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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429784/sight-and-sound-persistently-out-of-synch-stable-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-synchronisation-revealed-by-implicit-measures-of-lip-voice-integration
#1
Alberta Ipser, Vlera Agolli, Anisa Bajraktari, Fatimah Al-Alawi, Nurfitriani Djaafara, Elliot D Freeman
Are sight and sound out of synch? Signs that they are have been dismissed for over two centuries as an artefact of attentional and response bias, to which traditional subjective methods are prone. To avoid such biases, we measured performance on objective tasks that depend implicitly on achieving good lip-synch. We measured the McGurk effect (in which incongruent lip-voice pairs evoke illusory phonemes), and also identification of degraded speech, while manipulating audiovisual asynchrony. Peak performance was found at an average auditory lag of ~100 ms, but this varied widely between individuals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421165/the-diverse-cellular-and-animal-models-to-decipher-the-physiopathological-traits-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Audrey Bernut, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Diane Ordway, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus represents an important respiratory pathogen among the rapidly-growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Infections caused by M. abscessus are increasingly found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and are often refractory to antibiotic therapy. The underlying immunopathological mechanisms of pathogenesis remain largely unknown. A major reason for the poor advances in M. abscessus research has been a lack of adequate models to study the acute and chronic stages of the disease leading to delayed progress of evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of potentially active antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409729/neuropsychological-function-after-endovascular-and-neurosurgical-treatment-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Peter Egeto, R Loch Macdonald, Tisha J Ornstein, Tom A Schweizer
OBJECTIVE Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is treated with either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, though the latter is the preferred treatment method given its more favorable functional outcomes. However, neuropsychological functioning after treatment is rarely taken into account. In this meta-analysis, the authors synthesized relevant data from the literature and compared neuropsychological functioning in patients after coiling and clipping of SAH. They hypothesized that the coiled patients would outperform the clipped patients; that group differences would be greater with higher posterior circulation rupture rates, in older patients, and in more recent publications; that group differences would be smaller with greater rates of middle cerebral artery (MCA) rupture; and that anterior communicating artery (ACoA) rupture rates would not influence effect sizes...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408869/rapid-long-range-disynaptic-inhibition-explains-the-formation-of-cortical-orientation-maps
#4
Ján Antolík
Competitive interactions are believed to underlie many types of cortical processing, ranging from memory formation, attention and development of cortical functional organization (e.g., development of orientation maps in primary visual cortex). In the latter case, the competitive interactions happen along the cortical surface, with local populations of neurons reinforcing each other, while competing with those displaced more distally. This specific configuration of lateral interactions is however in stark contrast with the known properties of the anatomical substrate, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402534/an-unpleasant-emotional-state-reduces-working-memory-capacity-electrophysiological-evidence
#5
Jessica S B Figueira, Leticia Oliveira, Mirtes G Pereira, Luiza B Pacheco, Isabela Lobo, Gabriel C Motta-Ribeiro, Isabel A David
Emotional states can guide the actions and decisions we make in our everyday life through their influence on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). We investigated the long-lasting interference that an unpleasant emotional state had on goal-relevant WM representations from an electrophysiological perspective. Participants performed a change detection task that was preceded by the presentation of unpleasant or neutral task-irrelevant pictures in a blocked fashion. We focused on the contralateral delay activity (CDA), an event-related potential that is sensitive to the number of task-relevant items stored in WM...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393740/precursors-to-language-development-in-typically-and-atypically-developing-infants-and-toddlers-the-importance-of-embracing-complexity
#6
Dean D'Souza, Hana D'Souza, Annette Karmiloff-Smith
In order to understand how language abilities emerge in typically and atypically developing infants and toddlers, it is important to embrace complexity in development. In this paper, we describe evidence that early language development is an experience-dependent process, shaped by diverse, interconnected, interdependent developmental mechanisms, processes, and abilities (e.g. statistical learning, sampling, functional specialization, visual attention, social interaction, motor ability). We also present evidence from our studies on neurodevelopmental disorders (e...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387560/clinical-evaluation-of-the-concussed-athlete-a-view-from-the-sideline
#7
Margot Putukian
CONTEXT: The sideline assessment of concussion is challenging, given its variable presentations, the limited sensitivity and specificity of sideline assessment tools, and how the presentation of the injury evolves over time. In addition, the diagnostic process, as well as the tools used to assess and manage concussion, continue to progress as research and what we know about concussion advance. This paper focuses on the initial assessment on the sideline by reviewing the concussion-evaluation literature, drawing from clinical experience to emphasize a standardized approach, and underscoring the importance of both familiarity with the athlete and clinical judgment...
