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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928440/gender-differences-measured-by-the-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-in-chronic-schizophrenia-patients
#1
Baohua Zhang, Mei Han, Shuping Tan, Fu De Yang, Yunlong Tan, Shurong Jiang, Xiangyang Zhang, Xu-Feng Huang
Using Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), previous study showed significant gender differences for cognitive deficits in immediate and delayed memory in schizophrenia patients. However, RBANS does not include reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. These cognitive functions can significantly affect the outcomes and daily life in patients. This study examined the gender differences of cognition using the measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus cognitive battery (MCCB), especially focusing on reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition in schizophrenia patients...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917662/successful-optic-nerve-regeneration-in-the-senescent-zebrafish-despite-age-related-decline-of-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-response-processes
#2
Jessie Van Houcke, Ilse Bollaerts, Emiel Geeraerts, Benjamin Davis, An Beckers, Inge Van Hove, Kim Lemmens, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases or after brain lesions seriously affects life quality of a growing number of elderly, since the adult CNS lacks the capacity to replace or repair damaged neurons. Despite intensive research efforts, full functional recovery after CNS disease and/or injury remains challenging, especially in an aging environment. As such, there is a rising need for an aging model in which the impact of aging on successful regeneration can be studied...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917133/waiting-for-lexical-access-cochlear-implants-or-severely-degraded-input-lead-listeners-to-process-speech-less-incrementally
#3
Bob McMurray, Ashley Farris-Trimble, Hannah Rigler
Spoken language unfolds over time. Consequently, there are brief periods of ambiguity, when incomplete input can match many possible words. Typical listeners solve this problem by immediately activating multiple candidates which compete for recognition. In two experiments using the visual world paradigm, we examined real-time lexical competition in prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users, and normal hearing (NH) adults listening to severely degraded speech. In Experiment 1, adolescent CI users and NH controls matched spoken words to arrays of pictures including pictures of the target word and phonological competitors...
September 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905251/comparing-the-face-inversion-effect-in-crows-and-humans
#4
Katharina F Brecht, Lysann Wagener, Ljerka Ostojić, Nicola S Clayton, Andreas Nieder
Humans show impaired recognition of faces that are presented upside down, a phenomenon termed face inversion effect, which is thought to reflect the special relevance of faces for humans. Here, we investigated whether a phylogenetically distantly related avian species, the carrion crow, with similar socio-cognitive abilities to human and non-human primates, exhibits a face inversion effect. In a delayed matching-to-sample task, two crows had to differentiate profiles of crow faces as well as matched controls, presented both upright and inverted...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905181/attenuated-audiovisual-integration-in-middle-aged-adults-in-a-discrimination-task
#5
Weiping Yang, Yanna Ren
Numerous studies have focused on the diversity of audiovisual integration between younger and older adults. However, consecutive trends in audiovisual integration throughout life are still unclear. In the present study, to clarify audiovisual integration characteristics in middle-aged adults, we instructed younger and middle-aged adults to conduct an auditory/visual stimuli discrimination experiment. Randomized streams of unimodal auditory (A), unimodal visual (V) or audiovisual stimuli were presented on the left or right hemispace of the central fixation point, and subjects were instructed to respond to the target stimuli rapidly and accurately...
September 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895997/-elevated-incidence-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-carotid-stenosis
#6
E Hernandez-Rodriguez, E Sirumal, P J Perez-Lorensu, J L Perez-Burkhardt, J Barroso, I Galtier
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and functional disability in developed countries. Carotid stenosis (CS) is considered the reason for 20-30% of strokes. However, the studies that have gone into depth on the cognitive status of these patients are limited. AIM: To investigate the cognitive performance of CS patients and its relationship with clinical variables (carotid obstruction, lifestyle). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 33 CS patients were evaluated using a broad neuropsychological protocol, and were divided into two groups: symptomatic CS and asymptomatic CS...
