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Visual processing delay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783078/delayed-bipolar-and-ganglion-cells-neuroretinal-processing-in-regular-cannabis-users-the-retina-as-a-relevant-site-to-investigate-brain-synaptic-transmission-dysfunctions
#1
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Anne Giersch, Laurence Lalanne, Eliane Albuisson, Vincent Laprevote
Cannabis use is widespread worldwide, but the impact of smoking cannabis regularly on brain synaptic transmission has only been partially elucidated. The retina is considered as an easy means of determining dysfunction in brain synaptic transmission. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating retinal synaptic transmission, which might also be affected by tobacco. Previous preliminary results have shown impairments in retinal ganglion cell response in cannabis users. Here, we test the extent to which earlier retinal levels-bipolar cells and photoreceptors-are affected in cannabis users, i...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779433/age-differences-in-the-neural-response-to-negative-feedback
#2
Holly J Bowen, Cheryl L Grady, Julia Spaniol
Affective processing is one domain that remains relatively intact in healthy aging. Investigations into the neural responses associated with reward anticipation have revealed that older and younger adults recruit the same midbrain reward regions, but other evidence suggests this recruitment may differ depending on the valence (gain, loss) of the incentive cue. The goal of the current study was to examine functional covariance during gain and loss feedback in younger and healthy older adults. A group of 15 older adults (mean age = 68...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774475/neuropsychological-profiles-of-breast-cancer-and-brain-tumor-cohorts-in-northeast-ontario-canada
#3
Matias Mariani, Mark William Glister Collins
PURPOSE: As developments in cancer treatment have improved outcomes, research has increasingly focused on the role of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in quality of life for cancer survivors. Impairment profiles have been heterogeneous across studies, necessitating the study of these effects across different cohorts. The purpose of this preliminary study is to compare the memory profiles of Northeast Ontario breast and CNS cancer patients, as there is no literature which exists for profiling CRCI within this largely rural region...
May 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761025/the-dissociations-of-visual-processing-of-hole-and-no-hole-stimuli-an-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#4
Qianli Meng, Yan Huang, Ding Cui, Lixia He, Lin Chen, Yuanye Ma, Xudong Zhao
Introduction: "Where to begin" is a fundamental question of vision. A "Global-first" topological approach proposed that the first step in object representation was to extract topological properties, especially whether the object had a hole or not. Numerous psychophysical studies found that the hole (closure) could be rapidly recognized by visual system as a primitive property. However, neuroimaging studies showed that the temporal lobe (IT), which lied at a late stage of ventral pathway, was involved as a dedicated region...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746594/the-interplay-between-selective-and-nonselective-inhibition-during-single-word-production
#5
Ruben D Vromans, Suzanne R Jongman
The present study investigated the interplay between selective inhibition (the ability to suppress specific competing responses) and nonselective inhibition (the ability to suppress any inappropriate response) during single word production. To this end, we combined two well-established research paradigms: the picture-word interference task and the stop-signal task. Selective inhibition was assessed by instructing participants to name target pictures (e.g., dog) in the presence of semantically related (e.g., cat) or unrelated (e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736339/post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-are-associated-with-better-performance-on-a-delayed-match-to-position-task
#6
Meghan D Caulfield, Catherine E Myers
Many individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report experiencing frequent intrusive memories of the original traumatic event (e.g., flashbacks). These memories can be triggered by situations or stimuli that reflect aspects of the trauma and may reflect basic processes in learning and memory, such as generalization. It is possible that, through increased generalization, non-threatening stimuli that once evoked normal memories become associated with traumatic memories. Previous research has reported increased generalization in PTSD, but the role of visual discrimination processes has not been examined...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729589/incongruent-visual-feedback-during-a-postural-task-enhances-cortical-alpha-and-beta-modulation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Maarten R C van den Heuvel, Erwin E H van Wegen, Peter J Beek, Gert Kwakkel, Andreas Daffertshofer
OBJECTIVE: In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), augmented visual feedback (VF) can improve functional motor performance. Conversely, they appear to rely more on visual information than healthy subjects, which is unfavorable when this information is unreliable. Cortical beta activity is thought to be associated with the need for motor adaptation. We here compared event-related EEG parameters during a whole-body postural weight-shifting task between congruent and incongruent feedback conditions...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713889/acellular-dermal-matrix-allograft-versus-free-gingival-graft-a-histological-evaluation-and-split-mouth-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Daniel Romeu Benchimol de Resende, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar Greghi, Aline Franco Siqueira, César Augusto Magalhães Benfatti, Carla Andreotti Damante, Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti Zangrando
