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Pablo Alvarado, Rosanne Healy, Gabriel Moreno, Julio Cabero, Markus Scholler, Anja Schneider, Alfredo Vizzini, Vasileios Kaounas, Josep Maria Vidal, Gunnar Hensel, Enrique Rubio, Alija Mujic, Matthew E Smith
A multigene phylogenetic analysis of Genabea, Myrmecocystis, and related genera in Pyronemataceae was conducted to establish genetically supported generic limits. The nuc rDNA 28S gene, translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1), and RNA polymerase II second-largest subunit gene (RPB2) significantly supported the monophyly of several distinct genera of hypogeous Pyronemataceae. The genetic identity of Genabea fragilis is established, and the new species Genabea hyalospora, G. urbana, Myrmecocystis mediterranea, and M...
March 26, 2018: Mycologia
Angela Fedi, Terri Mannarini, Anne Brodsky, Alessia Rochira, Sara Buckingham, Lindsay Emery, Surbhi Godsay, Jill Scheibler, Anna Miglietta, Silvia Gattino
This study explores the bidirectional and interactional process of acculturation from the perspectives of immigrants and receiving community members (RCMs). Our aim was to understand the experiences and interactions of different ethno-cultural groups and their impact on the functioning and dynamics of multicultural communities. We conducted a cross-national, cross-cultural study of acculturation processes, using interviews collected across two countries (Italy: urban regions of Torino and Lecce; U.S.: Baltimore/Washington corridor) and three distinct groups of immigrants-Moroccans and Albanians in Italy and Latin Americans in the United States-and RCMs in Italy and the United States...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Zhe Zhao, Siliang Liu, Jixin Zhu, Jingsan Xu, Le Li, Zhaoqi Huang, Chao Zhang, Tianxi Liu
Interconnected close-packed nitrogen-doped porous carbon polyhedrons (NCPs) confined in a two-dimensional carbon nanosheets (CNSs) have been prepared through a sustainable one-pot pyrolysis of a simple solid mixture of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) crystals and organic potassium as the precursors. The hierarchically organized framework of the NCP-CNS composites enables NCPs and CNSs acting as well-defined electrolyte reservoirs and mechanical buffers accommodating large volume expansions of NCPs, respectively...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xin Ye, Ke Wang, Yajie Zou, Dominique Lord
This paper develops a semi-nonparametric Poisson regression model to analyze motor vehicle crash frequency data collected from rural multilane highway segments in California, US. Motor vehicle crash frequency on rural highway is a topic of interest in the area of transportation safety due to higher driving speeds and the resultant severity level. Unlike the traditional Negative Binomial (NB) model, the semi-nonparametric Poisson regression model can accommodate an unobserved heterogeneity following a highly flexible semi-nonparametric (SNP) distribution...
2018: PloS One
Pavla Hanousková, Petr Táborský, Ivan Čepička
We report the discovery of a new genus of heterolobosean flagellates, Dactylomonas gen. nov., with two species, D. venusta sp. nov. and D. crassa sp. nov. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene showed that Dactylomonas is closely related to the amoeba Selenaion, the deepest-branching lineage of Tetramitia. Dactylomonads possess two flagella, and ultrastructural studies revealed an unexpected organization of the flagellar apparatus, which resembled Pharyngomonada (the second lineage of Heterolobosea) instead of Tetramitia: basal bodies were orthogonal to each other and a putative root R1 was present in the mastigont...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xiaolong Dong, Srivathsan Ranganathan, Guosheng Qu, Carol Lyn Piazza, Marlene Belfort
Group II introns, the putative progenitors of spliceosomal introns and retrotransposons, are ribozymes that are capable of self-splicing and DNA invasion. In the cell, group II introns form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with an intron-encoded protein, which is essential to folding, splicing and retromobility of the intron. To understand the structural accommodations underlying splicing, in preparation for retromobility, we probed the endogenously expressed Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron RNP using SHAPE...
May 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Wei-Lun Weng, Chin-Yu Hsu, Jheng-Syun Lee, Hsin-Hsin Fan, Chien-Neng Liao
Lattice-mismatch is an important factor for the heteroepitaxial growth of core-shell nanostructures. A large lattice-mismatch usually leads to a non-coherent interface or a polycrystalline shell layer. In this study, a conformal Ag layer is coated on Cu nanowires with dense nanoscale twin boundaries through a galvanic replacement reaction. Despite a large lattice mismatch between Ag and Cu (∼12.6%), the Ag shell replicates the twinning structure in Cu nanowires and grows epitaxially on the nanotwinned Cu nanowire...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Rongji Mu, Jin Xu
In clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes, it is of interest to predict when a prespecified number of events can be reached. Interim analysis is conducted to estimate the underlying survival function. When another correlated time-to-event endpoint is available, both outcome variables can be used to improve estimation efficiency. In this paper, we propose to use the convolution of two time-to-event variables to estimate the survival function of interest. Propositions and examples are provided based on exponential models that accommodate possible change points...
May 22, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Sukru Arslan, Isil Uzunhasan, Betul Balaban Kocas, Gokhan Cetinkal, Seyma Arslan, Cuneyt Kocas, Okay Abaci, Mustafa Yildiz, Cengiz Celiker, Cengizhan Turkoglu
BACKGROUND: Toluene is used extensively in various industrial processes, and an increasing number of workers are getting exposed to its vapor. Cardiac abnormalities that have been reported in association with toluene exposure (in toxic doses) are atrioventricular conduction abnormalities, sinus bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, recurrent myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, and coronary vasospasm. HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic toluene exposure on cardiac rhythm...
