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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340300/synthesis-of-3-o-sulfated-oligosaccharides-to-understand-the-relationship-between-structures-and-functions-of-heparan-sulfate
#1
Zhangjie Wang, Po-Hung Hsieh, Yongmei Xu, David Thieker, Evangeline Juan En Chai, Shaoshuai Xie, Brian Cooley, Robert Woods, Lianli Chi, Jian Liu
The sulfation at the 3-OH position of glucosamine is an important modification in forming structural domains for heparan sulfate to enable its biological functions. Seven 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms in the human genome are involved in the biosynthesis of 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate. As a rare modification present in heparan sulfate, the availability of 3-O-sulfated oligosaccharides is very limited. Here, we report the use of a chemoenzymatic synthetic approach to synthesize six 3-O-sulfated oligosaccharides, including three hexasaccharides and three octasaccharides...
March 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339998/executive-functioning-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-do-deficits-exist
#2
Karen E Weiss, Cynthia Harbeck-Weber, Michael J Zaccariello, Jacqueline N Kimondo, Tracy E Harrison, Barbara K Bruce
Objective. : Despite ample research documenting deficits in executive functioning for adults with chronic pain, the literature on pediatric patients with chronic pain is limited and provides mixed results. The current study sought to further investigate the nature of executive dysfunction in this population and also examine the relationships between pain intensity, duration, and catastrophizing with sustained attention, working memory, and self- and parent-report of executive functioning...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339418/survey-of-kinesiologists-functional-capacity-evaluation-practice-in-canada
#3
Kathryn E Sinden, Taya L McGillivary, Elizabeth Chapman, Steven L Fischer
BACKGROUND: In Canada, functional capacity evaluations (FCEs) are commonly administered by several health care professions including kinesiologists. Kinesiologists have been recently regulated as health care professionals in Ontario and we know little about their demographics, the frequency of FCE administration, or the types of FCEs used by this group. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to identify: 1) the demographic characteristics and FCE education of kinesiology FCE practitioners; 2) the FCE systems most used by these practitioners and 3) the constructs from assessments used to determine functional capacity...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334821/in-vivo-cleavage-specificity-of-trypanosoma-brucei-editosome-endonucleases
#4
Jason Carnes, Suzanne McDermott, Atashi Anupama, Brian G Oliver, D Noah Sather, Kenneth Stuart
RNA editing is an essential post-transcriptional process that creates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Kinetoplastids. Multiprotein editosomes catalyze pre-mRNA cleavage, uridine (U) insertion or deletion, and ligation as specified by guide RNAs. Three functionally and compositionally distinct editosomes differ by the mutually exclusive presence of the KREN1, KREN2 or KREN3 endonuclease and their associated partner proteins. Because endonuclease cleavage is a likely point of regulation for RNA editing, we elucidated endonuclease specificity in vivo...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333216/buddysuite-command-line-toolkits-for-manipulating-sequences-alignments-and-phylogenetic-trees
#5
Stephen R Bond, Karl E Keat, Sofia N Barreira, Andreas D Baxevanis
The ability to manipulate sequence, alignment, and phylogenetic tree files has become an increasingly important skill in the life sciences, whether to generate summary information or to prepare data for further downstream analysis. The command line can be an extremely powerful environment for interacting with these resources, but only if the user has the appropriate general-purpose tools on hand. BuddySuite is a collection of four independent yet interrelated command-line toolkits that facilitate each step in the workflow of sequence discovery, curation, alignment, and phylogenetic reconstruction...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332936/ethical-concerns-about-emerging-treatment-paradigms-for-gender-dysphoria
#6
Stephen B Levin
The increasing incidence of request for medical services to support gender transition for children, adolescents and adults has consequences for society, governmental institutions, schools, families, health care professionals, and, of course, patients. The sociological momentum to recognize and accommodate to trans phenomena has posed ethical dilemmas for endocrinologists, mental health professionals and sexual specialists as they experience within themselves the clash between Respect for Patient Autonomy, Beneficence, Nonmalficience, and Informed Consent...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332748/guest-induced-assembly-of-bis-thiosemicarbazonato-zinc-ii-coordination-nanotubes
#7
Brett M Paterson, Keith F White, Jonathan M White, Brendan F Abrahams, Paul S Donnelly
A Zn(II) complex of the dianionic tetradentate ligand formed by deprotonation of glyoxal-bis(4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (H2 gtsp) is a [3+3] trinuclear triangular prism. Recrystallization of this complex in the presence of either CO2 , CS2 , or CH3 CN leads to the formation of [4+4] open-ended charge-neutral tetranuclear coordination nanotubes, approximately 2 nm in length and with internal dimensions large enough to accommodate linear guest molecules, which serve to template their formation. Upon removal of the templating molecules the nanotubes demonstrated reversible sorption of CO2 with an isosteric enthalpy of sorption of 28 kJ mol(-1) at low loading...
