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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166661/ultraconserved-elements-uces-resolve-the-phylogeny-of-australasian-smurf-weevils
#1
Matthew H Van Dam, Athena W Lam, Katayo Sagata, Bradley Gewa, Raymond Laufa, Michael Balke, Brant C Faircloth, Alexander Riedel
Weevils (Curculionoidea) comprise one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. There is hardly a vascular plant or plant part without its own species of weevil feeding on it and weevil species diversity is greater than the number of fishes, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals combined. Here, we employ ultraconserved elements (UCEs) designed for beetles and a novel partitioning strategy of loci to help resolve phylogenetic relationships within the radiation of Australasian smurf-weevils (Eupholini)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166251/risk-of-diabetes-mellitus-among-medicaid-beneficiaries-in-hawaii
#2
Dongmei Li, Chuan C Chinn, Ritabelle Fernandes, Christina M B Wang, Myra D Smith, Rebecca Rude Ozaki
INTRODUCTION: Medicaid is the largest primary health insurance for low-income populations in the United States, and it provides comprehensive benefits to cover treatment and services costs for chronic diseases, including diabetes. The standardized per capita spending on diabetes by Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the fee-for-service program in Hawaii increased from 2012 to 2015. We examined the difference in odds of diabetes between Medicaid and non-Medicaid populations in major racial/ethnic groups in Hawaii...
November 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166010/conformational-dynamics-of-asparagine-at-coiled-coil-interfaces
#3
Franziska Thomas, Ai Niitsu, Alain Oregioni, Gail J Bartlett, Derek N Woolfson
Coiled coils (CCs) are among the best-understood protein folds. Nonetheless, there are gaps in our knowledge of CCs. Notably, CCs are likely to be structurally more dynamic than often considered. Here, we explore this in an abundant class of CCs, parallel dimers, focusing on polar asparagine (Asn) residues in the hydrophobic interface. It is well documented that such inclusions discriminate between different CC oligomers, which has been rationalized in terms of whether the Asn can make side-chain hydrogen bonds or not...
November 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165915/development-and-implementation-of-a-radiation-therapy-incident-learning-system-compatible-with-local-workflow-and-a-national-taxonomy
#4
Logan Montgomery, Palma Fava, Carolyn R Freeman, Tarek Hijal, Ciro Maietta, William Parker, John Kildea
PURPOSE: Collaborative incident learning initiatives in radiation therapy promise to improve and standardize the quality of care provided by participating institutions. However, the software interfaces provided with such initiatives must accommodate all participants and thus are not optimized for the workflows of individual radiation therapy centers. This article describes the development and implementation of a radiation therapy incident learning system that is optimized for a clinical workflow and uses the taxonomy of the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting - Radiation Treatment (NSIR-RT)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165476/ctab-assisted-growth-of-self-supported-zn2geo4-nanosheet-network-on-a-conductive-foam-as-a-binder-free-electrode-for-long-life-lithium-ion-batteries
#5
Guoxin Gao, Yang Xiang, Shiyao Lu, Bitao Dong, Sheng Chen, Lei Shi, Yuankun Wang, Hu Wu, Zhaoyang Li, Amr Abdelkader, Kai Xi, Shujiang Ding
The Ge-based compounds show great potential as replacements for traditional graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, large volume changes and low conductivity of such materials result in a poor electrochemical cycling and rate performance. Herein, we fabricate a self-supported and three-dimensional (3D) sponge-like structure of interlinked Zn2GeO4 ultrathin nanosheets anchored vertically on a nickel foam (ZGO NSs@NF) via a simple hydrothermal process assisted by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165412/-stabilizing-effectiveness-of-orthokeratology-and-long-term-minute-concentration-atropine-therapy-in-myopia-draft-report
#6
T Yu Verzhanskaya, E P Tarutta
The rational for the study was the high prevalence of myopia in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), myopia is one of the five leading causes of blindness and low vision. Of recent reports on conservative measures for the stabilization of myopia, two areas of investigation deserve attention: methods of optical correction that affect peripheral refraction, orthokeratology lenses (OKL) in particular, and pharmacotherapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of myopia control in pediatric patients by combining two methods - OKL wearing and instillation of extra low doses of atropine (0...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165244/the-aaa-atpase-vps4-binds-escrt-iii-substrates-through-a-repeating-array-of-dipeptide-binding-pockets
#7
Han Han, Nicole Monroe, Wesley I Sundquist, Peter S Shen, Christopher P Hill
The hexameric AAA ATPase Vps4 drives membrane fission by remodeling and disassembling ESCRT-III filaments. Building upon our earlier 4.3 Å resolution cryo-EM structure (Monroe, Han et al. 2017), we now report a 3.2 Å structure of Vps4 bound to an ESCRT-III peptide substrate. The new structure reveals that the peptide approximates a b-strand conformation whose helical symmetry matches that of the five Vps4 subunits it contacts directly. Adjacent Vps4 subunits make equivalent interactions with successive substrate dipeptides through two distinct classes of side chain binding pockets formed primarily by Vps4 pore loop 1...
