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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634543/cannabis-and-cognitive-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-gender
#1
Viral P Patel, Anthony Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is associated with gender differences and the use of smoked/ingested cannabis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to explore a possible gender-cannabis interaction associated with cognitive dysfunction in PwMS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of cognitive data collected from 140 PwMS. A general linear model was conducted to determine gender and cannabis effects on processing speed (SDMT), verbal (CVLT-II) and visual (BVMT-R) memory, and executive functions (D-KEFS), while controlling for age and years of education...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631988/evidence-of-practice-effect-in-cantab-spatial-working-memory-test-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Federica Cacciamani, Nicola Salvadori, Paolo Eusebi, Viviana Lisetti, Elisa Luchetti, Paolo Calabresi, Lucilla Parnetti
The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a system of neuropsychological tests frequently used to track the progression of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated test-retest reliability in seven CANTAB tests. Twenty-five MCI patients, with either AD-like or conflicting/normal cerebrospinal fluid profiles underwent three testing sessions at 6-month intervals, including the following tests: Reaction Time and Rapid Visual Information Processing (assessing attention and reaction times); Delayed Matching-to-Sample, Paired Associates Learning, Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory (assessing memory); Spatial Working Memory (assessing executive functions)...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625487/distinct-feedforward-and-feedback-effects-of-microstimulation-in-visual-cortex-reveal-neural-mechanisms-of-texture-segregation
#3
P Christiaan Klink, Bruno Dagnino, Marie-Alice Gariel-Mathis, Pieter R Roelfsema
The visual cortex is hierarchically organized, with low-level areas coding for simple features and higher areas for complex ones. Feedforward and feedback connections propagate information between areas in opposite directions, but their functional roles are only partially understood. We used electrical microstimulation to perturb the propagation of neuronal activity between areas V1 and V4 in monkeys performing a texture-segregation task. In both areas, microstimulation locally caused a brief phase of excitation, followed by inhibition...
June 9, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618296/impaired-body-perception-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#4
Federica Biotti, Katie L H Gray, Richard Cook
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder associated with difficulties recognising and discriminating faces. In some cases, the perceptual deficits seen in DP appear to be face-specific. However, DP is known to be a heterogeneous condition, and many cases undoubtedly exhibit impaired perception of other complex objects. There are several well-documented parallels between body and face perception; for example, faces and bodies are both thought to recruit holistic analysis and engage similar regions of visual cortex...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607992/no-dependent-programmed-cell-death-is-involved-in-the-formation-of-zn-related-lesions-in-tobacco-leaves
#5
Aleksandra Weremczuk, Anna Ruszczyńska, Ewa Bulska, Danuta Maria Antosiewicz
A recent study indicated that the development of lesions on the leaf blades of tobacco exposed to zinc (Zn) excess can be considered a manifestation of a Zn-tolerance strategy at the organ level. Here, we investigated whether cell death leading to the formation of localized lesions is destructive in character (necrosis type) or results from programmed self-induced cell death (PCD). Selected parameters, including PCD markers, were determined in the leaves from tobacco plants grown in the presence of 200 μM Zn and compared with control conditions...
June 13, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598417/age-related-delay-in-visual-and-auditory-evoked-responses-is-mediated-by-white-and-grey-matter-differences
#6
D Price, L K Tyler, R Neto Henriques, K L Campbell, N Williams, M S Treder, J R Taylor, R N A Henson
Slowing is a common feature of ageing, yet a direct relationship between neural slowing and brain atrophy is yet to be established in healthy humans. We combine magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measures of neural processing speed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of white and grey matter in a large population-derived cohort to investigate the relationship between age-related structural differences and visual evoked field (VEF) and auditory evoked field (AEF) delay across two different tasks. Here we use a novel technique to show that VEFs exhibit a constant delay, whereas AEFs exhibit delay that accumulates over time...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592696/visual-working-memory-enhances-the-neural-response-to-matching-visual-input
#7
Surya Gayet, Matthias Guggenmos, Thomas B Christophel, John-Dylan Haynes, Chris L E Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Philipp Sterzer
Visual working memory (VWM) is used to maintain visual information available for subsequent goal-directed behavior. The content of VWM has been shown to affect the behavioral response to concurrent visual input, suggesting that visual representations originating from VWM and from sensory input draw upon a shared neural substrate (i.e., a sensory recruitment stance on VWM storage). Here, we hypothesized that visual information maintained in VWM would enhance the neural response to concurrent visual input that matches the content of VWM...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590881/effects-of-irrelevant-background-speech-on-eye-movements-during-reading
#8
Guoli Yan, Zhu Meng, Nina Liu, Liyuan He, Kevin B Paterson
The irrelevant speech effect (ISE) refers to the impairment of visual information processing by background speech. Prior research on the ISE has focused on short-term memory for visually-presented word lists. The present research extends this work by using measurements of eye movements to examine effects of irrelevant background speech during Chinese reading. This enabled an examination of the ISE for a language in which access to semantic representations is not strongly mediated by phonology. Participants read sentences while exposed to meaningful irrelevant speech, meaningless speech (scrambled meaningful speech) or silence...
