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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144422/atypical-processing-of-novel-distracters-in-a-visual-oddball-task-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, Manuel F Casanova
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136516/the-order-of-information-processing-alters-economic-gain-loss-framing-effects
#2
Youngbin Kwak, Scott Huettel
Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually - which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes...
November 11, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133108/a-role-for-consolidation-in-cross-modal-category-learning
#3
Jennifer E Ashton, Elizabeth Jefferies, M Gareth Gaskell
The ability to categorize objects and events is a fundamental human skill that depends upon the representation of multimodal conceptual knowledge. This study investigated the acquisition and consolidation of categorical information that required participants to integrate information across visual and auditory dimensions. The impact of wake- and sleep-dependent consolidation were investigated using a paradigm in which training and testing were separated by a delay spanning either an evening of sleep or daytime wakefulness, with a paired-associate episodic memory task used as a measure of classic sleep-dependent consolidation...
November 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128609/tracking-changes-in-spatial-frequency-sensitivity-during-natural-image-processing-in-school-age-an-event-related-potential-study
#4
Adrienn Aranka Rokszin, Dóra Győri-Dani, János Bácsi, László G Nyúl, Gábor Csifcsák
Several studies have shown that behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of processing visual images containing low or high spatial frequency (LSF or HSF) information undergo development after early childhood. However, the maturation of spatial frequency sensitivity during school age has been investigated using abstract stimuli only. The aim of the current study was to assess how LSF and HSF features affect the processing of everyday photographs at the behavioral and electrophysiological levels in children aged 7-15 years and adults...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122719/interocular-interaction-of-contrast-and-luminance-signals-in-human-primary-visual-cortex
#5
E Chadnova, A Reynaud, S Clavagnier, D H Baker, S Baillet, R F Hess
Interocular interaction in the visual system occurs under dichoptic conditions when contrast and luminance are imbalanced between the eyes. Human psychophysical investigations suggest that interocular interaction can be explained by a contrast normalization model. However, the neural processes that underlie such interactions are still unresolved. We set out to assess, for the first time, the proposed normalization model of interocular contrast interactions using magnetoencephalography and to extend this model to incorporate interactions based on interocular luminance differences...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116132/serial-dependence-is-absent-at-the-time-of-perception-but-increases-in-visual-working-memory
#6
Daniel P Bliss, Jerome J Sun, Mark D'Esposito
Recent experiments have shown that visual cognition blends current input with that from the recent past to guide ongoing decision making. This serial dependence appears to exploit the temporal autocorrelation normally present in visual scenes to promote perceptual stability. While this benefit has been assumed, evidence that serial dependence directly alters stimulus perception has been limited. In the present study, we parametrically vary the delay between stimulus and response in a spatial delayed response task to explore the trajectory of serial dependence from the moment of perception into post-perceptual visual working memory...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110094/mapping-gpr88-venus-illuminates-a-novel-role-for-gpr88-in-sensory-processing
#7
Aliza T Ehrlich, Meriem Semache, Julie Bailly, Stefan Wojcik, Tanzil M Arefin, Christine Colley, Christian Le Gouill, Florence Gross, Viktoriya Lukasheva, Mireille Hogue, Emmanuel Darcq, Laura-Adela Harsan, Michel Bouvier, Brigitte L Kieffer
GPR88 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor originally characterized as a striatal-enriched transcript and is a potential target for neuropsychiatric disorders. At present, gene knockout studies in the mouse have essentially focused on striatal-related functions and a comprehensive knowledge of GPR88 protein distribution and function in the brain is still lacking. Here, we first created Gpr88-Venus knock-in mice expressing a functional fluorescent receptor to fine-map GPR88 localization in the brain. The receptor protein was detected in neuronal soma, fibers and primary cilia depending on the brain region, and remarkably, whole-brain mapping revealed a yet unreported layer-4 cortical lamination pattern specifically in sensory processing areas...
