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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332227/accommodative-esotropia-the-state-of-the-art
#1
REVIEW
Andrea Lembo, Massimiliano Serafino, Marika Dello Strologo, Richard A Saunders, Rupal H Trivedi, Edoardo Villani, Paolo Nucci
PURPOSE: To review the state of the art of Accommodative Esotropia (AE) through careful study of what has been reported up to the point in literature. METHODS: A literature search was done on PubMed using key words including "Accommodative esotropia", "Infantile esotropia", "Strabismus" and "Accommodation". We systematically reviewed and critically appraised what has been written about AE and we tried to analyze that according to the current management of AE. RESULTS: Accommodative Esotropia (AE) is a form of strabismus characterized by convergent misalignment of the visual axes that can be associated with hyperopia and abnormal fusional divergence...
January 13, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331224/centrifugal-partition-chromatography-enables-selective-enrichment-of-trimeric-and-tetrameric-proanthocyanidins-for-biomaterial-development
#2
Rasika S Phansalkar, Joo-Won Nam, Shao-Nong Chen, James B McAlpine, Ariene A Leme, Berdan Aydin, Ana-Karina Bedran-Russo, Guido F Pauli
Proanthocyanidins (PACs) find wide applications for human use including food, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The chemical complexity associated with PACs has triggered the development of various chromatographic techniques, with countercurrent separation (CCS) gaining in popularity. This study applied the recently developed DESIGNER (Depletion and Enrichment of Select Ingredients Generating Normalized Extract Resources) approach for the selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric PACs using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330953/jaw-dropping-functional-variation-in-the-digastric-muscle-in-bats
#3
Abigail A Curtis, Sharlene E Santana
Diet and feeding behavior in mammals is strongly linked to the morphology of their feeding apparatus. Cranio-muscular morphology determines how wide, forcefully, and quickly the jaw can be opened or closed, which limits the size and material properties of the foods that a mammal can eat. Most studies of feeding performance in mammals have focused on skull form and jaw muscles involved in generating bite force, but few explore how jaw abduction is related to feeding performance. In this study, we explored how the morphology of the digastric muscle, the primary jaw abducting muscle in mammals, and its jaw lever mechanics are related to diet in morphologically diverse noctilionoid bats...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330696/migrant-live-in-caregivers-mental-health-in-canada
#4
Mandana Vahabi, Josephine Pui-Hing Wong, Aisha Lofters
Empirical evidence suggests rapid health decline among temporary migrant workers but there is limited knowledge about their mental health. This study explored live-in care givers' (LCs) mental health and its determinants. Using a mixed methods design, a purposeful sample of 30 LCs was recruited. Data were collected through a selfcompleted questionnaire. A third of participants reported their mental health as poor or fair. Almost half experienced major depression. The poor mental health was associated with the average working hours and living accommodation...
January 12, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327923/aliovalent-cation-substitution-in-uo2-electronic-and-local-structures-of-u1-ylayo2%C3%A2-x-solid-solutions
#5
Damien Prieur, Laura Martel, Jean-François Vigier, Andreas C Scheinost, Kristina O Kvashnina, Joseph Somers, Philippe M Martin
For nuclear fuel related applications, the oxygen stoichiometry of mixed oxides U1-yMyO2±x is an essential property as it affects fuel properties and may endanger the safe operation of nuclear reactors. A careful review of the open literature indicates that this parameter is difficult to assess properly and that the nature of the defects, i.e., oxygen vacancies or UV, in aliovalent cation-doped UO2 is still subject to controversy. To confirm the formation of UV, we have investigated the room-temperature stable U1-yLayO2±x phase using several experimental methods (e...
January 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327001/cumulative-energy-analysis-of-thermally-induced-surface-wrinkling-of-heterogeneously-multilayered-thin-films
#6
Seong Soo Yoo, Gwan H Choi, Wooseop Lee, Juhyun Park, Gi-Ra Yi, Du Yeol Ryu, Pil J Yoo
Wrinkling is a well-known example of instability-driven surface deformation that occurs when the accumulated compressive stress exceeds the critical value in multilayered systems. A number of studies have investigated the instability conditions and the corresponding mechanisms of wrinkling deformation. Force balance analysis of bilayer systems, in which the thickness of the capping layer is importantly considered, has offered a useful approach for the quantitative understanding of wrinkling. However, it is inappropriate for multilayer wrinkling (layer number > 3) consisting of heterogeneous materials (e...
