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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#1
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903706/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#2
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) particularly in temporal brain structures serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed-matching-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903641/body-sway-adaptation-to-addition-but-not-withdrawal-of-stabilizing-visual-information-is-delayed-by-a-concurrent-cognitive-task
#3
Jean-Louis Honeine, Oscar Crisafulli, Marco Schieppati
Aim of this study was to test the effects of a concurrent cognitive task on the promptness of the sensorimotor integration and reweighting processes following addition and withdrawal of vision. Fourteen subjects stood in tandem while vision was passively added and removed. Subjects performed a cognitive task, consisting of counting backwards in steps of three, or were 'mentally idle'. We estimated the time interval, following addition and following withdrawal of vision, at which body sway began to change. We also estimated the time constant of the exponential change in body oscillation until the new level of sway was reached, consistent with the current visual state...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895445/amblyopic-related-frontal-changes-in-an-orientation-discrimination-task-a-research-of-p3a-event-related-potentials-in-anisometropic-amblyopia
#4
J Zhao, X B Yang, J L Wang, S J Wang, R Gong, Z Zheng, L Q Liu
BACKGROUND: Amblyopic deficits in the primary and secondary visual cortex have been demonstrated broadly. However, the cognitive process at late stage originating in higher brain area in amblyopes hasn't been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the late cognitive process at the frontal lobe in anisometropic amblyopes of a distinct degree, using visual event-related potential (ERP) techniques. METHODS: Thirteen severe anisometropic amblyopes, 14 mild-to-moderate anisometropic amblyopes, and 13 control subjects participated in this study...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886149/toward-optimal-computation-of-ultrasound-image-reconstruction-using-cpu-and-gpu
#5
Udomchai Techavipoo, Denchai Worasawate, Wittawat Boonleelakul, Rachaporn Keinprasit, Treepop Sunpetchniyom, Nobuhiko Sugino, Pairash Thajchayapong
An ultrasound image is reconstructed from echo signals received by array elements of a transducer. The time of flight of the echo depends on the distance between the focus to the array elements. The received echo signals have to be delayed to make their wave fronts and phase coherent before summing the signals. In digital beamforming, the delays are not always located at the sampled points. Generally, the values of the delayed signals are estimated by the values of the nearest samples. This method is fast and easy, however inaccurate...
November 24, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884963/ectopic-fat-deposition-contributes-to-age-associated-pathology-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Konstantinos Palikaras, Meropi Mari, Barbara Petanidou, Angela Pasparaki, George Filippidis, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Age-dependent collapse of lipid homeostasis results in spillover of lipids and excessive fat deposition in non-adipose tissues. Ectopic fat contributes to lipotoxicity and has been implicated in the development of a metabolic syndrome that increases risk of age-associated diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms coupling ectopic fat accumulation with ageing remain obscure. Here, we use nonlinear imaging modalities to visualize and quantify age-dependent ectopic lipid accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881787/sensory-and-working-memory-representations-of-small-and-large-numerosities-in-the-crow-endbrain
#7
Helen M Ditz, Andreas Nieder
: Neurons in the avian nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an endbrain structure that originated independently from the mammalian neocortex, process visual numerosities. To clarify the code for number in this anatomically distinct endbrain area in birds, neuronal responses to a broad range of numerosities were analyzed. We recorded single-neuron activity from the NCL of crows performing a delayed match-to-sample task with visual numerosities as discriminanda. The responses of >20% of randomly selected neurons were modulated significantly by numerosities ranging from one to 30 items...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872958/multisensory-integration-is-independent-of-perceived-simultaneity
#8
Vanessa Harrar, Laurence R Harris, Charles Spence
The importance of multisensory integration for perception and action has long been recognised. Integrating information from individual senses increases the chance of survival by reducing the variability in the incoming signals, thus allowing us to respond more rapidly. Reaction times (RTs) are fastest when the components of the multisensory signals are simultaneous. This response facilitation is traditionally attributed to multisensory integration. However, it is unclear if facilitation of RTs occurs when stimuli are perceived as synchronous or are actually physically synchronous...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872777/optic-disk-pit-with-sudden-central-visual-field-scotoma
#9
Nikol Panou, Demetrios G Vavvas
Purpose. To describe a case of optic disk pit (ODP) with sudden central visual field scotoma. Methods. A 49-year-old woman presented, reporting sudden painless central visual field loss 3 months prior to presentation. Neuroophthalmologic, systematic, and laboratory evaluation and full imaging processes were performed. Results. Fundoscopy and color photography demonstrated an optic disk pit inferotemporally. Perimetry identified central visual field horizontal scotoma. OCT revealed absence of serous retinal detachment, but disclosed inner retina thinning corresponding to the area of the visual field loss...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868211/sound-effects-multimodal-input-helps-infants-find-displaced-objects
#10
Jeanne L Shinskey
Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark...