November 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105015/children-s-use-of-morphological-cues-in-real-time-event-representation
#8
Peng Zhou, Weiyi Ma
The present study investigated whether and how fast young children can use information encoded in morphological markers during real-time event representation. Using the visual world paradigm, we tested 35 adults, 34 5-year-olds and 33 3-year-olds. The results showed that the adults, the 5-year-olds and the 3-year-olds all exhibited eye gaze patterns that reflected a rapid use of morphological cues during real-time event representation. There was no difference in the time course of the eye gaze patterns of the 5-year-olds and those of the adults, indicating that 5-year-old children already have adult-like processing abilities and they can use morphological cues as effectively as adults during real-time event representation...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097987/multisensory-rehabilitation-training-improves-spatial-perception-in-totally-but-not-partially-visually-deprived-children
#9
Giulia Cappagli, Sara Finocchietti, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Elena Cocchi, Monica Gori
Since it has been shown that spatial development can be delayed in blind children, focused sensorimotor trainings that associate auditory and motor information might be used to prevent the risk of spatial-related developmental delays or impairments from an early age. With this aim, we proposed a new technological device based on the implicit link between action and perception: ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction) is an audio bracelet that produces a sound when a movement occurs by allowing the substitution of the visuo-motor association with a new audio-motor association...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089911/frontal-theta-activity-supports-detecting-mismatched-information-in-visual-working-memory
#10
Tengfei Liang, Zhonghua Hu, Qiang Liu
During the comparison stage of visual working memory (VWM) processing, detecting the mismatch between the external sensory input and internal representations is a crucial cognitive ability for human, but the neural mechanism behind it remains largely unclear. The present study investigated the role of frontal theta power in detecting the mismatched information in VWM in a delayed matching task. A control task required to compare two simultaneously presented visual figures was also designed as a contrast to exclude the possibility that frontal theta activity just reflecting the non-memory-related behavioral conflicts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081593/neurodynamic-correlates-of-response-inhibition-from-emerging-to-mid-adulthood
#11
Martina Knežević, Ksenija Marinković
Response inhibition, a key executive function, continues to develop in early adulthood in parallel with maturational processes of the underlying prefrontal regions known to support it. The current study examined behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition during a visual Go/No-Go task in a large sample (N = 120) comprised of participants in their Early 20s (ages 19-21), Mid 20s (ages 23-27), and Early 30s (ages 28-42). The two younger groups had lower accuracy, shorter reaction times, and made more premature responses compared to Early 30s...
July 2017: Cognitive Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081148/-follow-up-of-resting-state-brain-function-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
N Qi, Y Cui, J C Liu, M Yu, G J Teng
Objective: To investigate the changes of resting brain function with time in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: Multidimensional cognitive function tests and rs-fMRI scans were performed in 21 T2DM patients and 12 healthy controls in 2012 and 2015 respectively.The differences in clinical variables and the ReHo values before and after were measured by paired sample t test, and the correlation between the change of ReHo value and the change of clinical variables was measured by Pearson correlation analysis based on voxel...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077703/point-process-analysis-of-noise-in-early-invertebrate-vision
#13
Kris V Parag, Glenn Vinnicombe
Noise is a prevalent and sometimes even dominant aspect of many biological processes. While many natural systems have adapted to attenuate or even usefully integrate noise, the variability it introduces often still delimits the achievable precision across biological functions. This is particularly so for visual phototransduction, the process responsible for converting photons of light into usable electrical signals (quantum bumps). Here, randomness of both the photon inputs (regarded as extrinsic noise) and the conversion process (intrinsic noise) are seen as two distinct, independent and significant limitations on visual reliability...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075186/age-related-changes-in-sensorimotor-temporal-binding
#14
Tiziana Vercillo, Carlos Carrasco, Fang Jiang