January 12, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326190/a-qualitative-study-of-patients-feedback-about-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-opat-services-in-northern-england-implications-for-service-improvement
#7
Maureen Twiddy, Carolyn J Czoski Murray, Samantha J Mason, David Meads, Judy M Wright, Elizabeth D Mitchell, Jane Minton
OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) provides opportunities for improved cost savings, but in the UK, implementation is patchy and a variety of service models are in use. The slow uptake in the UK and Europe is due to a number of clinical, financial and logistical issues, including concern about patient safety. The measurement of patient experience data is commonly used to inform commissioning decisions, but these focus on functional aspects of services and fail to examine the relational aspects of care...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326114/biomechanics-of-swimming-in-developing-larval-fish
#8
REVIEW
Cees J Voesenek, Florian T Muijres, Johan L van Leeuwen
Most larvae of bony fish are able to swim almost immediately after hatching. Their locomotory system supports several vital functions: fish larvae make fast manoeuvres to escape from predators, aim accurately during suction feeding and may migrate towards suitable future habitats. Owing to their small size and low swimming speed, larval fish operate in the intermediate hydrodynamic regime, which connects the viscous and inertial flow regimes. They experience relatively strong viscous effects at low swimming speeds, and relatively strong inertial effects at their highest speeds...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325701/developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-using-latent-change-score-models-a-tutorial-and-applications
#9
REVIEW
Rogier A Kievit, Andreas M Brandmaier, Gabriel Ziegler, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Susanne M M de Mooij, Michael Moutoussis, Ian M Goodyer, Ed Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Ulman Lindenberger, Raymond J Dolan
Assessing and analysing individual differences in change over time is of central scientific importance to developmental neuroscience. However, the literature is based largely on cross-sectional comparisons, which reflect a variety of influences and cannot directly represent change. We advocate using latent change score (LCS) models in longitudinal samples as a statistical framework to tease apart the complex processes underlying lifespan development in brain and behaviour using longitudinal data. LCS models provide a flexible framework that naturally accommodates key developmental questions as model parameters and can even be used, with some limitations, in cases with only two measurement occasions...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324678/immobilization-of-enzymes-on-a-phospholipid-bionically-modified-polysulfone-gradient-pore-membrane-for-the-enhanced-performance-of-enzymatic-membrane-bioreactors
#10
Yizong Guo, Xueyan Zhu, Fei Fang, Xiao Hong, Huimin Wu, Dajing Chen, Xiaojun Huang
Enzymatic membrane bioreactors (EMBRs), with synergistic catalysis-separation performance, have increasingly been used for practical applications. Generally, the membrane properties, particularly the pore structures and interface interactions, have a significant impact on the catalytic efficiency of the EMBR. Therefore, a biomimetic interface based on a phospholipid assembled onto a polysulfone hollow-fiber membrane with perfect radial gradient pores (RGM-PSF) has been prepared in this work to construct a highly efficient and stable EMBR...
January 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324265/bayesian-spatiotemporal-crash-frequency-models-with-mixture-components-for-space-time-interactions
#11
Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Yongping Zhang, Zhong Cao
The traffic safety research has developed spatiotemporal models to explore the variations in the spatial pattern of crash risk over time. Many studies observed notable benefits associated with the inclusion of spatial and temporal correlation and their interactions. However, the safety literature lacks sufficient research for the comparison of different temporal treatments and their interaction with spatial component. This study developed four spatiotemporal models with varying complexity due to the different temporal treatments such as (I) linear time trend; (II) quadratic time trend; (III) Autoregressive-1 (AR-1); and (IV) time adjacency...
January 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323733/photo-induced-toxicity-following-exposure-to-crude-oil-and-ultraviolet-radiation-in-two-australian-fishes
#12
Lauren E Sweet, Andrew T Revill, Joanna Strzelecki, Sharon E Hook, Jeffrey M Morris, Aaron P Roberts
Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a component of crude oil, are known to cause increased toxicity when organisms are co-exposed with ultraviolet radiation, resulting in photo-induced toxicity. The photodynamic characteristic of some PAHs are of particular concern to places like Australia with high ultraviolet radiation levels. The objective of this study was to characterize the photo-induced toxicity of an Australian Northwest Shelf oil to early life stage yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri)...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323273/histone-octamer-rearranges-to-adapt-to-dna-unwrapping
#13
Silvija Bilokapic, Mike Strauss, Mario Halic
Nucleosomes, the basic units of chromatin, package and regulate expression of eukaryotic genomes. Although the structure of the intact nucleosome is well characterized, little is known about structures of partially unwrapped, transient intermediates. In this study, we present nine cryo-EM structures of distinct conformations of nucleosome and subnucleosome particles. These structures show that initial DNA breathing induces conformational changes in the histone octamer, particularly in histone H3, that propagate through the nucleosome and prevent symmetrical DNA opening...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322186/stuttering-in-preschool-children-direct-versus-indirect-treatment
#14
Marilyn A Nippold
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the controversial topic of stuttering in preschool children and how to evaluate the options for treatment, emphasizing the role of external research evidence. Method: A hypothetical but realistic case study of a 3-year-old boy who stutters is described. Two contrasting approaches to treatment are presented, the Lidcombe Program (LP) and the demands and capacities model (DCM). Studies published in peer-reviewed research journals that have examined the effectiveness of each approach are summarized and critiqued...