OBJECTIVES: This split-mouth controlled randomized clinical trial evaluated clinical and histological results of acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADM) compared to autogenous free gingival graft (FGG) for keratinized tissue augmentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with the absence or deficiency of keratinized tissue (50 sites) were treated with FGG (control group) and ADM (test group). Clinical parameters included keratinized tissue width (KTW) (primary outcome), soft tissue thickness (TT), recession depth (RD), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703945/critical-period-inhibition-of-nkcc1-rectifies-synapse-plasticity-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-and-restores-adult-tactile-response-maps-in-fragile-x-mice
#9
Qionger He, Erica D Arroyo, Samuel N Smukowski, Jian Xu, Claire Piochon, Jeffrey N Savas, Carlos Portera-Cailliau, Anis Contractor
Sensory perturbations in visual, auditory and tactile perception are core problems in fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the Fmr1 knockout mouse model of FXS, the maturation of synapses and circuits during critical period (CP) development in the somatosensory cortex is delayed, but it is unclear how this contributes to altered tactile sensory processing in the mature CNS. Here we demonstrate that inhibiting the juvenile chloride co-transporter NKCC1, which contributes to altered chloride homeostasis in developing cortical neurons of FXS mice, rectifies the chloride imbalance in layer IV somatosensory cortex neurons and corrects the development of thalamocortical excitatory synapses during the CP...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703868/primary-care-barriers-to-cataract-surgery-in-the-eastern-zone-of-peninsular-malaysia-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#10
M Z Nurulain, S Ahmad, H Asma, M Abdul
OBJECTIVE: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in Malaysia. There is an alarming backlog of cataract extraction surgery as the majority believes they did not require surgery. This study aimed to explore the barriers at the primary care level to cataract surgery from the perspective of patients with severe cataract blindness. METHODS: Eleven participants were involved in this qualitative research which utilised the interpretative phenomenological analysis approach more renowned in health psychology research...
April 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698946/automatic-change-detection-in-older-and-younger-women-a-visual-mismatch-negativity-study
#11
István Sulykos, Zsófia Anna Gaál, István Czigler
BACKGROUND: In comparison to controlled (attentional) processing, relatively little is known about the age-related changes of the earlier (preattentive) processes. An event-related potential (ERP) index of preattentive (automatic) visual processing, the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a good candidate for analyzing age-related differences in the automatic processing of visual events. OBJECTIVE: So far results concerning age-related changes in vMMN have been equivocal...
April 26, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695958/action-choice-and-outcome-congruency-independently-affect-intentional-binding-and-feeling-of-control-judgments
#12
Zeynep Barlas, Stefan Kopp
Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the subjective experience that one is in control of their actions and the consequences of these actions. The SoA is a complex phenomenon, influenced by a weighted combination of various prospective (pre-movement) and retrospective (post-movement) processes and factors related to action choice, action selection fluency, action-outcome associations and higher-level inferences. In the current study, we examined the effect of the congruency between actions and outcomes in a context where the choice-level of actions was varied from 1 to 4...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690821/severe-traumatic-brain-injury-induces-early-changes-in-the-physical-properties-and-protein-composition-of-intracranial-extracellular-vesicles
#13
Janja Kuharić, Kristina Grabusic, Vlatka Sotosek Tokmadzic, Sanja Štifter, Ksenija Tulić, Olga Shevchuk, Pero Lučin, Alan Šustić
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous nanostructures that can indicate undergoing processes in organs and thus help in diagnostics and prognostics. They are secreted by all cells, contained in body fluids and able to transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids to distant cells. Intracranial EVs were shown to change their composition after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and therefore to have biomarker potential to evaluate brain events. However, properties of intracranial EVs early after TBI have not been characterized...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679703/pc-pvt-2-0-an-updated-platform-for-psychomotor-vigilance-task-testing-analysis-prediction-and-visualization
#14
Jaques Reifman, Kamal Kumar, Maxim Y Khitrov, Jianbo Liu, Sridhar Ramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) has been widely used to assess the effects of sleep deprivation on human neurobehavioral performance. To facilitate research in this field, we previously developed the PC-PVT, a freely available software system analogous to the "gold-standard" PVT-192 that, in addition to allowing for simple visual reaction time (RT) tests, also allows for near real-time PVT analysis, predictions, and visualization in a personal computer (PC)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666038/correlation-of-serum-ccl3-mip-1%C3%AE-levels-with-disease-severity-in-postmenopausal-osteoporotic-females
#15
Hui Wan, Tie-Yong Qian, Xiao-Jing Hu, Ci-You Huang, Wei-Feng Yao
BACKGROUND: The pro-inflammatory protein chemokine cytokine ligand 3 is well-established as a vital regulator of bone resorption and osteoclasts stimulation. AIMS: We sought to investigate if serum chemokine cytokine ligand 3 levels correlated with disease severity in postmenopausal osteoporosis females. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional Study. METHODS: 82 postmenopausal osteoporotic females, 76 postmenopausal non-osteoporotic women and 80 healthy female at childbearing age were recruited...