March 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386440/the-positive-side-of-a-negative-reference-the-delay-between-linguistic-processing-and-common-ground
#8
Edmundo Kronmüller, Ira Noveck, Natalia Rivera, Francisco Jaume-Guazzini, Dale Barr
Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The common ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners like any other linguistic unit, i.e...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373795/comparison-of-cognitive-parameters-between-bilateral-and-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis
#9
Ebru Nur Vanli Yavuz, Başar Bilgiç, Zeliha Matur, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Öget Öktem, Betül Baykan
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies showed that hippocampal sclerosis (HS) patients with unilateral involvement had more diffuse cognitive impairment than expected. Therefore, we aimed to compare the cognitive profiles of bilateral HS (BHS) patients with unilateral HS (UHS) patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients, diagnosed with epilepsy, who fulfilled two major magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria (T1 atrophy and T2-FLAIR hyperintensity) for HS were included. Standard neuro-psychological test (NPT) battery consisted of the Turkish version of 15-word verbal memory processes test, Wechsler memory scale visual reproduction subtest, forward and backward digit span, phonemic and semantic fluency, and Stroop test were applied; and the groups with right HS, left HS, and bilateral HS were compared statistically...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369994/a-biomimetic-fly-photoreceptor-model-elucidates-how-stochastic-adaptive-quantal-sampling-provides-a-large-dynamic-range
#10
Zhuoyi Song, Mikko Juusola
Light intensities (photons/s/um(2) ) in a natural scene vary over several orders of magnitude from shady woods to direct sunlight. A major challenge facing the visual system is how to map such a large dynamic input range to its limited output range, so that signal is neither buried into noise in darkness and nor saturated in brightness. A fly photoreceptor has achieved such a large dynamic range; it can encode intensity changes from single photons to billions more, outperforming man-made light sensors. This performance requires powerful light-adaptation, the neural implementation of which has only become clearer recently...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367659/visual-stimuli-in-intervention-approaches-for-pre-schoolers-diagnosed-with-phonological-delay
#11
Cassandra Ferreira Pedro, Marisa Lousada, Andreia Hall, Luis M T Jesus
The aim of this study was to develop and content validate specific speech and language intervention picture cards: The Letter-Sound (L&S) cards. The present study was also focused on assessing the influence of these cards on letter-sound correspondences and speech sound production. An expert panel of six speech and language therapists analysed and discussed the L&S cards based on several criteria previously established. A Speech and Language Therapist carried out a 6-week therapeutic intervention with a group of seven Portuguese phonologically delayed pre-schoolers aged 5;3 to 6;5...