January 9, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321914/a-hierarchical-spatiotemporal-analog-forecasting-model-for-count-data
#15
Patrick L McDermott, Christopher K Wikle, Joshua Millspaugh
Analog forecasting is a mechanism-free nonlinear method that forecasts a system forward in time by examining how past states deemed similar to the current state moved forward. Previous applications of analog forecasting has been successful at producing robust forecasts for a variety of ecological and physical processes, but it has typically been presented in an empirical or heuristic procedure, rather than as a formal statistical model. The methodology presented here extends the model-based analog method of McDermott and Wikle (Environmetrics, 27, 2016, 70) by placing analog forecasting within a fully hierarchical statistical framework that can accommodate count observations...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321888/a-general-modeling-framework-for-describing-spatially-structured-population-dynamics
#16
Christine Sample, John M Fryxell, Joanna A Bieri, Paula Federico, Julia E Earl, Ruscena Wiederholt, Brady J Mattsson, D T Tyler Flockhart, Sam Nicol, Jay E Diffendorfer, Wayne E Thogmartin, Richard A Erickson, D Ryan Norris
Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321606/reevaluation-of-the-dentary-structures-of-caenagnathid-oviraptorosaurs-dinosauria-theropoda
#17
Shuo Wang, Qiyue Zhang, Rui Yang
Among the characters of caenagnathid oviraptorosaurians, the lateral occlusal grooves and ridges on the occlusal surface of the jaw bones often receive special attention. Recent studies demonstrated that ontogenetic edentulism is present in caenagnathids, and therefore the lateral occlusal grooves and ridges are vestigial alveoli and interdental septa, respectively. In the present paper, the dentary structures of caenagnathids were reevaluated based on CT images of Caenagnathiasia sp. IVPP V20377. Several previously unknown features including crateriform vestigial alveoli, the morphology of the dentary interior hollow space, and the paired blind tubes beneath the dentary symphyseal shelf are recognized...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321246/unique-perceptuomotor-control-of-stone-hammers-in-wild-monkeys
#18
Madhur Mangalam, Matheus Maia Pacheco, Patrícia Izar, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
We analysed the patterns of coordination of striking movement and perceptuomotor control of stone hammers in wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus as they cracked open palm nut using hammers of different mass, a habitual behaviour in our study population. We aimed to determine why these monkeys cannot produce conchoidally fractured flakes as do contemporary human knappers or as did prehistoric hominin knappers. We found that the monkeys altered their patterns of coordination of movement to accommodate changes in hammer mass...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320911/turning-challenges-into-design-principles-telemonitoring-systems-for-patients-with-multiple-chronic-conditions
#19
Mehwish Sultan, Kerry Kuluski, Warren J McIsaac, Joseph A Cafazzo, Emily Seto
People with multiple chronic conditions often struggle with managing their health. The purpose of this research was to identify specific challenges of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to use the findings to form design principles for a telemonitoring system tailored for these patients. Semi-structured interviews with 15 patients with multiple chronic conditions and 10 clinicians were conducted to gain an understanding of their needs and preferences for a smartphone-based telemonitoring system. The interviews were analyzed using a conventional content analysis technique, resulting in six themes...
January 1, 2018: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320630/structural-insight-into-the-discrimination-between-8-oxoguanine-glycosidic-conformers-by-dna-repair-enzymes-a-molecular-dynamics-study-of-hogg1-and-fpg
#20
Shahin Sowlati-Hashjin, Stacey D Wetmore
hOgg1 and FPG are the primary DNA repair enzymes responsible for removing the major guanine oxidative product (G), namely 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (OG), in humans and bacteria, respectively. While natural G adopts the anti conformation and forms a Watson-Crick pair with cytosine (C), OG can also adopt the syn conformation and form a Hoogsteen pair with adenine (A). hOgg1 removes OG paired with C, but is inactive toward the OG:A pair. In contrast, FPG removes OG from OG:C pairs, and also exhibits appreciable (although diminished) activity toward OG:A pairs...
January 10, 2018: Biochemistry
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