March 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332496/cell-free-reconstitution-reveals-centriole-cartwheel-assembly-mechanisms
#8
P Guichard, V Hamel, M Le Guennec, N Banterle, I Iacovache, V Nemčíková, I Flückiger, K N Goldie, H Stahlberg, D Lévy, B Zuber, P Gönczy
How cellular organelles assemble is a fundamental question in biology. The centriole organelle organizes around a nine-fold symmetrical cartwheel structure typically ∼100 nm high comprising a stack of rings that each accommodates nine homodimers of SAS-6 proteins. Whether nine-fold symmetrical ring-like assemblies of SAS-6 proteins harbour more peripheral cartwheel elements is unclear. Furthermore, the mechanisms governing ring stacking are not known. Here we develop a cell-free reconstitution system for core cartwheel assembly...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332404/conceptual-design-and-implantation-of-an-external-fixator-with-improved-mobility-for-knee-rehabilitation
#9
Gianluca Gatti
A hinged external fixator is used to allow early knee rehabilitation in case of injury or trauma, as an alternative approach to immobilization. It is mainly adopted for the treatment of dislocations, which involve tearing of the ligaments, and it basically consists of two links connected to each other by a revolute joint. Each link is fixed to the femur and tibia via pin fixation, and the revolute joint is approximately aligned to the knee flexion-extension (FE) axis. The advantage in its implantation is to protect ligament reconstruction, while allowing for an aggressive rehabilitation...
March 23, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331414/taxonomic-revision-and-cladistic-analysis-of-avicularia-lamarck-1818-araneae-theraphosidae-aviculariinae-with-description-of-three-new-aviculariine-genera
#10
Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Rogério Bertani
The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331098/recombinant-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-generating-ebola-virus-like-particles
#11
Marc Schweneker, Andrea S Laimbacher, Gert Zimmer, Susanne Wagner, Elisabeth M Schraner, Michael Wolferstätter, Marieken Klingenberg, Ulrike Dirmeier, Robin Steigerwald, Henning Lauterbach, Hubertus Hochrein, Paul Chaplin, Mark Suter, Jürgen Hausmann
There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines to treat or protect against the severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). Ebola virus-like particles (EBOV-VLPs) consisting of the matrix protein VP40, the glycoprotein (GP) and the nucleoprotein (NP) are highly immunogenic and protective in non-human primates against Ebola virus disease (EVD). We have constructed a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-Bavarian Nordic(®) (MVA-BN(®)) recombinant co-expressing VP40 and glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV Mayinga and the nucleoprotein (NP) of Taï Forest virus (TAFV) (MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP) to launch non-infectious EBOV-VLPs as a second vaccine modality in the MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP-vaccinated organism...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330982/response-to-why-medical-professionals-have-no-moral-claim-to-conscientious-objection-accommodation-in-liberal-democracies-by-schuklenk-and-smalling
#12
Richard John Lyus
Bioethicists commenting on conscientious objection and abortion should consider the empirical data on abortion providers. Abortion providers do not fall neatly into groups of providers and objectors, and ambivalence is a key theme in their experience. Practical details of abortion services further upset the dichotomy. These empirical facts are important because they demonstrate that the way the issue is described in analytical bioethics does not reflect reality. Addressing conscientious objection as a barrier to patient access requires engaging with those who provide the service and those who are able to but do not...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330763/ph-responsive-controlled-release-of-anti-cancer-hydrophobic-drugs-from-sodium-alginate-and-hydroxyapatite-bi-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#13
Danushika C Manatunga, Rohini M de Silva, K M Nalin de Silva, Nuwan de Silva, Shiva Bhandari, Yoke Khin Yap, N Pabakara Costha
Developing a drug carrier system which could perform targeted and controlled release over a period of time is utmost concern in the pharmaceutical industry. This is more relevant when designing drug carriers for poorly water soluble drug molecules such as curcumin and 6-gingerol. Development of a drug carrier system which could overcome these limitations and perform controlled and targeted drug delivery is beneficial. This study describes a promising approach for the design of novel pH sensitive sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite bilayer coated iron oxide nanoparticle composite (IONP/HAp-NaAlg) via the co-precipitation approach...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330310/diversity-and-bioactive-potentials-of-culturable-heterotrophic-bacteria-from-the-surficial-sediments-of-the-arabian-sea
#14
Abdulaziz Anas, Charulatha Nilayangod, C Jasmin, Saradavey Vinothkumar, P S Parameswaran, Shanta Nair
Marine sediments accommodate plethora of diverse microorganisms with varying ecological functions. In the present study, we isolated bacteria from surficial sediments of south east Arabian Sea (AS) and evaluated their bioactive potentials. A total of 131 isolates belonging to the phylum: γ-Proteobacteria (63%), Bacillales (34%) and Micrococcaceae (3%) were isolated. Among these, about 40% of the isolates showed the presence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes such as PKS or NRPS or both. Organic extracts of nearly 50% of these organisms were cytotoxic to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and were bactericidal to human pathogens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329106/evaluating-distinctions-in-the-assessment-of-late-life-disability
#15
Thomas M Gill, Christianna S Williams
Background: By including categories for accommodations and reduced frequency, to supplement earlier classifications of difficulty and dependence, a new 5-category functional scale has the potential to distinguish finer gradations in disability but the hierarchical nature and advantages of this scale over alternative scales are uncertain. Methods: Using data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (N = 7,609), we conducted a series of: cross-sectional analyses that focused on the hierarchical consistency of responses in the 5-category scale; and longitudinal analyses that focused on predictive accuracy for mortality and functional dependence, comparing the 5-category scale with three simpler scales, having only three or four categories...