June 7, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585249/closure-of-the-vertebral-canal-in-human-embryos-and-fetuses
#9
Hayelom K Mekonen, Jill P J M Hikspoors, Greet Mommen, Nutmethee Kruepunga, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10 weeks of development. Human embryos (5-10 weeks of development) were visualized using Amira 3D(®) reconstruction and Cinema 4D(®) remodelling software. Vertebral bodies were identifiable as loose mesenchymal structures between the dense mesenchymal intervertebral discs up to 6 weeks and then differentiated into cartilaginous structures in the 7th week...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584952/identity-and-semantic-negative-priming-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation-streams
#10
Lin Li, Ewald Neumann, Zhe Chen
In selective attention tasks, the efficiency of processing concurrently presented target and distractor stimuli in a given display is often influenced by the relationship these stimuli have with those in the previous display. When a to-be-attended target on a current trial (the probe trial) matches the ignored, non-target distractor on a previous trial (the prime trial), a response to the target is typically delayed compared with when the two stimuli are not associated. This negative priming (NP) phenomenon has been observed in numerous studies with traditional NP tasks presenting the target and distractor simultaneously in both the prime and probe trial couplets...
June 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583388/spatial-modulation-of-motor-sensory-recalibration-in-early-deaf-individuals
#11
Tiziana Vercillo, Fang Jiang
Audition dominates other senses in temporal processing, and in the absence of auditory cues, temporal perception can be compromised. Moreover, after auditory deprivation, visual attention is selectively enhanced for peripheral visual stimuli. In this study, we assessed whether early hearing loss affects motor-sensory recalibration, the ability to adjust the timing of an action and its sensory effect based on the recent experience. Early deaf participants and hearing controls were asked to discriminate the temporal order between a motor action (a keypress) and a visual stimulus (a white circle) before and after adaptation to a delay between the two events...
June 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583280/clinical-value-of-fdg-pet-ct-for-the-evaluation-of-rheumatic-diseases-rheumatoid-arthritis-polymyalgia-rheumatica-and-relapsing-polychondritis
#12
REVIEW
Kazuo Kubota, Hiroyuki Yamashita, Akio Mimori
FDG is a tracer for visualizing glucose metabolism. PET/CT using FDG is widely used for the diagnosis of cancer, because glycolysis is elevated in cancer cells. Similarly, active inflammatory tissue also exhibits elevated glucose metabolism because of glycolysis in activated macrophages and proliferating fibroblasts. Elevated FDG uptake by active inflammatory tissues, such as those affected by arthritis, vasculitis, lymphadenitis, and chondritis, has enabled the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases using FDG-PET/CT...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580724/melatonin-delays-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa
#13
Xiao-Jian Xu, Shu-Min Wang, Ying Jin, Yun-Tao Hu, Kang Feng, Zhi-Zhong Ma
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a group of incurable inherited retinal degenerations. Targeting common processes, instead of mutation specific treatment, has proven to be an innovative strategy to combat debilitating retinal degeneration. Growing evidence indicates that melatonin possesses a potent activity against neurodegenerative disorders by mitigating cell damage associated with apoptosis and inflammation. Given the pleiotropic role of melatonin in central nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether melatonin would afford protection against retinal degeneration in autosomal recessive RP (arRP)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578524/the-role-of-feedback-delay-in-dual-task-performance
#14
Wilfried Kunde, Robert Wirth, Markus Janczyk
Doing two things at once is hard, and it is probably hard for various reasons. Here we aim to demonstrate that one so far barely considered reason is the monitoring of sensory action feedback, which detracts from processing of other concurrent tasks. To demonstrate this, we engaged participants in a psychological refractory period paradigm. The responses in the two tasks produced visual action effects. These effects occurred either immediately or they were delayed for the first of the two responses. We assumed that delaying these effects would engage a process of monitoring visual feedback longer, and delay a concurrent task more, as compared to immediate effects...
