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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108852/missing-the-target-the-neural-processing-underlying-the-omission-error
#1
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
The omissions are infrequent errors consisting in missing responses to the target stimuli. This is the first study aimed at investigating the brain activities associated with omissions in a decision-making task. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 12 subjects which reported a suitable number of omissions in a visual go/no-go task. We investigated both the pre- and post-stimulus brain activities associated with correct and omitted trials. The electrical neuroimaging technique (BESA) was adopted to extract the anterior insula (aIns) activity associated with the prefrontal P2 component (pP2) peaking about 300 ms after the stimulus and reflecting the stimulus-response mapping process...
January 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100737/selectivity-in-postencoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#2
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089696/differential-sensory-cortical-involvement-in-auditory-and-visual-sensorimotor-temporal-recalibration-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#3
Ali Aytemür, Nathalia Almeida, Kwang-Hyuk Lee
Adaptation to delayed sensory feedback following an action produces a subjective time compression between the action and the feedback (temporal recalibration effect, TRE). TRE is important for sensory delay compensation to maintain a relationship between causally related events. It is unclear whether TRE is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon. In 3 experiments employing a sensorimotor synchronization task, we investigated this question using cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). We found that cathodal tDCS over the visual cortex, and to a lesser extent over the auditory cortex, produced decreased visual TRE...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077711/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#4
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), particularly in temporal brain structures, serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed match-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069921/visual-stimulus-speed-does-not-influence-the-rapid-emergence-of-direction-selectivity-in-ferret-visual-cortex
#5
Neil J Ritter, Nora M Anderson, Stephen D Van Hooser
: Sensory experience is necessary for the development of some receptive field properties of neurons in primary sensory cortical areas. However, it remains unclear whether the parameters of an individual animal's experience play an instructive role and influence the tuning parameters of cortical sensory neurons as selectivity emerges, or rather if experience merely permits the completion of processes that are fully seeded at the onset of experience. Here we have examined whether the speed of visual stimuli that are presented to visually naïve ferrets can influence the parameters of speed tuning and direction selectivity in cortical neurons...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069918/posterior-alpha-eeg-dynamics-dissociate-current-from-future-goals-in-working-memory-guided-visual-search
#6
Ingmar E J de Vries, Joram van Driel, Christian N L Olivers
: Current models of visual search assume that search is guided by an active visual working memory representation of what we are currently looking for. This attentional template for currently relevant stimuli can be dissociated from accessory memory representations that are only needed prospectively, for a future task, and that should be prevented from guiding current attention. However, it remains unclear what electrophysiological mechanisms dissociate currently relevant (serving upcoming selection) from prospectively relevant memories (serving future selection)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061376/visual-orienting-and-attention-deficits-in-5-and-10-month-old-preterm-infants
#7
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sammy Perone, Kelsi L Macek, Bret Eschman
Cognitive outcomes for children born prematurely are well characterized, including increased risk for deficits in memory, attention, processing speed, and executive function. However, little is known about deficits that appear within the first 12 months, and how these early deficits contribute to later outcomes. To probe for functional deficits in visual attention, preterm and full-term infants were tested at 5 and 10 months with the Infant Orienting With Attention task (IOWA; Ross-Sheehy, Schneegans and Spencer, 2015)...
January 3, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046897/we-h-brc-04-implement-lean-methodology-to-make-our-current-process-of-ct-simulation-to-treatment-more-efficient
#8
S Boddu, A Morrow, N Krishnamurthy, A McVicker, N Deb, D Rangaraj
PURPOSE: Our goal is to implement lean methodology to make our current process of CT simulation to treatment more efficient. METHODS: In this study, we implemented lean methodology and tools and employed flowchart in excel for process-mapping. We formed a group of physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, therapists and a clinical physics assistant and huddled bi-weekly to map current value streams. We performed GEMBA walks and observed current processes from scheduling patient CT Simulations to treatment plan approval...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038987/adaptive-reorganization-of-retinogeniculate-axon-terminals-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-following-experimental-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Vishal C Patel, Christopher W D Jurgens, Thomas E Krahe, John T Povlishock
The pathologic process in traumatic brain injury marked by delayed axonal loss, known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI), leads to partial deafferentation of neurons downstream of injured axons. This process is linked to persistent visual dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), however, examination of deafferentation in humans is impossible with current technology. To investigate potential reorganization in the visual system following mTBI, we utilized the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) mouse model of mTBI...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032388/impaired-visual-processing-in-patients-with-insomnia-disorder-revealed-by-a-dissociation-in-visual-search
#10
Enrico Giora, Andrea Galbiati, Sara Marelli, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
Insomnia disorder is associated with both subjective and objective daytime impairments. In particular, cognitive impairments are frequently reported. However, little is known about the effects of this pathology on perceptual processes. In this study we aim at evaluating the effect of insomnia disorder on visual processing by employing a visual search paradigm. Twenty-three patients with insomnia disorder and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects participated in the study. After a polysomnographic recording night patients performed a visual search task in which they had to respond to the presence/absence of a target (letter T) embedded into a set of distractors (letters Os, Xs or Ls)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030754/tonotopic-action-potential-tuning-of-maturing-auditory-neurons-through-endogenous-atp
#11
Saša Jovanovic, Tamara Radulovic, Claudio Coddou, Beatrice Dietz, Jana Nerlich, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Rudolf Rübsamen, Ivan Milenkovic