February 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328206/ligand-induced-conformational-change-of-insulin-regulated-aminopeptidase-insights-on-catalytic-mechanism-and-active-site-plasticity
#16
Anastasia Mpakali, Emmanuel Saridakis, Karl Harlos, Yuguang Zhao, Paraskevi Kokkala, Dimitris Georgiadis, Petros Giastas, Athanasios Papakyriakou, Efstratios Stratikos
Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is an enzyme with several important biological functions that is known to process a large variety of different peptidic substrates although the mechanism behind this wide specificity is not clearly understood. We describe a crystal structure of IRAP in complex with a recently developed bioactive and selective inhibitor at 2.53 Å resolution. In the presence of this inhibitor the enzyme adopts a novel conformation in which domains II and IV are juxtaposed, forming a hollow structure that excludes external solvent access to the catalytic center...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328044/characterization-of-dissolved-and-particulate-phases-of-water-accommodated-fractions-used-to-conduct-aquatic-toxicity-testing-in-support-of-the-deepwater-horizon-natural-resource-damage-assessment
#17
Heather P Forth, Carys L Mitchelmore, Jeffrey M Morris, Claire R Lay, Joshua Lipton
In response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the Natural Resource Trustees implemented a toxicity testing program that included four different DWH oils that ranged from fresh to weathered, and three different oil-in-water preparation methods (including one that used the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500) to prepare a total of 12 chemically unique water accommodated fractions (WAFs). We determined how the different WAF preparation methods, WAF concentrations, and oil types influenced the chemical composition and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the dissolved and particulate phases over time periods used in standard toxicity tests...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327357/the-ternary-complex-structure-of-d-mandelate-dehydrogenase-with-nadh-and-anilino-oxo-acetate
#18
Nayuta Furukawa, Akimasa Miyanaga, Masahiro Nakajima, Hayao Taguchi
Enterococcus faecium NAD-dependent d-mandelate dehydrogenase (D-ManDH) belongs to a ketopantoate reductase (KPR)-related D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family, and exhibits broad substrate specificity toward bulky hydrophobic 2-ketoacids, preferring C3-branched substrates. The ternary complex structure of D-ManDH with NADH and anilino(oxo)acetate (AOA) revealed that the substrate binding induces a shear motion of the N-terminal domain along the C-terminal domain, following the hinge motion induced by the NADH binding, and allows the bound NADH molecule to form favorable interactions with a 2-ketoacid substrate...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327239/mating-motives-are-neither-necessary-nor-sufficient-to-create-the-beauty-premium
#19
Sebastian Hafenbrädl, Jason Dana
Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326991/the-effects-of-language-experience-and-speech-context-on-the-phonetic-accommodation-of-english-accented-spanish-voicing
#20
Fernando Llanos, Alexander L Francis
Native speakers of Spanish with different amounts of experience with English classified stop-consonant voicing (/b/ versus /p/) across different speech accents: English-accented Spanish, native Spanish, and native English. While listeners with little experience with English classified target voicing with an English- or Spanish-like voice onset time (VOT) boundary, predicted by contextual VOT, listeners familiar with English relied on an English-like VOT boundary in an English-accented Spanish context even in the absence of clear contextual cues to English VOT...
March 2017: Language and Speech
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