April 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625749/real-time-coordination-of-visual-and-linguistic-processes-in-novice-readers
#16
Yi Ting Huang
Skilled reading requires coordinating real-time visual fixations, orthographic analyses, and phonological encoding across multiple words in sentences. These procedures are well studied in experienced readers, but less is known about their status during development. To investigate how visual properties influence the origins of coordinated processing, the current study combined rapid automatized naming (RAN) with an eye-tracking paradigm and compared the timing of fixations and vocalizations in typically developing adults and 6-year-old children...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622207/enhancing-storage-stability-of-guava-with-tannic-acid-crosslinked-zein-coatings
#17
Talita M Santos, Men de Sá M Souza Filho, Ebenézer de O Silva, Márcia R S da Silveira, Maria Raquel A de Miranda, Mônica M A Lopes, Henriette M C Azeredo
The quality of zein (Z)- and zein-tannic acid (ZTA)-coated guavas was monitored throughout 12 days of storage. Coated fruit showed lower changes in terms of visual appearance, chlorophyll contents and color. Weight loss, softening, and changes in soluble solids were also decreased by the coatings. The respiration peak as well as H2 O2 and superoxide dismutase activity peaks were delayed by the coatings, and the ethylene production was reduced. So, the results were consistent with a slowed down ripening of guavas by the coatings, which was probably related to lowered oxygen permeability of guava skin...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621386/trans-saccadic-integration-of-orientation-information
#18
Michele Fornaciai, Paola Binda, Guido Marco Cicchini
Does visual processing start anew after each eye movement, or is information integrated across saccades? Here we test a strong prediction of the integration hypothesis: that information acquired after a saccade interferes with the perception of images acquired before the saccade. We investigate perception of a basic visual feature, grating orientation, and we take advantage of a delayed interference phenomenon-in human participants, the reported orientation of a target grating, briefly presented at an eccentric location, is strongly biased toward the orientation of flanker gratings that are flashed shortly after the target...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616472/risk-seeking-for-losses-modulates-the-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-and-left-frontoparietal-networks-in-young-males
#19
Yacila I Deza Araujo, Stephan Nebe, Philipp T Neukam, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Maria Garbusow, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
Value-based decision making (VBDM) is a principle that states that humans and other species adapt their behavior according to the dynamic subjective values of the chosen or unchosen options. The neural bases of this process have been extensively investigated using task-based fMRI and lesion studies. However, the growing field of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) may shed light on the organization and function of brain connections across different decision-making domains. With this aim, we used independent component analysis to study the brain network dynamics in a large cohort of young males (N = 145) and the relationship of these dynamics with VBDM...
April 3, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615876/a-method-to-train-marmosets-in-visual-working-memory-task-and-their-performance
#20
Katsuki Nakamura, Reiko Koba, Miki Miwa, Chieko Yamaguchi, Hiromi Suzuki, Atsushi Takemoto
Learning and memory processes are similarly organized in humans and monkeys; therefore, monkeys can be ideal models for analyzing human aging processes and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. With the development of novel gene modification methods, common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) have been suggested as an animal model for neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, the common marmoset's lifespan is relatively short, which makes it a practical animal model for aging. Working memory deficits are a prominent symptom of both dementia and aging, but no data are currently available for visual working memory in common marmosets...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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