April 3, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362897/distinct-perceptual-rhythms-for-feature-and-conjunction-searches
#12
Laura Dugué, Alice M Xue, Marisa Carrasco
Feature and conjunction searches are widely used to study attentional deployment. However, the spatiotemporal behavior of attention integration in these tasks remains under debate. Are multiple search stimuli processed in parallel or sequentially? Does sampling of visual information and attentional deployment differ between these two types of search? If so, how? We used an innovative methodology to estimate the distribution of attention on a single-trial basis for feature and conjunction searches. Observers performed feature- and conjunction-search tasks...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358294/online-modulation-of-selective-attention-is-not-impaired-in-healthy-aging
#13
Robert Sekuler, Jie Huang, Allison B Sekuler, Patrick J Bennett
Background/Study Context: Reduced processing speed pervades a great many aspects of human aging and cognition. However, little is known about one aspect of cognitive aging in which speed is of the essence, namely, the speed with which older adults can deploy attention in response to a cue. METHODS: The authors compared rapid temporal modulation of cued visual attention in younger (Mage = 22.3 years) and older (Mage = 68.9 years) adults. On each trial of a short-term memory task, a cue identified which of two briefly presented stimuli was task relevant and which one should be ignored...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353213/development-and-validation-of-an-automatic-method-to-detect-the-latest-contracting-viable-left-ventricular-segments-to-assist-guide-crt-therapy-from-gated-spect-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#14
Weihua Zhou, Ningchao Tao, Xiaofeng Hou, Yao Wang, Russell D Folks, David C Cooke, Valeria M Moncayo, Ernest V Garcia, Jiangang Zou
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to use ECG-gated SPECT MPI to detect the latest contracting viable left ventricular (LV) segments to help guide the LV probe placement used in CRT therapy and to validate segment selection against the visual integration method by experts. METHODS: For each patient, the resting ECG-gated SPECT MPI short-axis images were sampled in 3D to generate a polar map of the perfusion distribution used to determine LV myocardial viability, and to measure LV synchronicity using our phase analysis tool...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349217/modulation-of-microglia-in-the-retina-new-insights-into-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
Ana I Arroba, Ángela M Valverde
During last decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been associated with several chronic complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). Recent studies of DR have revealed an inflammatory component, which precedes the detection of alterations in the visual function. During DR, the inflammatory process presents two opposite roles depending on the polarization of resident immune cells of the retina triggering proinflammatory (M1) or antiinflammatory (M2) actions. In an early stage of DR, the M2 response concurs with the M1 and is able to ameliorate inflammation and delay the progression of the disease...
March 27, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347973/a-software-framework-for-remote-patient-monitoring-by-using-multi-agent-systems-support
#16
Chrystinne Oliveira Fernandes, Carlos José Pereira De Lucena
BACKGROUND: Although there have been significant advances in network, hardware, and software technologies, the health care environment has not taken advantage of these developments to solve many of its inherent problems. Research activities in these 3 areas make it possible to apply advanced technologies to address many of these issues such as real-time monitoring of a large number of patients, particularly where a timely response is critical. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to design and develop innovative technological solutions to offer a more proactive and reliable medical care environment...
March 27, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345189/tuning-face-perception-with-electrical-stimulation-of-the-fusiform-gyrus
#17
Corey J Keller, Ido Davidesco, Pierre Megevand, Fred A Lado, Rafael Malach, Ashesh D Mehta
The fusiform gyrus (FG) is an important node in the face processing network, but knowledge of its causal role in face perception is currently limited. Recent work demonstrated that high frequency stimulation applied to the FG distorts the perception of faces in human subjects (Parvizi et al. []: J Neurosci 32:14915-14920). However, the timing of this process in the FG relative to stimulus onset and the spatial extent of FG's role in face perception are unknown. Here, we investigate the causal role of the FG in face perception by applying precise, event-related electrical stimulation (ES) to higher order visual areas including the FG in six human subjects undergoing intracranial monitoring for epilepsy...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334225/pom-thalamocortical-input-drives-layer-specific-microcircuits-in-somatosensory-cortex
#18
Nicholas J Audette, Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Megumi Matsushita, Alison L Barth
Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329909/testing-the-boundaries-of-boundary-extension-anticipatory-scene-representation-across-development-and-disorder
#19
G Spanò, H Intraub, J O Edgin
Recent studies have suggested that Boundary Extension (BE), a scene construction error, may be linked to the function of the hippocampus. In this study, we tested BE in two groups with variations in hippocampal development and disorder: a typically developing sample ranging from preschool to adolescence and individuals with Down syndrome. We assessed BE across three different test modalities: drawing, visual recognition, and a 3D scene boundary reconstruction task. Despite confirmed fluctuations in memory function measured through a neuropsychological assessment, the results showed consistent BE in all groups across test modalities, confirming the near universal nature of BE...
March 22, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326967/development-and-validation-of-a-remote-home-safety-protocol
#20
Sergio Romero, Mi Jung Lee, Ivana Simic, Charles Levy, Jon Sanford
AIM: Environmental assessments and subsequent modifications conducted by healthcare professionals can enhance home safety and promote independent living. However, travel time, expense and the availability of qualified professionals can limit the broad application of this intervention. Remote technology has the potential to increase access to home safety evaluations. PURPOSE: This study describes the development and validation of a remote home safety protocol that can be used by a caregiver of an elderly person to video-record their home environment for later viewing and evaluation by a trained professional...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
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