November 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164225/amorphous-red-phosphorus-nanosheets-anchored-on-graphene-layers-as-high-performance-anodes-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#8
Li Sun, Yu Zhang, Deyang Zhang, Yihe Zhang
A facile solution-based method was developed to combine the advantage of amorphous nanoscale red P sheets and highly conductive graphene, forming a high-performance P/graphene composite anode for advanced lithium ion batteries. Graphene can be easily expanded into a 3D framework in solution with rich interior porosity and abundant adsorption points, which enables a large percentage of red P to be loaded and form a uniform P/graphene hybrid structure. The nanoscale and amorphous features of red P effectively reduce the volume expansion and mechanical stress within individual P sheets, thereby alleviating P pulverization during cycling...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163514/an-unexpected-major-role-for-proteasome-catalyzed-peptide-splicing-in-generation-of-t-cell-epitopes-is-there-relevance-for-vaccine-development
#9
REVIEW
Anouk C M Platteel, Juliane Liepe, Willem van Eden, Michele Mishto, Alice J A M Sijts
Efficient and safe induction of CD8(+) T cell responses is a desired characteristic of vaccines against intracellular pathogens. To achieve this, a new generation of safe vaccines is being developed accommodating single, dominant antigens of pathogens of interest. In particular, the selection of such antigens is challenging, since due to HLA polymorphism the ligand specificities and immunodominance hierarchies of pathogen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses differ throughout the human population. A recently discovered mechanism of proteasome-mediated CD8(+) T cell epitope generation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163273/implications-of-a-culturally-evolved-self-for-notions-of-free-will
#10
Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson
Most schools in psychology have emphasized individual choice despite evidence of genetic and cultural determinism. It is suggested in this paper that the rejection of classical behaviorism by psychology and other humanities flowed from deeply held cultural assumptions about volition and free will. While compatibilists have suggested that notions of free will and determinism are not mutually exclusive, the psychological mechanisms by which such an accommodation could be explained have been inadequately explored...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162669/non-labelled-lens-less-micro-endoscopic-approach-for-cellular-imaging-through-highly-scattering-media
#11
Omer Wagner, Aditya Pandya, Yoav Chemla, Hadar Pinhas, Irina Schelkanova, Asaf Shahmoon, Yossi Mandel, Alexandre Douplik, Zeev Zalevsky
We describe an imaging approach based on an optical setup made up of a miniature, lensless, minimally invasive endoscope scanning a sample and matching post processing techniques that enables enhanced imaging capabilities. The main scopes of this article are that this approach enables imaging beyond highly scattering medium and increases the resolution and signal to noise levels reaching single cell imaging. Our approach has more advantages over ordinary endoscope setups and other imaging techniques. It is not mechanically limited by a lens, the fiber can acquire images over long time periods (unlike current imaging methods such as OCT etc...
November 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162550/discovery-of-an-old-archipelago-wide-endemic-radiation-of-philippine-snakes
#12
Jeffrey L Weinell, Rafe M Brown
The extraordinarily rich land vertebrate biodiversity of the Philippines includes at least 112 species of terrestrial snakes (74% of which are endemic to the archipelago) in 41 genera (12% endemic). Endemic Philippine snake genera include Cyclocorus (two species), Hemibungarus (three species), Hologerrhum (two species), Oxyrhabdium (two species), and Myersophis (monotypic). Although Hemibungarus and Oxyrhabdium have been included in previous species-level phylogenies, the affinities of the other three Philippine endemic genera are completely unknown...
