptual simultaneity task, individuals with ASD demonstrate superior performance compared to typically developing (TD) controls. γ-activity, a robust marker of visual processing, is reportedly altered in ASD in response to a wide variety of tasks and these differences may be related to superior performance in perceptual simultaneity. Using time-frequency analysis, we assessed evoked γ-band phase-locking in magnetoencephalographic recordings of 16 ASD individuals and 17 age-matched TD controls...
November 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Karolina Laskowska-Macios, Lutgarde Arckens, Małgorzata Kossut, Kalina Burnat
Deprivation of patterned visual information, as in early onset congenital cataract patients, results in a severe impairment in global motion perception. Previously we reported a delayed maturation of the peripheral visual field representation in primary visual area 17, based on a 2-D DIGE screen for protein expression changes and in situ hybridization for the activity reporter gene ZIF268. To corroborate these findings we here explore the binocular pattern deprivation (BD)-regulated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-described neurotrophin precipitously regulated by early visual experience...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Wesley R Barnhart, Samuel Rivera, Christopher W Robinson
The present study sought to better understand how children, young adults, and older adults attend and respond to multisensory information. In Experiment 1, young adults were presented with two spoken words, two pictures, or two word-picture pairings and they had to determine if the two stimuli/pairings were exactly the same or different. Pairing the words and pictures together slowed down visual but not auditory response times and delayed the latency of first fixations, both of which are consistent with a proposed mechanism underlying auditory dominance...
November 24, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Iris Wiegand, Martin J Lauritzen, Merete Osler, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Egill Rostrup, Lene Rask, Nelly Richard, Anna Horwitz, Krisztina Benedek, Signe Vangkilde, Anders Petersen
Visual short-term memory (vSTM) is a cognitive resource that declines with age. This study investigated whether electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of vSTM vary with cognitive development over individuals' lifespan. We measured vSTM performance and EEG in a lateralized whole-report task in a healthy birth cohort, whose cognitive function (intelligence quotient) was assessed in youth and late-middle age. Higher vSTM capacity (K; measured by Bundesen's theory of visual attention) was associated with higher amplitudes of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the central positivity (CP)...
October 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Alison R Weiss, Wendi Guo, Rebecca Richardson, Jocelyne Bachevalier
The perirhinal cortex is known to support high-level perceptual abilities as well as familiarity judgments that may affect recognition memory. We tested whether poor perceptual abilities or a loss of familiarity judgment contributed to the recognition memory impairments reported earlier in monkeys with PRh lesions received in infancy (Neo-PRh) (Weiss and Bachevalier, 2016; Zeamer et al., 2015). Perceptual abilities were assessed using a version of the Visual Paired Comparison task with black&white (B&W) stimuli, and familiarity judgments were assessed using the Constant Negative task requiring repeated familiarization exposures...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Pierleone Lucatelli, Renato Argirò, Stefano Bascetta, Luca Saba, Carlo Catalano, Mario Bezzi, Giovanni Battista Levi Sandri
Cone-beam CT (CBCT) application to the field of trans-arterial chemoembolization has been recently the focus of several researches. This imaging modality is performed with a rotation of the C-arm around the patient, without needs of patient repositioning. Datasets are immediately processed, obtaining volumetric CT-like images with the possibility of post-processing and reconstruction of images. Dual phase CBCT recently introduced in clinical practice consists in a first arterial acquisition followed by a delayed acquisition corresponding to a venous phase...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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