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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647426/age-related-changes-in-structural-connectivity-are-improved-using-subject-specific-thresholding
#1
Corinna M Bauer, Lauren E Zajac, Bang-Bon Koo, Ronald J Killiany, Lotfi B Merabet
BACKGROUND: Deterministic diffusion tractography obtained from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) requires user-defined quantitative anisotropy (QA) thresholds. Most studies employ a common threshold across all subjects even though there is a strong degree of individual variation within groups. We sought to explore whether it would be beneficial to use individual thresholds in order to accommodate individual variance. To do this, we conducted two independent experiments...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647323/mechanism-of-plant-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-a-review-on-biomolecules-involved-characterisation-and-antibacterial-activity
#2
REVIEW
S Rajeshkumar, L V Bharath
Engineering a reliable and eco-accommodating methodology for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a crucial step in the field of nanotechnology. Plant-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been developed as a substitute to defeat the limitations of conventional synthesis approaches such as physical and chemical methods. Biomolecules, such as proteins, amino acids, enzymes, flavonoids, and terpenoids from several plant extracts have been used as a stabilising and reducing agents for the synthesis of AgNPs...
June 21, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646778/the-hydrological-functioning-of-a-constructed-fen-wetland-watershed
#3
Scott J Ketcheson, Jonathan S Price, Owen Sutton, George Sutherland, Eric Kessel, Richard M Petrone
Mine reclamation requires the reconstruction of entire landforms and drainage systems. The hydrological regime of reclaimed landscapes will be a manifestation of the processes operating within the individual landforms that comprise it. Hydrology is the most important process regulating wetland function and development, via strong controls on chemical and biotic processes. Accordingly, this research addresses the growing and immediate need to understand the hydrological processes that operate within reconstructed landscapes following resource extraction...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646521/enhancing-perovskite-electrocatalysis-of-solid-oxide-cells-through-controlled-growth-of-nanoparticles
#4
Bin Hua, Meng Li, Yi-Fei Sun, Jian-Hui Li, Jing-Li Luo
Perovskite oxides have received a great deal of attentions as promising electrodes in both solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOECs) because of their reasonable reactivity, impurity tolerance, tunable property, etc. Particular explorations are still required for advancing the perovskite electrodes, which normally suffer from slow kinetics in electrocatalysis. In the past decades, several experimental studies have developed new classes of perovskites with advanced characteristics and electrode kinetics at technical levels...
June 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645951/effects-of-socioeconomic-factors-on-cardiovascular-related-symptoms-among-residents-in-fukushima-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-a-cross-sectional-study-using-data-from-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#5
Wen Zhang, Tetsuya Ohira, Seiji Yasumura, Masaharu Maeda, Akira Otsuru, Mayumi Harigane, Naoko Horikoshi, Yuriko Suzuki, Hirooki Yabe, Masato Nagai, Hironori Nakano, Mayumi Hirosaki, Mayu Uemura, Hideto Takahashi, Kenji Kamiya, Shunichi Yamashita, Masafumi Abe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socioeconomic factors and the exacerbation of cardiovascular symptoms among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHODS: A sample of 73 433 individuals was included in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Self-report questionnaires were used to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors including living arrangements, loss of employment and decreased income on the exacerbation of headache, dizziness, palpitations and shortness of breath...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645510/the-nonlinear-flexural-response-of-a-whole-teleost-fish-contribution-of-scales-and-skin
#6
Lawrence Szewciw, Deju Zhu, Francois Barthelat
The scaled skin of fish is an intricate system that provides mechanical protection against hard and sharp puncture, while maintaining the high flexural compliance required for unhindered locomotion. This unusual combination of local hardness and global compliance makes fish skin an interesting model for bioinspired protective systems. In this work we investigate the flexural response of whole teleost fish, and how scales may affect global flexural stiffness. A bending moment is imposed on the entire body of a striped bass (Morone saxatilis)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645232/interplay-between-innate-immunity-and-the-plant-microbiota
#7
Stéphane Hacquard, Stijn Spaepen, Ruben Garrido-Oter, Paul Schulze-Lefert
The innate immune system of plants recognizes microbial pathogens and terminates their growth. However, recent findings suggest that at least one layer of this system is also engaged in cooperative plant-microbe interactions and influences host colonization by beneficial microbial communities. This immune layer involves sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate quantitative immune responses to control host-microbial load, whereas diversification of MAMPs and PRRs emerges as a mechanism that locally sculpts microbial assemblages in plant populations...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644899/new-insights-in-dehydration-stress-behavior-of-two-maize-hybrids-using-advanced-distributed-reactivity-model-drm-responses-to-the-impact-of-24-epibrassinolide
#8
Hadi Waisi, Bojan Janković, Marija Janković, Bogdan Nikolić, Ivica Dimkić, Blažo Lalević, Vera Raičević
Proposed distributed reactivity model of dehydration for seedling parts of two various maize hybrids (ZP434, ZP704) was established. Dehydration stresses were induced thermally, which is also accompanied by response of hybrids to heat stress. It was found that an increased value of activation energy counterparts within radicle dehydration of ZP434, with a high concentration of 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) at elevated operating temperatures, probably causes activation of diffusion mechanisms in cutin network and may increases likelihood of formation of free volumes, large enough to accommodate diffusing molecule...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644579/pairing-field-methods-to-improve-inference-in-wildlife-surveys-while-accommodating-detection-covariance
#9
John Clare, Shawn T McKinney, John E DePue, Cynthia S Loftin
It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost-efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that the separate sampling methods produce detections independently of one another...