November 18, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162205/gastroenteritis-outbreaks-on-cruise-ships-contributing-factors-and-thresholds-for-early-outbreak-detection
#13
Varvara A Mouchtouri, Eleni Verykouki, Dumitru Zamfir, Christos Hadjipetris, Hannah C Lewis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, The Eu Shipsan Act Partnership
When an increased number of acute gastroenteritis (AG) cases is detected among tourists staying at the same accommodation, outbreak management plans must be activated in a timely manner to prevent large outbreaks. Syndromic surveillance data collected between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 by five seagoing cruise ships were analysed to identify attack rate thresholds for early outbreak detection. The overall incidence rate of AG was 2.81 cases per 10,000 traveller-days (95% confidence interval (CI): 0...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161623/functions-of-myosin-motors-tailored-for-parasitism
#14
REVIEW
Christina Mueller, Arnault Graindorge, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161538/analysis-of-crash-proportion-by-vehicle-type-at-traffic-analysis-zone-level-a-mixed-fractional-split-multinomial-logit-modeling-approach-with-spatial-effects
#15
Jaeyoung Lee, Shamsunnahar Yasmin, Naveen Eluru, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai
In traffic safety literature, crash frequency variables are analyzed using univariate count models or multivariate count models. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to modeling multiple crash frequency dependent variables. Instead of modeling the frequency of crashes we propose to analyze the proportion of crashes by vehicle type. A flexible mixed multinomial logit fractional split model is employed for analyzing the proportions of crashes by vehicle type at the macro-level. In this model, the proportion allocated to an alternative is probabilistically determined based on the alternative propensity as well as the propensity of all other alternatives...
November 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161511/a-customizable-flow-injection-system-for-automated-high-throughput-and-time-sensitive-ion-mobility-spectrometry-and-mass-spectrometry-measurements
#16
Daniel J Orton, Malak M Tfaily, Ronald J Moore, Brian L LaMarche, Xueyun Zheng, Thomas L Fillmore, Rosalie K Chu, Karl K Weitz, Matthew E Monroe, Ryan T Kelly, Richard D Smith, Erin Shammel Baker
To better understand disease conditions and environmental perturbations, multi-omic studies combining proteomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic analyses are vastly increasing in popularity. In a multi-omic study, a single sample is typically extracted in multiple ways and various analyses are performed using different instruments. Thus, one sample becomes many measurements, making high throughput and reproducible evaluations a necessity. One way to address the numerous samples and varying instrumental conditions is to utilize a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for rapid sample injection...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161358/neural-mechanisms-of-episodic-retrieval-support-divergent-creative-thinking
#17
Kevin P Madore, Preston P Thakral, Roger E Beaty, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160900/fusarium-graminearum-pathogen-or-endophyte-of-north-american-grasses
#18
Lotus A Lofgren, Nicholas R LeBlanc, Amanda K Certano, Jonny Nachtigall, Kathryn M LaBine, Jakob Riddle, Karen Broz, Yanhong Dong, Bianca Bethan, Christopher W Kafer, H Corby Kistler
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis...
November 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160695/fabrication-of-new-uranyl-phosphonates-by-varying-quaternary-ammonium-cation-synthesis-structure-luminescent-properties-and-single-crystal-to-single-crystal-transformation
#19
Si-Fu Tang, Xiaomin Hou, Dandan Liu, Xuebo Zhao
Four new uranyl triphosphonates, namely, [N(CH4)4][UO2(H3L)][H2O] (1), [(UO2)1.5(H3L)(H2O)1.5][H2O] (2), [NBu4][(UO2)3.5(H2L)2][(H2O)4.5] (3), and [(UO2)1.5(H3L)(H2O)2.5][(H2O)2.5] (4), where H6L = benzene-1,3,5-triyltris(methylene)triphosphonic acid, were obtained from a triphosphonate ligand in the presence of different quaternary ammonium cations. The structural characterization revealed that the introduction of quaternary ammonium cation had a major impact on the structure formation of uranyl phosphonates...
November 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160570/bayesian-occam-s-razor-is-a-razor-of-the-people
#20
Thomas Blanchard, Tania Lombrozo, Shaun Nichols
Occam's razor-the idea that all else being equal, we should pick the simpler hypothesis-plays a prominent role in ordinary and scientific inference. But why are simpler hypotheses better? One attractive hypothesis known as Bayesian Occam's razor (BOR) is that more complex hypotheses tend to be more flexible-they can accommodate a wider range of possible data-and that flexibility is automatically penalized by Bayesian inference. In two experiments, we provide evidence that people's intuitive probabilistic and explanatory judgments follow the prescriptions of BOR...
November 21, 2017: Cognitive Science
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