September 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893979/exposure-to-unpredictable-maternal-sensory-signals-influences-cognitive-development-across-species
#7
Elysia Poggi Davis, Stephanie A Stout, Jenny Molet, Brian Vegetabile, Laura M Glynn, Curt A Sandman, Kevin Heins, Hal Stern, Tallie Z Baram
Maternal care is a critical determinant of child development. However, our understanding of processes and mechanisms by which maternal behavior influences the developing human brain remains limited. Animal research has illustrated that patterns of sensory information is important in shaping neural circuits during development. Here we examined the relation between degree of predictability of maternal sensory signals early in life and subsequent cognitive function in both humans (n = 128 mother/infant dyads) and rats (n = 12 dams; 28 adolescents)...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891784/familiarity-speeds-up-visual-short-term-memory-consolidation-electrophysiological-evidence-from-contralateral-delay-activities
#8
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
To test how preexisting long-term memory influences visual STM, this study takes advantage of individual differences in participants' prior familiarity with Pokémon characters and uses an ERP component, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), to assess whether observers' prior stimulus familiarity affects STM consolidation and storage capacity. In two change detection experiments, consolidation speed, as indexed by CDA fractional area latency and/or early-window (500-800 msec) amplitude, was significantly associated with individual differences in Pokémon familiarity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887064/top-down-modulation-of-alpha-power-and-pattern-similarity-for-threatening-representations-in-visual-short-term-memory
#9
Bo-Cheng Kuo, Chun-Hui Li, Szu-Hung Lin, Sheng-Hung Hu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Recent studies have shown that top-down attention biases task-relevant representations in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Accumulating evidence has also revealed the modulatory effects of emotional arousal on attentional processing. However, it remains unclear how top-down attention interacts with emotional memoranda in VSTM. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of alpha oscillations and their spatiotemporal characteristics that underlie top-down attention to threatening representations during VSTM maintenance with electroencephalography...
September 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885487/luminance-information-decoding-on-the-basis-of-local-field-potential-signals-of-pigeon-optic-tectum-neurons
#10
Songwei Wang, Lijun Liu, Zhizhong Wang, Xiaoke Niu, Yuxia Hu, Li Shi
Important aspects of brain information processing can be understood by examining decoding of visual stimuli from neuronal response signals. In this research, the luminance information is decoded from the local field potential signal in the optic tectum region of the pigeon. We designed a luminance visual stimulus model with transient flicker characteristics, recorded multichannel local field potential (LFP) signals using a microelectrode array, extracted LFP Fourier transform energy and phase features, constructed a multivariate linear inverse filter luminance information decoding algorithm, and evaluated decoding effects using a cross-correlation method...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865286/the-influence-of-time-on-task-on-mind-wandering-and-visual-working-memory
#11
Marissa Krimsky, Daniel E Forster, Maria M Llabre, Amishi P Jha
Working memory relies on executive resources for successful task performance, with higher demands necessitating greater resource engagement. In addition to mnemonic demands, prior studies suggest that internal sources of distraction, such as mind wandering (i.e., having off-task thoughts) and greater time on task, may tax executive resources. Herein, the consequences of mnemonic demand, mind wandering, and time on task were investigated during a visual working memory task. Participants (N=143) completed a delayed-recognition visual working memory task, with mnemonic load for visual objects manipulated across trials (1 item=low load; 2 items=high load) and subjective mind wandering assessed intermittently throughout the experiment using a self-report Likert-type scale (1=on-task, 6=off-task)...
August 30, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865060/gut-contents-digestive-half-lives-and-feeding-state-prediction-in-the-soil-predatory-mite-pergamasus-longicornis-mesostigmata-parasitidae
#12
Clive E Bowman
Mid- and hind-gut lumenal changes are described in the free-living predatory soil mite Pergamasus longicornis (Berlese) from a time series of histological sections scored during and after feeding on fly larval prey. Three distinct types of tangible material are found in the lumen. Bayesian estimation of the change points in the states of the gut lumenal contents over time is made using a time-homogenous first order Markov model. Exponential processes within the gut exhibit 'stiff' dynamics. A lumen is present throughout the midgut from 5 min after the start of feeding as the gut rapidly expands...
September 1, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860986/classification-of-movement-and-inhibition-using-a-hybrid-bci
#13
Jennifer Chmura, Joshua Rosing, Steven Collazos, Shikha J Goodwin
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are an emerging technology that are capable of turning brain electrical activity into commands for an external device. Motor imagery (MI)-when a person imagines a motion without executing it-is widely employed in BCI devices for motor control because of the endogenous origin of its neural control mechanisms, and the similarity in brain activation to actual movements. Challenges with translating a MI-BCI into a practical device used outside laboratories include the extensive training required, often due to poor user engagement and visual feedback response delays; poor user flexibility/freedom to time the execution/inhibition of their movements, and to control the movement type (right arm vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859970/aging-does-not-affect-integration-times-for-the-perception-of-depth-from-motion-parallax
#14
Jessica Holmin, Mark Nawrot
To successfully navigate throughout the world, observers must rapidly recover depth information. One depth cue that is especially important for a moving observer is motion parallax. To perceive unambiguous depth from motion parallax, the visual system must integrate information from two different proximal signals, retinal image motion and a pursuit eye movement. Previous research has shown that aging affects both of these necessary components for motion parallax depth perception, but no research has yet investigated how aging affects the mechanism for integrating motion and pursuit information to recover depth from motion parallax...