June 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642880/longitudinal-patterns-of-stability-and-change-in-tenacious-goal-pursuit-and-flexible-goal-adjustment-among-older-people-over-a-9-year-period
#10
Guillaume Martinent, Nathalie Bailly, Claude Ferrand, Kamel Gana, Caroline Giraudeau, Michèle Joulain
Using the dual-process model of assimilative-tenacity (TGP) and accommodative-flexibility (FGA), the study aims to identify trajectories of TGP and FGA over five time points within a 9-year period, explore the relationships between the trajectories of TGP and FGA, and explore if participants from distinct TGP and FGA trajectories differed in indicators of well-being and depression. Latent class growth analysis was used in a five-wave longitudinal design among an older population of 747 participants over 65 years...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642271/powerful-genetic-association-analysis-for-common-or-rare-variants-with-high-dimensional-structured-traits
#11
Xiang Zhan, Ni Zhao, Anna Plantinga, Timothy A Thornton, Karen N Conneely, Michael P Epstein, Michael C Wu
Many genetic association studies collect a wide range of complex traits. As these traits may be correlated and share a common genetic mechanism, joint analysis can be statistically more powerful and biologically more meaningful. However, most existing tests for multiple traits cannot be used for high-dimensional and possibly structured traits, such as network-structured transcriptomic pathway expressions. To overcome potential limitations, in this paper we propose the dual kernel-based association test (DKAT) for testing the association between multiple traits and multiple genetic variants, both common and rare...
June 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641166/care-coordination-at-a-pediatric-accountable-care-organization-aco-a-qualitative-analysis
#12
Baria Hafeez, Sophia Miller, Anup D Patel, Zachary M Grinspan
OBJECTIVE: Care coordinators may help manage care for children with chronic illness. Their role in pediatric epilepsy care is understudied. We aimed to qualitatively describe the content of a care coordination intervention for children with epilepsy. METHODS: We conducted nine semi-structured interviews and one focus group with care coordinators at a pediatric accountable care organization (ACO) in Ohio. The care coordinators used a modified version of a published care coordination checklist for children with epilepsy (Patel AD, 2014)...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639933/saccharomyces-jurei-sp-nov-isolation-and-genetic-identification-of-a-novel-yeast-species-from-quercus-robur
#13
Samina Naseeb, Stephen A James, Haya Alsammar, Christopher J Michaels, Beatrice Gini, Carmen Nueno-Palop, Christopher J Bond, Henry McGhie, Ian N Roberts, Daniela Delneri
Two strains, D5088T and D5095, representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Saccharomyces were isolated from oak tree bark and surrounding soil located at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level in Saint Auban, France. Sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and 26S rRNA D1/D2 domains indicated that the two strains were most closely related to Saccharomyces mikatae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Genetic hybridization analyses showed that both strains are reproductively isolated from all other Saccharomyces species and, therefore, represent a distinct biological species...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639448/-hybrid-monovision
#14
P Studený, M Kacerovský, J Kacerovská, N Gajarová, Z Straňák
AIM: To evaluate our own results of the use of hybrid monovision technique, in patients after bilateral cataract surgery, where in the dominant eye the monofocal intraocular lens is implanted and in the non-dominant eye the multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective follow-up of group of 33 patients with bilateral cataract surgery and induced hybrid monovision. In the dominant eye, the hydrophilic monofocal aspheric intraocular lens Auroflex (Aurolab) was implanted, and in the non-dominant eye the hydrophilic multifocal aspheric intraocular lens Seelens (Hanita) was implanted...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639168/sensitivity-of-chaos-measures-in-detecting-stress-in-the-focusing-control-mechanism-of-the-short-sighted-eye
#15
Karen M Hampson, Matthew P Cufflin, Edward A H Mallen
When fixating on a stationary object, the power of the eye's lens fluctuates. Studies have suggested that changes in these so-called microfluctuations in accommodation may be a factor in the onset and progression of short-sightedness. Like many physiological signals, the fluctuations in the power of the lens exhibit chaotic behaviour. A breakdown or reduction in chaos in physiological systems indicates stress to the system or pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chaos in fluctuations of the power of the lens changes with refractive error, i...
