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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740817/impaired-retrieval-processes-evident-during-visual-working-memory-in-schizophrenia
#1
Peter A Lynn, Seung Suk Kang, Scott R Sponheim
Prominent working memory (WM) deficits have been observed in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) across multiple sensory modalities, including the visuospatial realm. Electrophysiological abnormalities noted during early visual processing as well as later cognitive functions in PSZ may underlie deficiencies in WM ability, though the mechanisms linking behavior to neural responses are not well understood. WM dysfunction has also been observed in biological relatives of PSZ (REL) and therefore may be a manifestation of genetic liability for the disorder...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738970/a-predictive-focus-of-gain-modulation-encodes-target-trajectories-in-insect-vision
#2
Steven D Wiederman, Joseph M Fabian, James R Dunbier, David C O'Carroll
When a human catches a ball, they estimate future target location based on the current trajectory. How animals, small and large, encode such predictive processes at the single neuron level is unknown. Here we describe small target-selective neurons in predatory dragonflies that exhibit localized enhanced sensitivity for targets displaced to new locations just ahead of the prior path, with suppression elsewhere in the surround. This focused region of gain modulation is driven by predictive mechanisms, with the direction tuning shifting selectively to match the target's prior path...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738764/neuroprotection-by-endo-cannabinoids-in-glaucoma-and-retinal-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Cinzia Rapino, Daniel Tortolani, Lucia Scipioni, Mauro Maccarrone
Emerging neuroprotective strategies are being explored to preserve the retina from degeneration, that occurs in eye pathologies like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa. Incidentally, neuroprotection of retina is a defending mechanism designed to prevent or delay neuronal cell death, and to maintain neural function following an initial insult, thus avoiding loss of vision. Numerous studies have investigated potential neuroprotective properties of plant-derived phytocannabinoids, as well as of their endogenous counterparts collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), in several degenerative diseases of the retina...
July 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#4
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
July 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724392/a-prospective-study-assessing-agreement-and-reliability-of-a-geriatric-evaluation
#5
Isabella Locatelli, Stéfanie Monod, Jacques Cornuz, Christophe J Büla, Nicolas Senn
BACKGROUND: The present study takes place within a geriatric program, aiming at improving the diagnosis and management of geriatric syndromes in primary care. Within this program it was of prime importance to be able to rely on a robust and reproducible geriatric consultation to use as a gold standard for evaluating a primary care brief assessment tool. The specific objective of the present study was thus assessing the agreement and reliability of a comprehensive geriatric consultation...
July 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717190/interocular-contrast-difference-drives-illusory-3d-percept
#6
Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Any processing delay between the two eyes can result in illusory 3D percepts for moving objects because of either changes in the pure disparities over time for disparity sensors or by changes to sensors that encode motion/disparity conjointly. This is demonstrated by viewing a fronto-parallel pendulum through a neutral density (ND) filter placed over one eye, resulting in the illusory 3D percept of the pendulum following an elliptical orbit in depth, the so-called Pulfrich phenomenon. Here we use a paradigm where a cylinder rotating in depth, defined by moving Gabor patches is presented at different interocular phases, generating strong to ambiguous depth percepts...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697672/projectors-associators-visual-imagery-and-the-time-course-of-visual-processing-in-grapheme-color-synesthesia
#7
Ben D Amsel, Marta Kutas, Seana Coulson
In grapheme-color synesthesia, seeing a particular letter or number evokes the experience of a highly specific color. Here we investigate the brain's real-time processing of words in this population, by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from 15 grapheme-color synesthetes and 15 controls as they judged the validity of word pairs ("yellow banana" vs. "blue banana") presented under high and low visual contrast. Relative to high contrast words, low contrast words elicited ~30ms delayed P1/N170 visual ERP components in both groups...
July 11, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687329/3d-faces-are-recognized-more-accurately-and-faster-than-2d-faces-but-with-similar-inversion-effects
#8
Z H D Eng, Y Y Yick, Y Guo, H Xu, M Reiner, T J Cham, S H A Chen
Recognition of faces typically occurs via holistic processing where individual features are combined to provide an overall facial representation. However, when faces are inverted, there is greater reliance on featural processing where faces are recognized based on their individual features. These findings are based on a substantial number of studies using 2-dimensional (2D) faces and it is unknown whether these results can be extended to 3-dimensional (3D) faces, which have more depth information that is absent in the typical 2D stimuli used in face recognition literature...
July 4, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686375/-vestibular-and-visual-stimulation-simultaneous-perception-or-not
#9
Jelena Todic, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Angelica Perez Fornos, Samuel Cavuscens, Maurizio Ranieri, Daniel Merfeld, Richard Lewis, Nils Guinand
The human brain is able to consider that two sensory stimuli are synchronous while they activate the cortex with some delay because they follow different neurological pathways. This process is only possible if the time interval between the two stimuli does not exceed a certain limit, called "Temporal Binding Window" (TBW). Studies of this parameter, involving the vestibular perception, are difficult because subjects must be moved, which generates parasitic proprioceptive information. By cons, in patients equipped with a vestibular implant, it is possible to generate a vestibular perception selectively by electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve...