September 5, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843996/neural-correlates-of-visuo-tactile-crossmodal-paired-associate-learning-and-memory-in-humans
#15
Peng Gui, Yixuan Ku, Lei Li, Xiaojin Li, Mark Bodner, Fred A Lenz, Liping Wang, Yong-Di Zhou
Studies have indicated that a cortical sensory system is capable of processing information from different sensory modalities. However, it still remains unclear when and how a cortical system integrates and retains information across sensory modalities during learning. Here we investigated the neural dynamics underlying crossmodal associations and memory by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) when human participants performed visuo-tactile (crossmodal) and visuo-visual (unimodal) paired-associate (PA) learning tasks...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842260/latent-binocular-function-in-amblyopia
#16
Eva Chadnova, Alexandre Reynaud, Simon Clavagnier, Robert F Hess
Recently, psychophysical studies have shown that humans with amblyopia do have binocular function that is not normally revealed due to dominant suppressive interactions under normal viewing conditions. Here we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) combined with dichoptic visual stimulation to investigate the underlying binocular function in humans with amblyopia for stimuli that, because of their temporal properties, would be expected to bypass suppressive effects and to reveal any underlying binocular function...
August 31, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807648/not-all-visual-symmetry-is-equal-partially-distinct-neural-bases-for-vertical-and-horizontal-symmetry
#17
Zaira Cattaneo, Silvia Bona, Juha Silvanto
Visual mirror symmetry plays an important role in visual perception in both human and animal vision; its importance is reflected in the fact that it can be extracted automatically during early stages of visual processing. However, how this extraction is implemented at the cortical level remains an open question. Given the importance of symmetry in visual perception, one possibility is that there is a network which extracts all types of symmetry irrespective of axis of orientation; alternatively, symmetry along different axes might be encoded by different brain regions, implying that there is no single neural mechanism for symmetry processing...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805109/glucose-regulation-and-face-recognition-deficits-in-older-adults-the-role-of-attention
#18
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
The present study investigated the perceptual, attentional, and memory processes underlying face recognition deficits observed in older adults with impaired glucoregulation. Participants were categorized as good glucoregulators or poor glucoregulators on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test. Using event-related potential (ERP) methodology, 23 participants (62-88 years) performed a 2-stimulus oddball task. Participants were asked to rate and memorize 10 "target" faces, which were then presented amongst 120 unfamiliar foils...
August 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794465/the-mechanical-representation-of-temporal-delays
#19
Raz Leib, Amir Karniel, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
When we knock on a door, we perceive the impact as a collection of simultaneous events, combining sound, sight, and tactile sensation. In reality, information from different modalities but from a single source is flowing inside the brain along different pathways, reaching processing centers at different times. Therefore, interpreting different sensory modalities which seem to occur simultaneously requires information processing that accounts for these different delays. As in a computer-based robotic system, does the brain use some explicit estimation of the time delay, to realign the sensory flows? Or does it compensate for temporal delays by representing them as changes in the body/environment mechanics? Using delayed-state or an approximation for delayed-state manipulations between visual and proprioceptive feedback during a tracking task, we show that tracking errors, grip forces, and learning curves are consistent with predictions of a representation that is based on approximation for delay, refuting an explicit delayed-state representation...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794198/the-absence-or-temporal-offset-of-visual-feedback-does-not-influence-adaptation-to-novel-movement-dynamics
#20
Erin McKenna, Laurence C Jayet Bray, Weiwei Zhou, Wilsaan Mychal Joiner
Delays in transmitting and processing sensory information require correctly associating delayed feedback to issued motor commands for accurate error compensation. The flexibility of this alignment between motor signals and feedback has been demonstrated for movement recalibration to visual manipulations, but the alignment dependence for adapting movement dynamics is largely unknown. Here we examined the effect of visual feedback manipulations on force-field adaptation. Three subject groups used a manipulandum while experiencing a lag in the corresponding cursor motion (0, 75 or 150 ms)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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