June 3, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576569/top-down-modulation-of-early-print-tuned-neural-activity-in-reading
#15
Fang Wang, Urs Maurer
Fast neural tuning to print has been found within the first 250ms of stimulus processing across different writing systems, indicated by larger N1 negativity in the ERP to words (or characters) compared to control stimuli, such as symbols. However, whether print tuning effects can be modulated by task demands at early stages of visual word recognition is still under debate. To further explore this issue, an ERP study in Chinese was conducted. Familiar, high-frequency, left/right-structured Chinese characters and unfamiliar, stroke number-matched symbols (Korean characters) were used as stimulus conditions...
May 30, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572407/simultaneous-analysis-of-the-lfp-and-spiking-activity-reveals-essential-components-of-a-visuomotor-transformation-in-the-frontal-eye-field
#16
Naveen Sendhilnathan, Debaleena Basu, Aditya Murthy
The frontal eye field (FEF) is a key brain region to study visuomotor transformations because the primary input to FEF is visual in nature, whereas its output reflects the planning of behaviorally relevant saccadic eye movements. In this study, we used a memory-guided saccade task to temporally dissociate the visual epoch from the saccadic epoch through a delay epoch, and used the local field potential (LFP) along with simultaneously recorded spike data to study the visuomotor transformation process. We showed that visual latency of the LFP preceded spiking activity in the visual epoch, whereas spiking activity preceded LFP activity in the saccade epoch...
June 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570621/effect-of-glaucoma-on-eye-movement-patterns-and-laboratory-based-hazard-detection-ability
#17
Samantha Sze-Yee Lee, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
PURPOSE: The mechanisms underlying the elevated crash rates of older drivers with glaucoma are poorly understood. A key driving skill is timely detection of hazards; however, the hazard detection ability of drivers with glaucoma has been largely unexplored. This study assessed the eye movement patterns and visual predictors of performance on a laboratory-based hazard detection task in older drivers with glaucoma. METHODS: Participants included 30 older drivers with glaucoma (71±7 years; average better-eye mean deviation (MD) = -3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561899/a-big-data-analysis-approach-for-rail-failure-risk-assessment
#18
Ali Jamshidi, Shahrzad Faghih-Roohi, Siamak Hajizadeh, Alfredo Núñez, Robert Babuska, Rolf Dollevoet, Zili Li, Bart De Schutter
Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by analyzing a type of rail surface defect called squats that are detected automatically among the huge number of records from video cameras. We propose an image processing approach for automatic detection of squats, especially severe types that are prone to rail breaks...
May 31, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559382/axonal-conduction-delays-brain-state-and-corticogeniculate-communication
#19
Carl R Stoelzel, Yulia Bereshpolova, Jose-Manuel Alonso, Harvey A Swadlow
Thalamocortical conduction times are short, but layer 6 corticothalamic axons display an enormous range of conduction times, some exceeding 40--50 ms. Here, we investigate (a) how axonal conduction times of corticogeniculate (CG) neurons are related to the visual information conveyed to the thalamus, and (b) how alert vs. nonalert awake brain states affect visual processing across the spectrum of CG conduction times. In awake female Dutch-Belted rabbits, we found 58% of CG neurons to be visually responsive, and 42% to be unresponsive...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555099/load-dependent-increases-in-delay-period-alpha-band-power-track-the-gating-of-task-irrelevant-inputs-to-working-memory
#20
Andrew J Heinz, Jeffrey S Johnson
Studies exploring the role of neural oscillations in cognition have revealed sustained increases in alpha-band power (ABP) during the delay period of verbal and visual working memory (VWM) tasks. There have been various proposals regarding the functional significance of such increases, including the inhibition of task-irrelevant cortical areas as well as the active retention of information in VWM. The present study examines the role of delay-period ABP in mediating the effects of interference arising from on-going visual processing during a concurrent VWM task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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