May 22, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Joëlle Fournier, Leandro Imanishi, Mireille Chabaud, Iltaf Abdou-Pavy, Andrea Genre, Lukas Brichet, Hernán Ramiro Lascano, Nacira Muñoz, Alice Vayssières, Elodie Pirolles, Laurent Brottier, Hassen Gherbi, Valérie Hocher, Sergio Svistoonoff, David G Barker, Luis G Wall
Nitrogen-fixing filamentous Frankia colonize the root tissues of its actinorhizal host Discaria trinervis via an exclusively intercellular pathway. Here we present studies aimed at uncovering mechanisms associated with this little-researched mode of root entry, and in particular the extent to which the host plant is an active partner during this process. Detailed characterization of the expression patterns of infection-associated actinorhizal host genes has provided valuable tools to identify intercellular infection sites, thus allowing in vivo confocal microscopic studies of the early stages of Frankia colonization...
May 23, 2018: New Phytologist
Tracy Anastas, Elizabeth Needham Waddell, Sonya Howk, Mark Remiker, Gretchen Horton-Dunbar, L J Fagnan
Adults with serious mental illness and substance use disorders have elevated risk of mortality and higher healthcare costs compared to the general population. As these disparities have been linked to poor management of co-occurring chronic conditions in primary care, the behavioral health setting may be a preferred setting for routine medical screening and treatment. This qualitative study describes early stages of integrating care teams in emerging medical homes based in mental health and addiction treatment settings...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Sandra Franco, Jessica Gomes
The purpose of this work was to study the real-time changes of the optical properties of the eye with accommodation in subjects with symptoms of accommodative disorders. From ocular aberrations, it is possible to compute several parameters like the response and lag of accommodation. The ocular aberrations were measured in 4 subjects, with different accommodative disorders, during several cycles of accommodation/disaccommodation and for different accommodative stimuli. The measurement was done continuously and in real time during different accommodative stimuli...
2018: BioMed Research International
Dennis de Ruijter, Math Candel, Eline Suzanne Smit, Hein de Vries, Ciska Hoving
BACKGROUND: Improving practice nurses' (PN) adherence to smoking cessation counseling guidelines will benefit the quality of smoking cessation care and will potentially lead to higher smoking abstinence rates. However, support programs to aid PNs in improving their guideline uptake and adherence do not exist yet. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel computer-tailored electronic learning (e-learning) program on PNs' smoking cessation guideline adherence...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Y Tony Yang, Ross D Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: Vaccine
Matthew Browne, Matthew J Rockloff
Background The prevention paradox (PP) describes a situation in which a greater number of cases of a disease-state come from low-risk members of a population, because they are more prevalent than high-risk members. Past research has provided only tangential and disputed evidence to support the application of the PP to gambling-related harm. Aims To assess whether the PP applies to gambling, the prevalence of a large set (72) of diverse harmful consequences from gambling was examined across four risk categories for problem gambling, including no-risk, low-risk, moderate-risk, and problem-gambling...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Sasha M Zeedyk, Yasamine Bolourian, Jan Blacher
Increasingly, young adults with autism spectrum disorder are attending 4-year universities. The transition to adulthood can be challenging for these students, and university life poses its own set of demands. The present article takes a mixed-methods approach by including two studies utilizing complementary methodologies. Through in-depth interviews with students with autism spectrum disorder ( n = 13) and college professors ( n = 18), the purpose of the first study was to evaluate the experiences and needs of college students with autism spectrum disorder and identify the knowledge that faculty members possessed about working with these students...
May 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
James E Tarver, Richard S Taylor, Mark N Puttick, Graeme T Lloyd, Walker Pett, Bastian Fromm, Bettina E Schirrmeister, Davide Pisani, Kevin J Peterson, Philip C J Donoghue
microRNAs are conserved non-coding regulatory factors implicated in diverse physiological and developmental processes in multicellular organisms, as causal macroevolutionary agents and for phylogeny inference. However, the conservation and phylogenetic utility of microRNAs has been questioned on evidence of pervasive loss. Here we show that apparent widespread losses are, largely, an artefact of poorly sampled and annotated microRNAomes. Using a curated dataset of animal microRNAomes, we reject the view that miRNA families are never lost, but they are rarely lost (92% are never lost)...
May 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Emmanuel K Abu, Stephen Ocansey, Joseph Yennu, Isaac Asirifi, Richmond Marfo
AIM: Amplitude of accommodation (AoA) can be determined clinically using different methods. Some methods are known to be more reliable than others for measuring AoA in different age categories. The purpose of this study was to compare Hofstetter's age-expected norms with five recommended methods of measuring AoA in order to determine age-appropriate techniques for a Ghanaian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AoA was measured using four subjective methods (push-up, push-down, minus-lens, modified push-up) and one objective method, the modified dynamic retinoscopy...
May 22, 2018: Current Eye Research
Bernadette A M Chevalier, Bernadette M Watson, Michael A Barras, William N Cottrell, Daniel J Angus
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacist-patient communication during medication counselling has been successfully investigated using Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT). Communication researchers in other healthcare professions have utilised Discursis software as an adjunct to their manual qualitative analysis processes. Discursis provides a visual, chronological representation of communication exchanges and identifies patterns of interactant engagement. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe how Discursis software was used to enhance previously conducted qualitative analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions (by visualising pharmacist-patient speech patterns, episodes of engagement, and identifying CAT strategies employed by pharmacists within these episodes)...
2018: PloS One
Douglas E Widmer, Tamara S Oechslin, Chirag Limbachia, Marjean Taylor Kulp, Andrew J Toole, Nasser H Kashou, Nicklaus Fogt
SIGNIFICANCE: Prior studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of vergence-accommodative therapy in the treatment of convergence insufficiency (CI). These results show the changes in brain activation following therapy through the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in brain activation following office-based vergence-accommodative therapy versus placebo therapy for CI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal from fMRI...
May 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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