November 21, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849243/moyamoya-disease-impact-on-the-performance-of-oral-and-written-language
#11
Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica, Camila da Costa Ribeiro, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto Ferraz, Maria de Lourdes Merighi Tabaquim
Moyamoya disease is an unusual form of occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder that affects the arteries of the central nervous system, causing acquired language alterations and learning difficulties. The study aim was to describe the oral/written language and cognitive skills in a seven-year-and-seven-month-old girl diagnosed with Moyamoya disease. The assessment consisted of interviews with her parents and application of the following instruments: Observation of Communicative Behavior, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Academic Performance Test, Profile of Phonological Awareness, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Special Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
September 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845254/neuronal-correlates-of-continuous-manual-tracking-under-varying-visual-movement-feedback-in-a-virtual-reality-environment
#12
Jakub Limanowski, Evgeniya Kirilina, Felix Blankenburg
To accurately guide one's actions online, the brain predicts sensory action feedback ahead of time based on internal models, which can be updated by sensory prediction errors. The underlying operations can be experimentally investigated in sensorimotor adaptation tasks, in which moving under perturbed sensory action feedback requires internal model updates. Here we altered healthy participants' visual hand movement feedback in a virtual reality setup, while assessing brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
November 12, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843023/experimental-research-on-the-characteristics-of-methane-air-explosion-affected-by-ultrafine-water-mist
#13
Xingyan Cao, Jingjie Ren, Mingshu Bi, Yihui Zhou, Yiming Li
The inhibition effects of ultrafine water mists on 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% methane explosions were experimentally studied in a sealed visual vessel. The mist (10μm) produced by a mist generation system in the vessel was measured by a phase doppler particle analyzer. A high-speed camera was used to record the explosion flame affected by spraying concentration and a high frequency pressure sensor was used to acquire the explosion pressure. Meanwhile, the relationship between flame propagation and pressure rising with time was analyzed...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837258/accumulation-and-decay-of-visual-capture-and-the-ventriloquism-aftereffect-caused-by-brief-audio-visual-disparities
#14
Adam K Bosen, Justin T Fleming, Paul D Allen, William E O'Neill, Gary D Paige
Visual capture and the ventriloquism aftereffect resolve spatial disparities of incongruent auditory visual (AV) objects by shifting auditory spatial perception to align with vision. Here, we demonstrated the distinct temporal characteristics of visual capture and the ventriloquism aftereffect in response to brief AV disparities. In a set of experiments, subjects localized either the auditory component of AV targets (A within AV) or a second sound presented at varying delays (1-20 s) after AV exposure (A2 after AV)...
November 11, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832599/go-activation-endures-following-the-presentation-of-a-stop-signal-evidence-from-startle
#15
Neil M Drummond, Erin K Cressman, Anthony N Carlsen
It has been proposed that in a stop-signal task (SST), independent go- and stop-processes "race" to control behaviour. If the go-process wins, an overt response is produced, while if the stop-process wins, the response is withheld. One prediction that follows from this proposal is that if the activation associated with one process is enhanced, it is more likely to win the race. We looked to determine whether these initiation and inhibition processes (and thus response outcome) could be manipulated by using a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), which has been shown to provide additional response activation...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831890/a-rotational-motion-perception-neural-network-based-on-asymmetric-spatiotemporal-visual-information-processing
#16
Bin Hu, Shigang Yue, Zhuhong Zhang
All complex motion patterns can be decomposed into several elements, including translation, expansion/contraction, and rotational motion. In biological vision systems, scientists have found that specific types of visual neurons have specific preferences to each of the three motion elements. There are computational models on translation and expansion/contraction perceptions; however, little has been done in the past to create computational models for rotational motion perception. To fill this gap, we proposed a neural network that utilizes a specific spatiotemporal arrangement of asymmetric lateral inhibited direction selective neural networks (DSNNs) for rotational motion perception...
October 31, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830507/vitamin-a-and-vision
#17
John C Saari
Visual systems detect light by monitoring the effect of photoisomerization of a chromophore on the release of a neurotransmitter from sensory neurons, known as rod and cone photoreceptor cells in vertebrate retina. In all known visual systems, the chromophore is 11-cis-retinal complexed with a protein, called opsin, and photoisomerization produces all-trans-retinal. In mammals, regeneration of 11-cis-retinal following photoisomerization occurs by a thermally driven isomerization reaction. Additional reactions are required during regeneration to protect cells from the toxicity of aldehyde forms of vitamin A that are essential to the visual process...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825737/profile-of-cognitive-function-in-adults-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Yukihiko Ueda, Shugo Suwazono, Sino Maedo, Itsuro Higuchi
BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined intellectual functioning of boys with duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, little is known about the remaining cognitive weaknesses in adults with DMD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the profile of cognitive functioning that is characteristics of adults with DMD. METHODS: Twenty-four subscales from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III), the Clinical Assessment for Attention (CAT), and the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised (WMS-R) were used to assess participants with DMD (N=15; mean age=30...
November 5, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825020/are-participants-reports-of-their-own-reaction-times-reliable-re-examining-introspective-limitations-in-active-and-passive-dual-task-paradigms
#19
Donna Bryce, Daniel Bratzke
There is a known introspective limitation in the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm - people underestimate the dual-task costs on their second reaction time. The prevailing explanation for this is that conscious awareness of the second stimulus is delayed in time until the first task has been centrally processed. Here, we examined this effect in more detail, by comparing reaction time estimates after processing a PRP task, and after passively experiencing 'replays' of PRP trials. Even when participants had no dual-task processing demands, they did not accurately report the reaction time intervals using a visual analogue scale (the original reporting method of most introspective PRP experiments), but they did when placing markers that represent each event on a timeline...
November 5, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797768/visibool-visualization-and-simulation-of-boolean-networks-with-temporal-constraints
#20
Julian Schwab, Andre Burkovski, Lea Siegle, Christoph Müssel, Hans A Kestler
: Mathematical models and their simulation are increasingly used to gain insights into cellular pathways and regulatory networks. Dynamics of regulatory factors can be modeled using Boolean networks (BN), among others. Text-based representations of models are precise descriptions, but hard to understand and interpret. ViSiBooL aims at providing a graphical way of modeling and simulating networks. By providing visualizations of static and dynamic network properties simultaneously, it is possible to directly observe the effects of changes in the network structure on the behavior...
October 22, 2016: Bioinformatics
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