June 21, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639096/-we-re-completely-back-to-normal-but-i-d-say-it-s-a-new-normal-a-qualitative-exploration-of-adaptive-functioning-in-rural-families-following-a-parental-cancer-diagnosis
#16
E D Garrard, K M Fennell, C Wilson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore rural families' functioning following a parental cancer diagnosis. METHOD: Ten families in which a parent of dependent children had received a cancer diagnosis were purposively sampled using two questionnaires based upon the Resiliency Model of Family Adjustment and Adaptation (RMFAA): the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales (F-COPES) and the Family Attachment Changeability Index 8 (FACI8). The total participant number was 34, which comprised the involvement of 17 parents and 17 children...
June 21, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639026/regulation-of-engineered-nanomaterials-current-challenges-insights-and-future-directions
#17
Racliffe W S Lai, Katie W Y Yeung, Mana M N Yung, Aleksandra B Djurišić, John P Giesy, Kenneth M Y Leung
Substantial production and wide applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns over their potential influences on the environment and humans. However, regulations of products containing ENMs are scarce, even in countries with the greatest volume of ENMs produced, such as the United States and China. After a comprehensive review of life cycles of ENMs, five major challenges to regulators posed by ENMs are proposed in this review: (a) ENMs exhibit variable physicochemical characteristics, which makes them difficult for regulators to establish regulatory definition; (b) Due to diverse sources and transport pathways for ENMs, it is difficult to monitor or predict their fates in the environment; (c) There is a lack of reliable techniques for quantifying exposures to ENMs; (d) Because of diverse intrinsic properties of ENMs and dynamic environmental conditions, it is difficult to predict bioavailability of ENMs on wildlife and the environment; and (e) There are knowledge gaps in toxicity and toxic mechanisms of ENMs from which to predict their hazards...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636961/myeloid-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system
#18
REVIEW
Jasmin Herz, Anthony J Filiano, Ashtyn Smith, Nir Yogev, Jonathan Kipnis
The central nervous system (CNS) and its meningeal coverings accommodate a diverse myeloid compartment that includes parenchymal microglia and perivascular macrophages, as well as choroid plexus and meningeal macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. These myeloid populations enjoy an intimate relationship with the CNS, where they play an essential role in both health and disease. Although the importance of these cells is clearly recognized, their exact function in the CNS continues to be explored. Here, we review the subsets of myeloid cells that inhabit the parenchyma, meninges, and choroid plexus and discuss their roles in CNS homeostasis...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636952/human-leukocyte-antigen-f-presents-peptides-and-regulates-immunity-through-interactions-with-nk-cell-receptors
#19
Charles L Dulberger, Curtis P McMurtrey, Angelique Hölzemer, Karlynn E Neu, Victor Liu, Adriana M Steinbach, Wilfredo F Garcia-Beltran, Michael Sulak, Bana Jabri, Vincent J Lynch, Marcus Altfeld, William H Hildebrand, Erin J Adams
Evidence is mounting that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule HLA-F (human leukocyte antigen F) regulates the immune system in pregnancy, infection, and autoimmunity by signaling through NK cell receptors (NKRs). We present structural, biochemical, and evolutionary analyses demonstrating that HLA-F presents peptides of unconventional length dictated by a newly arisen mutation (R62W) that has produced an open-ended groove accommodating particularly long peptides. Compared to empty HLA-F open conformers (OCs), HLA-F tetramers bound with human-derived peptides differentially stained leukocytes, suggesting peptide-dependent engagement...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636592/quantifiable-predictive-features-define-epitope-specific-t-cell-receptor-repertoires
#20
Pradyot Dash, Andrew J Fiore-Gartland, Tomer Hertz, George C Wang, Shalini Sharma, Aisha Souquette, Jeremy Chase Crawford, E Bridie Clemens, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska, Nicole L La Gruta, Philip Bradley, Paul G Thomas
T cells are defined by a heterodimeric surface receptor, the T cell receptor (TCR), that mediates recognition of pathogen-associated epitopes through interactions with peptide and major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). TCRs are generated by genomic rearrangement of the germline TCR locus, a process termed V(D)J recombination, that has the potential to generate marked diversity of TCRs (estimated to range from 10(15) (ref. 1) to as high as 10(61) (ref. 2) possible receptors). Despite this potential diversity, TCRs from T cells that recognize the same pMHC epitope often share conserved sequence features, suggesting that it may be possible to predictively model epitope specificity...
June 21, 2017: Nature
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