KEY POINTS: Following the genetically controlled formation of neuronal circuits, early firing activity guides the development of sensory maps in the auditory, visual and somatosensory system. However, it is not clear whether the activity of central auditory neurons is specifically regulated depending on the position within the sensory map. In the ventral cochlear nucleus, the first central station along the auditory pathway, we describe a mechanism through which paracrine ATP signalling enhances firing in a cell-specific and tonotopically-determined manner...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025015/developmental-trajectories-of-event-related-potentials-related-to-working-memory
#12
Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Antonio Arjona, Manuel Morales, Carlos M Gómez
Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS)...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011745/neural-and-behavioral-evidence-for-an-online-resetting-process-in-visual-working-memory
#13
Halely Balaban, Roy Luria
Visual working memory (VWM) guides behavior by holding a set of active representations and modifying them according to changes in the environment. This updating process relies on a unique mapping between each VWM representation and an actual object in the environment. Here, we destroyed this mapping, either by presenting a coherent object but then breaking it into independent parts, or by presenting an object but then abruptly replacing it with a different object. This allowed us to introduce the neural marker and behavioral consequence of an online resetting process in humans' VWM...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009726/the-emergence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-insights-gained-from-studies-of-brain-and-behaviour-in-high-risk-infants
#14
Kandice J Varcin, Shafali S Jeste
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), proposing that the earliest manifestations of disrupted brain development can shed light on prebehavioural markers of risk and mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Prospective, longitudinal studies of infants at risk for ASD have revealed that behavioural signs of ASD are generally not observed until the second year of life. The developmental signs within the first year are often subtle and rooted in processes outside the core diagnostic domains of ASD, such as motor and visual perceptual function...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003987/biomechanics-of-the-sclera-and-effects-on-intraocular-pressure
#15
REVIEW
Xu Jia, Juan Yu, Sheng-Hui Liao, Xuan-Chu Duan
Accumulating evidence indicates that glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), resulting in gradual and progressive permanent loss of vision. Reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the only proven method for preventing and delaying the progression of glaucomatous visual impairment. However, the specific role of IOP in optic nerve injury remains controversial, and little is known about the biomechanical mechanism by which elevated IOP leads to the loss of RGC...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003348/the-spatiotemporal-filter-for-visual-motion-integration-from-pursuit-eye-movements-in-humans-and-monkeys
#16
Trishna Mukherjee, Bing Liu, Claudio Simoncini, Leslie C Osborne
: Despite the enduring interest in motion integration, a direct measure of the space-time filter that the brain imposes on a visual scene has been elusive. This is perhaps because of the challenge of estimating a three-dimensional function from perceptual reports in psychophysical tasks. We take a different approach. We exploit the close connection between visual motion estimates and smooth pursuit eye movements to measure stimulus-response correlations across space and time, computing the linear space-time filter for global motion direction in humans and monkeys...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993610/a-kcnj6-gene-polymorphism-modulates-theta-oscillations-during-reward-processing
#17
Chella Kamarajan, Ashwini K Pandey, David B Chorlian, Niklas Manz, Arthur T Stimus, Howard J Edenberg, Leah Wetherill, Marc Schuckit, Jen-Chyong Wang, Samuel Kuperman, John Kramer, Jay A Tischfield, Bernice Porjesz
Event related oscillations (EROs) are heritable measures of neurocognitive function that have served as useful phenotype in genetic research. A recent family genome-wide association study (GWAS) by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) found that theta EROs during visual target detection were associated at genome-wide levels with several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including a synonymous SNP, rs702859, in the KCNJ6 gene that encodes GIRK2, a G-protein inward rectifying potassium channel that regulates excitability of neuronal networks...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974440/expression-patterns-of-atlantic-sturgeon-acipenser-oxyrinchus-during-embryonic-development
#18
Elisavet Kaitetzidou, Arne Ludwig, Jörn Gessner, Elena Sarropoulou
During teleost ontogeny the larval and embryonic stages are key stages, since failure during this period of tissue differentiation may cause malformations, developmental delays, poor growth, and massive mortalities. Despite the rapid advances in sequencing technologies, the molecular background of the development of economical important but endangered fish species like the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The current study examines the differential expression of transcripts involved in embryonic development of the Atlantic sturgeon...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940663/infusion-medication-error-reduction-by-two-person-verification-a-quality-improvement-initiative
#19
Rajeev Subramanyam, Mohamed Mahmoud, David Buck, Anna Varughese
OBJECTIVE: Errors made in the administration of intravenous medication can lead to catastrophic harm. The frequency of hospital settings in which medication pumps are being used are increasing. We sought to improve medication safety by implementing a 2-person verification system before medication administration. METHODS: Our quality improvement initiative took place in an anesthesia radiology imaging service at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Key drivers included frequent educational meetings with clinicians, written reminders, display of visual reminders, constant feedback in the clinical areas that carried out the processes, and sharing of knowledge on displayed run charts...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936837/using-the-locus-of-slack-logic-to-determine-whether-inhibition-of-return-in-a-cue-target-paradigm-is-delaying-early-or-late-stages-of-processing
#20
Maryam Kavyani, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Raymond M Klein
Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon characterized by slower responses to targets at cued locations relative to those at uncued locations. Based on the results of previous research, it has been suggested that IOR affects a process at the input end of the processing continuum when it is generated while the reflexive oculomotor system is suppressed (cf. Satel, Hilchey, Wang, Story, & Klein, 2013). To test this theory, we employed a modified psychological refractory period paradigm designed to elicit input IOR with visual stimuli, allowing us to use the locus-of-slack logic to determine whether an early or late stage of processing was inhibited by IOR...
December 12, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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