The causal relationship between a voluntary movement and a sensory event is crucial for experiencing agency. Sensory events must occur within a certain delay from a voluntary movement to be perceived as self-generated. Therefore, temporal sensitivity, i.e., the ability to discriminate temporal asynchronies between motor and sensory events, is important for sensorimotor binding. Moreover, differences in the physical propagation of external stimuli can sometimes challenge sensorimotor binding, generating illusory asynchrony...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072813/a-high-throughput-all-optical-laser-scanning-imaging-flow-cytometer-with-biomolecular-specificity-and-subcellular-resolution
#15
Wenwei Yan, Jianglai Wu, Kenneth K Y Wong, Kevin K Tsia
Image-based cellular assay advances approaches to dissecting complex cellular characteristics through direct visualization of cellular functional structures. However, available technologies face a common challenge, especially when it comes to the unmet need for unraveling population heterogeneity at single-cell precision: higher imaging resolution (and thus content) comes at the expense of lower throughput, or vice versa. To overcome this challenge, a new type of imaging flow cytometer based upon an all-optical ultrafast laser-scanning imaging technique, called free-space angular-chirp-enhanced delay (FACED) is reported...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072188/body-dysmorphic-disorder-latest-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-findings
#16
K Tasios, I Michopoulos
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance that is not observable or appears slight to others. It leads to severe distress and functional impairment. Cognitive-behavioural and neurobiological similarities to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have led to its newly conceived classification as an obsessive compulsive related disorder (OCRD). In the process of investigating the neurobiology of BDD, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071128/introducing-visual-participatory-methods-to-develop-local-knowledge-on-hiv-in-rural-south-africa
#17
Chloe Brooks, Lucia D'Ambruoso, Karolina Kazimierczak, Sizzy Ngobeni, Rhian Twine, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, Peter Byass
INTRODUCTION: South Africa is a country faced with complex health and social inequalities, in which HIV/AIDS has had devastating impacts. The study aimed to gain insights into the perspectives of rural communities on HIV-related mortality. METHODS: A participatory action research (PAR) process, inclusive of a visual participatory method (Photovoice), was initiated to elicit and organise local knowledge and to identify priorities for action in a rural subdistrict underpinned by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070629/object-maintenance-beyond-their-visible-parts-in-working-memory
#18
Siyi Chen, Thomas Töllner, Hermann J Müller, Markus Conci
Completion of a partially occluded object requires that a representation of the whole is constructed based on the information provided by the physically specified parts of the stimulus. Such processes of amodal completion rely on the generation and maintenance of a mental image that renders the completed object in visual working memory (VWM). The present study examined this relationship between VWM storage and processes of object completion. We recorded event-related potentials to track VWM maintenance by means of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) during a change detection task in which to-be-memorized composite objects (notched shapes abutting an occluding shape) were primed to induce either a globally completed object or a non-completed, mosaic representation...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066555/recruitment-of-foveal-retinotopic-cortex-during-haptic-exploration-of-shapes-and-actions-in-the-dark
#19
Simona Monaco, Jason P Gallivan, Teresa D Figley, Anthony Singhal, Jody C Culham
The role of the early visual cortex and higher-order occipito-temporal cortex has been studied extensively for visual recognition and to a lesser degree for haptic recognition and visually guided actions. Using a slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we investigated: 1) whether tactile and visual exploration of objects recruit the same "visual" areas (and in the case of visual cortex, the same retinotopic zones); and 2) whether these areas show reactivation during delayed actions in the dark towards haptically explored objects (and if so, whether this reactivation might be due to imagery)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060096/assisting-people-with-nystagmus-through-image-stabilization-using-an-arx-model-to-overcome-processing-delays
#20
Stephan Polzer, Klaus Miesenberger
Pathological Nystagmus is characterized by an unintended and involuntary eye-movement, which tends to impact on visual acuity. Today only view therapies (for instance medication or surgeries) to treat nystagmus are at hand and the existing therapies only show partial improvement. Only general Assistive Technology (AT) solutions like glasses, screen magnifiers, speech output, display adaptation and concepts holders are at hand to support daily living. More specific ATs to reduce the impact of nystagmus are missing...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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