October 5, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#10
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685035/initiating-a-participatory-action-research-process-in-the-agincourt-health-and-socio-demographic-surveillance-site
#11
Oghenebrume Wariri, Lucia D'Ambruoso, Rhian Twine, Sizzy Ngobeni, Maria van der Merwe, Barry Spies, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Ryan G Wagner, Peter Byass
BACKGROUND: Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. METHODS: We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672005/fatty-acid-transport-protein-1-regulates-retinoid-metabolism-and-photoreceptor-development-in-mouse-retina
#12
Aurélie Cubizolle, Laurent Guillou, Bertrand Mollereau, Christian P Hamel, Philippe Brabet
In retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE65 catalyzes the isomerization of all-trans-retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol in the visual cycle and controls the rhodopsin regeneration rate. However, the mechanisms by which these processes are regulated are still unclear. Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) is involved in fatty acid uptake and lipid metabolism in a variety of cell types. FATP1 co-localizes with RPE65 in RPE and inhibits its isomerase activity in vitro. Here, we further investigated the role of FATP1 in the visual cycle using transgenic mice that overexpress human FATP1 specifically in the RPE (hFATP1TG mice)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671112/neural-dynamics-of-multiple-object-processing-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-future-early-diagnostic-biomarkers
#13
Chiara Bagattini, Veronica Mazza, Laura Panizza, Clarissa Ferrari, Cristina Bonomini, Debora Brignani
The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and electrophysiological dynamics of multiple object processing (MOP) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to test whether its neural signatures may represent reliable diagnostic biomarkers. Behavioral performance and event-related potentials [N2pc and contralateral delay activity (CDA)] were measured in AD, MCI, and healthy controls during a MOP task, which consisted in enumerating a variable number of targets presented among distractors...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657141/neural-correlates-of-atomoxetine-improving-inhibitory-control-and-visual-processing-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Li-Ying Fan, Tai-Li Chou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Atomoxetine improves inhibitory control and visual processing in healthy volunteers and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of these two functions after chronic treatment with atomoxetine. This study aimed to use the counting Stroop task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to investigate the changes related to inhibitory control and visual processing in adults with ADHD...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656674/saccades-and-fixations-in-children-with-delayed-reading-skills
#15
Valldeflors Vinuela-Navarro, Jonathan T Erichsen, Cathy Williams, J Margaret Woodhouse
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported that eye movements differ between good/average and poor readers. However, these studies have been limited to investigating eye movements during reading related tasks, and thus, the differences found could arise from deficits in higher cognitive processes involved in reading rather than oculomotor performance. The purpose of the study is to determine the extent to which eye movements in children with delayed reading skills are different to those obtained from children with good/average reading skills in non-reading related tasks...
July 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649757/visual-complexity-and-its-effects-on-referring-expression-generation
#16
Micha Elsner, Alasdair Clarke, Hannah Rohde
Speakers' perception of a visual scene influences the language they use to describe it-which objects they choose to mention and how they characterize the relationships between them. We show that visual complexity can either delay or facilitate description generation, depending on how much disambiguating information is required and how useful the scene's complexity can be in providing, for example, helpful landmarks. To do so, we measure speech onset times, eye gaze, and utterance content in a reference production experiment in which the target object is either unique or non-unique in a visual scene of varying size and complexity...
June 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646886/implementation-science-for-ambulatory-care-safety-a-novel-method-to-develop-context-sensitive-interventions-to-reduce-quality-gaps-in-monitoring-high-risk-patients
#17
Kathryn M McDonald, George Su, Sarah Lisker, Emily S Patterson, Urmimala Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Missed evidence-based monitoring in high-risk conditions (e.g., cancer) leads to delayed diagnosis. Current technological solutions fail to close this safety gap. In response, we aim to demonstrate a novel method to identify common vulnerabilities across clinics and generate attributes for context-flexible population-level monitoring solutions for widespread implementation to improve quality. METHODS: Based on interviews with staff in otolaryngology, pulmonary, urology, breast, and gastroenterology clinics at a large urban publicly funded health system, we applied journey mapping to co-develop a visual representation of how patients are monitored for high-risk conditions...
June 24, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642694/ehlers-danlos-syndrome-hypermobility-type-impact-of-somatosensory-orthoses-on-postural-control-a-pilot-study
#18
Emma G Dupuy, Pascale Leconte, Elodie Vlamynck, Audrey Sultan, Christophe Chesneau, Pierre Denise, Stéphane Besnard, Boris Bienvenu, Leslie M Decker
Elhers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is the clinical manifestation of connective tissue disorders, and comprises several clinical forms with no specific symptoms and selective medical examinations which result in a delay in diagnosis of about 10 years. The EDS hypermobility type (hEDS) is characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, variable skin hyperextensibility and impaired proprioception. Since somatosensory processing and multisensory integration are crucial for both perception and action, we put forth the hypothesis that somatosensory deficits in hEDS patients may lead, among other clinical symptoms, to misperception of verticality and postural instability...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638094/microsaccades-are-sensitive-to-word-structure-a-novel-approach-to-study-language-processing
#19
Maya Yablonski, Uri Polat, Yoram S Bonneh, Michal Ben-Shachar
Microsaccades are miniature eye movements that occur involuntarily during fixation. They are typically inhibited following stimulus onset and are released from inhibition about 300 ms post-stimulus. Microsaccade-inhibition is modulated by low level features of visual stimuli, but it is currently unknown whether they are sensitive to higher level, abstract linguistic properties. To address this question, we measured the timing of microsaccades while subjects were presented with written Hebrew words and pronounceable nonwords (pseudowords)...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634543/cannabis-and-cognitive-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-gender
#20
Viral P Patel, Anthony Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is associated with gender differences and the use of smoked/ingested cannabis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to explore a possible gender-cannabis interaction associated with cognitive dysfunction in PwMS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of cognitive data collected from 140 PwMS. A general linear model was conducted to determine gender and cannabis effects on processing speed (SDMT), verbal (CVLT-II) and visual (BVMT-R) memory, and executive functions (D-KEFS), while controlling for age and years of education...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
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